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The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
The extrinsic indentation size effect (ISE) is utilized to analyze the depth-dependent hardness for Berkovich indentation of non-uniform dislocation distributions with one and two dimensional deformation gradients and is then extended to indentation results at grain boundaries. The role of the Berkovich pyramid orientation and placement relative to the grain boundary on extrinsic ISE is considered in terms of slip transmission at yield and plastic incompatibility during post-yield deformation. The results are interpreted using a local dislocation hardening mechanism originally proposed by Ashby, combined with the Hall–Petch equation. The Hall–Petch coefficient determined from the extrinsic ISE of the grain boundary is found to be consistent with the published values for pure Fe and mild steel. A simple, linear continuum strain gradient plasticity model is used to further analyze the results to include contributions from a non-uniform distribution in plastic strain and dislocation density.
We develop a model for predicting the flow resulting from the relaxation of pre-strained, fluid-filled, elastic network structures. This model may be useful for understanding relaxation processes in various systems, e.g. deformable microfluidic systems or by-products from hydraulic fracturing operations. The analysis is aimed at elucidating features that may provide insight on the rate of fluid drainage from fracturing operations. The model structure is a bifurcating network made of fractures with uniform length and elastic modulus, which allows for general self-similar branching and variation in fracture length and rigidity between fractures along the flow path. A late-time
power law is attained and the physical behaviour can be classified into four distinct regimes that describe the late-time dynamics based on the location of the bulk of the fluid volume (which shifts away from the outlet as branching is increased) and pressure drop (which shifts away from the outlet as rigidity is increased upstream) along the network. We develop asymptotic solutions for each of the regimes, predicting the late-time flux and evolution of the pressure distribution. The effects of the various parameters on the outlet flux and the network’s drainage efficiency are investigated and show that added branching and a decrease in rigidity upstream tend to increase drainage time.
Hydraulic fracturing for production of oil and gas from shale formations releases fluid waste, by-products that must be managed carefully to avoid significant harm to human health and the environment. These fluids are presumed to result from a variety of fracture relaxation processes, and are commonly referred to as ‘flowback’ and ‘produced water’, depending primarily on the time scale of their appearance. Here, a model is presented for investigating the dynamics of backflows caused by the elastic relaxation of a pre-strained medium, namely a single fracture and two model fracture network systems: a single bifurcated channel and its generalization for
bifurcated fracture generations. Early- and late-time asymptotic solutions are obtained for the model problems and agree well with numerical solutions. In the late-time period, the fracture apertures and backflow rates exhibit a time dependence of
, respectively. In addition, the pressure distributions collapse to universal curves when scaled by the maximum pressure in the system, which we calculate as a function of
. The pressure gradient along the network is steepest near the outlet while the bulk of the network serves as a ‘reservoir’. Fracture networks with larger
are less efficient at evicting fluids, manifested through a longer time required for a given fractional reduction of the initial volume. The developed framework may be useful for informing engineering design and environmental regulations.
Leishmaniasis are diseases caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania and transmitted to humans by the bite of infected insects of the subfamily Phlebotominae. Current drug therapy shows high toxicity and severe adverse effects. Recently, two oligopeptidases (OPBs) were identified in Leishmania amazonensis, namely oligopeptidase B (OPB) and oligopeptidase B2 (OPB2). These OPBs could be ideal targets, since both enzymes are expressed in all parasite lifecycle and were not identified in human. This work aimed to identify possible dual inhibitors of OPB and OPB2 from L. amazonensis. The three-dimensional structures of both enzymes were built by comparative modelling and used to perform a virtual screening of ZINC database by DOCK Blaster server. It is the first time that OPB models from L. amazonensis are used to virtual screening approach. Four hundred compounds were identified as possible inhibitors to each enzyme. The top scored compounds were submitted to refinement by AutoDock program. The best results suggest that compounds interact with important residues, as Tyr490, Glu612 and Arg655 (OPB numbers). The identified compounds showed better results than antipain and drugs currently used against leishmaniasis when ADMET in silico were performed. These compounds could be explored in order to find dual inhibitors of OPB and OPB2 from L. amazonensis.
Volcanic eruptions commonly produce buoyant ash-laden plumes that rise through the stratified atmosphere. On reaching their level of neutral buoyancy, these plumes cease rising and transition to horizontally spreading intrusions. Such intrusions occur widely in density-stratified fluid environments, and in this paper we develop a shallow-layer model that governs their motion. We couple this dynamical model to a model for particle transport and sedimentation, to predict both the time-dependent distribution of ash within volcanic intrusions and the flux of ash that falls towards the ground. In an otherwise quiescent atmosphere, the intrusions spread axisymmetrically. We find that the buoyancy-inertial scalings previously identified for continuously supplied axisymmetric intrusions are not realised by solutions of the governing equations. By calculating asymptotic solutions to our model we show that the flow is not self-similar, but is instead time-dependent only in a narrow region at the front of the intrusion. This non-self-similar behaviour results in the radius of the intrusion growing with time
, rather than
as suggested previously. We also identify a transition to drag-dominated flow, which is described by a similarity solution with radial growth now proportional to
. In the presence of an ambient wind, intrusions are not axisymmetric. Instead, they are predominantly advected downstream, while at the same time spreading laterally and thinning vertically due to persistent buoyancy forces. We show that close to the source, this lateral spreading is in a buoyancy-inertial regime, whereas far downwind, the horizontal buoyancy forces that drive the spreading are balanced by drag. Our results emphasise the important role of buoyancy-driven spreading, even at large distances from the source, in the formation of the flowing thin horizontally extensive layers of ash that form in the atmosphere as a result of volcanic eruptions.
Previous research suggests that many people receiving mental health
treatment do not meet criteria for a mental disorder but are rather ‘the
To examine the association of past-year mental health treatment with
The World Health Organization's World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys
interviewed community samples of adults in 23 countries
(n = 62 305) about DSM-IV disorders and treatment in
the past 12 months for problems with emotions, alcohol or drugs.
Roughly half (52%) of people who received treatment met criteria for a
past-year DSM-IV disorder, an additional 18% for a lifetime disorder and
an additional 13% for other indicators of need (multiple subthreshold
disorders, recent stressors or suicidal behaviours). Dose–response
associations were found between number of indicators of need and
The vast majority of treatment in the WMH countries goes to patients with
mental disorders or other problems expected to benefit from
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster of 11 September 2001 (9/11) is one of the most prevalent and persistent health conditions among both professional (e.g. police) and non-traditional (e.g. construction worker) WTC responders, even several years after 9/11. However, little is known about the dimensionality and natural course of WTC-related PTSD symptomatology in these populations.
Data were analysed from 10 835 WTC responders, including 4035 police and 6800 non-traditional responders who were evaluated as part of the WTC Health Program, a clinic network in the New York area established by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were used to evaluate structural models of PTSD symptom dimensionality; and autoregressive cross-lagged (ARCL) panel regressions were used to examine the prospective interrelationships among PTSD symptom clusters at 3, 6 and 8 years after 9/11.
CFAs suggested that five stable symptom clusters best represent PTSD symptom dimensionality in both police and non-traditional WTC responders. This five-factor model was also invariant over time with respect to factor loadings and structural parameters, thereby demonstrating its longitudinal stability. ARCL panel regression analyses revealed that hyperarousal symptoms had a prominent role in predicting other symptom clusters of PTSD, with anxious arousal symptoms primarily driving re-experiencing symptoms, and dysphoric arousal symptoms primarily driving emotional numbing symptoms over time.
Results of this study suggest that disaster-related PTSD symptomatology in WTC responders is best represented by five symptom dimensions. Anxious arousal symptoms, which are characterized by hypervigilance and exaggerated startle, may primarily drive re-experiencing symptoms, while dysphoric arousal symptoms, which are characterized by sleep disturbance, irritability/anger and concentration difficulties, may primarily drive emotional numbing symptoms over time. These results underscore the importance of assessment, monitoring and early intervention of hyperarousal symptoms in WTC and other disaster responders.
New experimental methods have been developed to optimize the accuracy and precision of the measured phase angle in nanoindentation experiments on viscoelastic materials performed with a Berkovich indenter. Measurements conducted in fused silica and sapphire form the basis of a new instrument calibration. Experimental verification of the new calibration and an enhanced test method is demonstrated in polycarbonate (PC) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). In comparison to the standard continuous stiffness measurement (CSM) technique, the new calibration and test method reduces the measurement error in the phase angle of PC from 1900% to 10% and from 135% to 10% in PMMA. Scatter in phase angle measured by the new test method is nearly 10 times less than the level observed using the standard CSM technique. The effect of time dependent deformation on the measured phase angle is also documented. The experimental observations and results are applicable to a variety of dynamic nanoindentation test methods.
Longitudinal symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often characterized by heterogeneous trajectories, which may have unique pre-, peri- and post-trauma risk and protective factors. To date, however, no study has evaluated the nature and determinants of predominant trajectories of PTSD symptoms in World Trade Center (WTC) responders.
A total of 10835 WTC responders, including 4035 professional police responders and 6800 non-traditional responders (e.g. construction workers) who participated in the WTC Health Program (WTC-HP), were evaluated an average of 3, 6 and 8 years after the WTC attacks.
Among police responders, longitudinal PTSD symptoms were best characterized by four classes, with the majority (77.8%) in a resistant/resilient trajectory and the remainder exhibiting chronic (5.3%), recovering (8.4%) or delayed-onset (8.5%) symptom trajectories. Among non-traditional responders, a six-class solution was optimal, with fewer responders in a resistant/resilient trajectory (58.0%) and the remainder exhibiting recovering (12.3%), severe chronic (9.5%), subsyndromal increasing (7.3%), delayed-onset (6.7%) and moderate chronic (6.2%) trajectories. Prior psychiatric history, Hispanic ethnicity, severity of WTC exposure and WTC-related medical conditions were most strongly associated with symptomatic trajectories of PTSD symptoms in both groups of responders, whereas greater education and family and work support while working at the WTC site were protective against several of these trajectories.
Trajectories of PTSD symptoms in WTC responders are heterogeneous and associated uniquely with pre-, peri- and post-trauma risk and protective factors. Police responders were more likely than non-traditional responders to exhibit a resistant/resilient trajectory. These results underscore the importance of prevention, screening and treatment efforts that target high-risk disaster responders, particularly those with prior psychiatric history, high levels of trauma exposure and work-related medical morbidities.
To investigate predictive factors of complete obliteration following treatment with linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery for intracerebral arteriovenous malformations.
Archived plans for 48 patients treated at the British Columbia Cancer Agency and who underwent post-treatment digital subtraction angiography to assess obliteration were studied. Actuarial estimates of obliteration were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used for analysis of incidence of obliteration. Log-rank test was used to search for parameters associated with obliteration.
Complete nidus obliteration was achieved in 38/48 patients (79.2%). Actuarial rate of obliteration was 75.9% at 4 years (95% confidence interval 63.1%-88.6%). On univariate analysis, prescribed dose to the margin (p=0.002) and dose to isocentre (p=0.022) showed statistical significance. No parameters were significant in a multivariate model. According to the log-rank test, prescribed dose to the margin of >20 Gy (p=0.004) and dose to the isocentre of >25 Gy (p=0.004) were associated with obliteration.
Reported series in the literature suggest a number of different factors are predictive of complete obliteration of arteriovenous malformations following radiosurgery. However, differing definitions of volume and complete obliteration makes direct comparison between series difficult. This study demonstrates that complete obliteration of the nidus following linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations appears to be most closely related to the prescribed marginal dose. In particular, a marginal dose of >20Gy is strongly associated with obtaining complete obliteration of the nidus.
It has been proposed that with the appropriate models, instrumented indentation test (IIT) data can be reduced to yield the uniaxial stress-strain behavior of the test material. However, very little work has been done to directly compare the results from uniaxial tension and spherical indentation experiments. In this work, indentation and uniaxial tension experiments have been performed on the aluminum alloy 6061-T6. The purpose of these experiments was to specifically explore the accuracy with which the analytical models can be applied to IIT data to predict the uniaxial stress-strain behavior of the aluminum alloy.
A very flexible maskless technique for thin film hybrid formation has been developed. Lay outs are transferred directly from work stations to laser controls. Openings in ceramic substrates are achieved through laser cutting, and chips are embedded to give a common chip-to-substrate surface, flat to within 2 μm. Dielectric layers of polyimide are formed by spin on techniques and are then laser structured for via hole formation.
Interconnections of the embedded chips are generated by laser direct writing of thin copper lines from copper formate, followed by chemical copper deposition. Chemical pretreatments of the aluminum contact pads allow for reasonable chip contacting with these methods. Electrical measurements on the dc line conductivity and the high frequency behaviour of these interconnections have also been performed.
Advanced materials are being designed and tested for high-stress, high-cycle ball bearing applications. Important information about the tribological performance of these materials is gained through rolling contact fatigue (RCF) measurements. No such data have been reported to date for hybrid bearings consisting of titanium carbide (TiC)-coated REX20 steel balls and REX20 steel raceways. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was used for depositing the TiC coating. In this paper, we present the first report of the effects of RCF tests on this particular combination of hybrid bearings. Post-test characterizations of these bearings are discussed. Our investigations include plan-view and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy, chemical compositional analyses, X-ray diffraction, and nano-indentation measurements. Results of these investigations provide a detailed understanding of the TiC coating on REX20 steel balls following extended rolling contact.
We have begun to explore the use of continuous stiffness techniques for studying the mechanical properties of coated systems using nanoindentation and thus to critically assess the differing types of sample information available from simple load-displacement (P-δ) curves, P-δ2 analyses and P-S2 (i.e. load-vs-(contact stiffness)2) data. We have also examined whether the small superposed AC signal used to continuously measure contact stiffness has had any marked effect on the sample load-displacement response. A range of fully calibrated Nano Indenter II and Nano Indenter XP instruments have been used for data acquisition, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) have both been employed to characterise the resultant indentation appearances and deformation structures. Samples have spanned a number of monolithic and coated materials systems including fused silica, 6H-SiC, 3C-SiC on Si and TiN on both M2 and 304 steels. Plots of P-δ and P-δ2recorded with and without the additional AC signal were found to be indistinguishable. Further, apart from some small statistical variation in the loads at which crack initiation was observed in a SiC-on-Si coated system, TEM and HRSEM studies showed no detectable differences in deformation substructures between nominally identical indentations made with and without the AC signal.
While the parameter P/S2 is independent of detailed tip shape and is a constant with displacement for monolithic systems, it was found to display unexpected variations with displacement for the coated systems. In order to explore the origins of these variations, we have examined plots of system elastic modulus (Es) and system hardness (Hs) as a function of indenter displacement which have shown that the effective contact elastic modulus decreases more rapidly with increasing contact scale than does the effective system hardness P/S2 can also be related to the plasticity index (ψ) widely used to describe the balance between the elastic and plastic responses of materials subjected to contact damage. Thus, the observations of maxima in plots of P/S2 with displacement, for at least some coated systems, suggests that there may be an optimum contact scale for maximising the elastic contribution to the contact response of such systems
A commonly used technique to compute mechanical properties from indentation tests is the Oliver and Pharr method. Using dimensional analysis and finite element modeling, this paper investigates errors when the Oliver and Pharr method is used to compute thin film properties.