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Over the last thirty years, historians have made several important contributions to our understanding of the short but dramatic restoration of Catholicism in 1550s England. United by a shared rejection of the hitherto dominant interpretation of Mary I's reign as a retrograde and unfortunate interlude in the history of the English Reformation, so-called ‘revisionists’ have convincingly argued that Mary in fact presided over a remarkably dynamic and innovative revival of Catholicism. Whilst this scholarship has been extremely valuable in tackling the teleological assumption that Marian Catholicism was predestined to fail, this review suggests that the revisionist programme continues to be preoccupied by somewhat ill-conceived and unhelpful questions about how ‘successful’ Mary's church was in providing for a Catholic future. Such questions demonstrate just how far the historiography of Marian religion continues to operate within a framework still subtly shaped by sixteenth-century, confessionally charged polemic. This review suggests that, rather than debates about ‘successes’ or ‘failures’, we need to start working outwards from the valuable findings of revisionists regarding the dynamism of Marian religion, exploring their broader implications for how we understand the long-term development of Catholicism in England, as well as the Marian church's place within European Christendom more broadly.
As COVID-19 continues to spread worldwide, severe disease and mortality have been observed in obese patients. We discuss how obesity and obesity-associated factors such as ‘meta-flammation’, dietary fat intake and paradoxical suppression of the innate immune response within the pulmonary compartment may be crucial determinants in the host response to a novel viral pathogen. Modulation of immune cell bioenergetics and metabolic potential plays a central role in the innate immune response to infection, and as we strive to combat this new global health threat, immunometabolism of the innate immune system warrants attention.
Radiocarbon (14C) ages cannot provide absolutely dated chronologies for archaeological or paleoenvironmental studies directly but must be converted to calendar age equivalents using a calibration curve compensating for fluctuations in atmospheric 14C concentration. Although calibration curves are constructed from independently dated archives, they invariably require revision as new data become available and our understanding of the Earth system improves. In this volume the international 14C calibration curves for both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, as well as for the ocean surface layer, have been updated to include a wealth of new data and extended to 55,000 cal BP. Based on tree rings, IntCal20 now extends as a fully atmospheric record to ca. 13,900 cal BP. For the older part of the timescale, IntCal20 comprises statistically integrated evidence from floating tree-ring chronologies, lacustrine and marine sediments, speleothems, and corals. We utilized improved evaluation of the timescales and location variable 14C offsets from the atmosphere (reservoir age, dead carbon fraction) for each dataset. New statistical methods have refined the structure of the calibration curves while maintaining a robust treatment of uncertainties in the 14C ages, the calendar ages and other corrections. The inclusion of modeled marine reservoir ages derived from a three-dimensional ocean circulation model has allowed us to apply more appropriate reservoir corrections to the marine 14C data rather than the previous use of constant regional offsets from the atmosphere. Here we provide an overview of the new and revised datasets and the associated methods used for the construction of the IntCal20 curve and explore potential regional offsets for tree-ring data. We discuss the main differences with respect to the previous calibration curve, IntCal13, and some of the implications for archaeology and geosciences ranging from the recent past to the time of the extinction of the Neanderthals.
Cryoplanation terraces are prominent but enigmatic landforms found in present and past periglacial environments. Geomorphologists have debated for more than a century over processes involved in the formation of these elevated, step-like, bedrock features. Presented here are the first numerical surface exposure ages and scarp retreat rates from cryoplanation terraces in the Yukon-Tanana Upland (YTU) in Alaska, part of unglaciated eastern Beringia, obtained from terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides (TCN) in surface boulders. Ages comprise six 10Be TCN ages from two terrace treads near Eagle Summit and six 36 Cl ages from two treads on Mt. Fairplay. Based on these exposure ages, scarps at both locations were last actively eroding from 49 to 22.4 ka. Both locations exhibit time-transgressive development, particularly near scarp-tread junctions. Boulder exposure ages and distances between sampled boulder locations were used to estimate scarp retreat rates of 0.11 to 0.56 cm/yr. These numerical exposure ages presented here demonstrate that the cryoplanation terraces in the YTU are diachronous surfaces actively eroding during multiple cold intervals. With these results, hypotheses for cryoplanation terrace formation are discussed and evaluated for the YTU, including those based on geologic structure, nivation, and the influence of permafrost.
Identifying the mechanisms linking early experiences, genetic risk factors, and their interaction with later health consequences is central to the development of preventive interventions and identifying potential boundary conditions for their efficacy. In the current investigation of 412 African American adolescents followed across a 20-year period, we examined change in body mass index (BMI) across adolescence as one possible mechanism linking childhood adversity and adult health. We found associations of childhood adversity with objective indicators of young adult health, including a cardiometabolic risk index, a methylomic aging index, and a count of chronic health conditions. Childhood adversities were associated with objective indicators indirectly through their association with gains in BMI across adolescence and early adulthood. We also found evidence of an association of genetic risk with weight gain across adolescence and young adult health, as well as genetic moderation of childhood adversity's effect on gains in BMI, resulting in moderated mediation. These patterns indicated that genetic risk moderated the indirect pathways from childhood adversity to young adult health outcomes and childhood adversity moderated the indirect pathways from genetic risk to young adult health outcomes through effects on weight gain during adolescence and early adulthood.
Formal mentoring programs are increasingly recognized as critical for faculty career development. We describe a mentoring academy (MA) developed for faculty across tracks (i.e., researchers, clinicians, educators) within a “school of health” encompassing schools of medicine and nursing. The program is anchored dually in a clinical and translational science center and a school of health. The structure includes the involvement of departmental and center mentoring directors to achieve widespread uptake and oversight. A fundamental resource provided by the MA includes providing workshops to enhance mentoring skills. Initiatives for junior faculty emphasize establishing and maintaining strong mentoring relationships and implementing individual development plans (IDPs) for career planning. We present self-report data on competency improvement from mentor workshops and data on resources and barriers identified by junior faculty (n = 222) in their IDPs. Mentors reported statistically significantly improved mentoring competency after workshop participation. Junior faculty most frequently identified mentors (61%) and collaborators (23%) as resources for goal attainment. Top barriers included insufficient time and time-management issues (57%), funding limitations (18%), work–life balance issues (18%), including inadequate time for self-care and career development activities. Our MA can serve as a model and roadmap for providing resources to faculty across traditional tracks within medical schools.
Microstructural analysis and bulk dielectric property analysis (real and imaginary permittivity at 95 GHz) were performed at temperatures ranging from 25 to 550 °C for ceramic composites comprising a hot-pressed aluminum nitride matrix (containing yttria and trace carbon as sintering additives) with molybdenum powder as a millimeter-wave radiation-absorbing additive. Loading percentages in the range of 0.25 vol% to 4.0 vol% Mo were characterized. For the temperature regime evaluated, the temperature-related changes in real and imaginary components of permittivity were found to be relatively modest compared with those driven by Mo loading. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis of Mo grains and surrounding regions showed the presence of a mixed-phase layer, containing Mo2C, at the AlN–Mo interface. The Mo2C-containing mixed-phase layer, typically a few micrometers thick, surrounded the Mo grains. Further characterization of this mixed-phase layer is required to determine its contribution to the dielectric properties of the composite.
Objectives: Craniopharyngioma survivors experience cognitive deficits that negatively impact quality of life. Aerobic fitness is associated with cognitive benefits in typically developing children and physical exercise promotes recovery following brain injury. Accordingly, we investigated cognitive and neural correlates of aerobic fitness in a sample of craniopharyngioma patients. Methods: Patients treated for craniopharyngioma [N=104, 10.0±4.6 years, 48% male] participated in fitness, cognitive and fMRI (n=51) assessments following surgery but before proton radiation therapy. Results: Patients demonstrated impaired aerobic fitness [peak oxygen uptake (PKVO2)=23.9±7.1, 41% impaired (i.e., 1.5 SD<normative mean)], motor proficiency [Bruininks-Oseretsky (BOT2)=38.6±9.0, 28% impaired], and executive functions (e.g., WISC-IV Working Memory Index (WMI)=96.0±15.3, 11% impaired). PKVO2 correlated with better executive functions (e.g., WISC-IV WMI r=.27, p=.02) and academic performance (WJ-III Calculation r=.24, p=.04). BOT2 correlated with better attention (e.g., CPT-II omissions r=.26, p=.04) and executive functions (e.g., WISC-IV WMI r=.32, p=.01). Areas of robust neural activation during an n-back task included superior parietal lobule, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and middle and superior frontal gyri (p<.05, corrected). Higher network activation was associated with better working memory task performance and better BOT2 (p<.001). Conclusions: Before adjuvant therapy, children with craniopharyngioma demonstrate significantly reduced aerobic fitness, motor proficiency, and working memory. Better aerobic fitness and motor proficiency are associated with better attention and executive functions, as well as greater activation of a well-established working memory network. These findings may help explain differential risk/resiliency with respect to acute cognitive changes that may portend cognitive late effects. (JINS, 2019, 25, 413–425)
Parents and children are vulnerable populations following hurricanes, and evacuation is an important safety strategy. Yet, little is known about “before the storm” stressors, particularly the surrounding evacuation, affecting families. Thus, following Hurricane Irma, we evaluated both stressful and positive aspects of the evacuation process for families, and we compared perceived safety and stress before, during, and after the hurricane across evacuating and non-evacuating families.
South Florida parents of children under age 18 years (N=554; 97% mothers) completed an online survey in the months following Hurricane Irma, assessing perceptions of stress, safety, and evacuation experiences. Quantitative data and open-ended responses were gathered.
Most families (82%) residing in mandatory evacuation zones evacuated, although many not in mandatory zones (46%) also evacuated. Parents who evacuated felt significantly safer during the storm, but more stressed before and during the storm, than non-evacuees. Evacuation-related travel and multiple family issues were rated as most stressful, although some positive aspects of evacuation were offered.
Findings have implications for emergency planners (eg, pre-/post-storm traffic flow needs, emotional needs of parents arriving at shelters) and for families (eg, importance of developing family disaster plans, controlling media exposure) to reduce evacuation stress for future storms. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:63-73)
In order to begin to evaluate and model the suitability of high temperature ceramic composites, such as AlN:Mo, as susceptor materials for power beaming applications, the electromagnetic, thermal, and mechanical properties of the material must be known at elevated temperatures. Work reported here focuses on the development of thermal property datasets for AlN:Mo composites ranging from 0.25% to 4.0% Mo by volume. To calculate thermal conductivity of the AlN:Mo composite series, specific heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, and density data were acquired. The calculated specific heat capacity, Cp, of the set of AlN:Mo composites was, on average, found to be approximately 803 J/kgK at 100 °C and to increase to approximately 1133 J/kgK at 1000 °C, with all values to be within +/- 32 J/kgK of the average at a given temperature. These calculated specific heat capacity values matched values derived from DSC measurements to within the expected error of the measurements. Measured thermal diffusivity, α, of the set of AlN:Mo composites was, on average, found to be approximately 3.93 x 10-1 cm2/s at 100 °C and to increase to approximately 9.80 x 10-2 cm2/s at 1000 °C, with all values within +/- 1.84 x 10-2 cm2/s of the average at a given temperature. Thermal conductivity, k, for the set of AlN:Mo composites was found to be approximately 108 W/mK at 100 °C and to decrease to approximately 38 W/mK at 1000 °C, with all values within +/- 5.3 W/mK of the average at a given temperature. Data trends show that increasing Mo content correlates to lower values of of Cp, α, and k at a given temperature.
We examined the prospective relations between a cultural risk factor, perceived racial discrimination (PRD), and subsequent negative affect and health behavior (smoking) in a panel of 889 African American children (part of the Family and Community Health Study). Cultural moderators (protective factors) of these relations were also examined. PRD was assessed six times from ages 10.5 (Wave 1) to 24.5 (Wave 6), and negative affect (anger and depressive symptoms) was assessed at Wave 2 (age 12.5) and Wave 6 (age 24.5). Results indicated that Wave 1 PRD predicted Wave 6 smoking, controlling for multiple factors related to smoking and/or PRD, including smoking at age 15.5. Structural equation models indicated that these relations between Wave 1 PRD and smoking were mediated by both early and later negative affect. The models also indicated that Wave 1 PRD had a direct impact on Wave 6 anger (assessed 14 years later), controlling for the effects of PRD on early affect. Cultural socialization was associated with lower rates of adolescent smoking, and it buffered the relation between PRD and Wave 6 anger. The impact of early PRD experiences along with suggestions for culturally informed interventions and preventive interventions that might buffer against early PRD effects are discussed.
Despite receiving particular praise from a range of early modern commentators, from Nicholas Sander to Pedro de Ribadeneyra, most historians have seen the Italian merchant Antonio Buonvisi playing a fairly negligible role in the history of mid-Tudor Catholicism. This article challenges this interpretation. After reassessing some rather simplistic assessments of Buonvisi’s religious beliefs, this article explores his actions and activities following his self-imposed exile from England in 1549. Using research conducted in both the State Archives of Lucca and the Vatican City, it suggests that Buonvisi played a far more significant role in ensuring the survival of English Catholicism over the first decades of the Reformation than is usually acknowledged. Indeed, it argues that Buonvisi may have helped lay core foundations for the Catholic restoration of Mary I’s reign, the success of which has recently been highlighted by historians such as Eamon Duffy.
The appeal of ketamine – in promptly ameliorating depressive symptoms even in those with non-response – has led to a dramatic increase in its off-label use. Initial promising results await robust corroboration and key questions remain, particularly concerning its long-term administration. It is, therefore, timely to review the opinions of mood disorder experts worldwide pertaining to ketamine's potential as an option for treating depression and provide a synthesis of perspectives – derived from evidence and clinical experience – and to consider strategies for future investigations.
On August 25, 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall near Corpus Christi, Texas. The ensuing unprecedented flooding throughout the Texas coastal region affected millions of individuals.1 The statewide response in Texas included the sheltering of thousands of individuals at considerable distances from their homes. The Dallas area established large-scale general population sheltering as the number of evacuees to the area began to amass. Historically, the Dallas area is one familiar with “mega-sheltering,” beginning with the response to Hurricane Katrina in 2005.2 Through continued efforts and development, the Dallas area had been readying a plan for the largest general population shelter in Texas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:33–37)
Tiny, pelagic arthropods from the Anisian Luoping Biota exposed in two quarries near Luoping, Yunnan Province, China, represent the numerically most abundant organisms in the assemblage. They form the basis for definition of two, and possibly three, species referred to the order Lophogastrida, family Eucopiidae. Yunnanocopia grandis new genus new species and Y. longicauda n. gen. new species represent the oldest occurrence of mysidaceans in the fossil record. Their anatomy allies them with the Ladinian species Schimperella acanthocercus Taylor, Schram, and Shen, 2001, from Guizhou Province, China, which previously was thought to be the oldest lophogastrid, and with extant species of Eucopiidae. Their appearance in the Anisian represents one additional element of the early faunal radiation within the Luoping Biota following the end-Permian extinction event. Presence of well-preserved oostegites, along with other morphological features, documents a conservative bauplan expressed in Eucopiidae.
Most historians now acknowledge that Catholic recusancy existed in small pockets throughout 1560s and early 1570s England thanks to the sporadic efforts of a handful of former Marian priests. However, it is widely agreed that the influx of continentally trained seminarians and missionaries from abroad after 1574 was responsible for transforming the ‘curious and confused’ activities of these Marian clergymen into a fully fledged, intellectually justified campaign in favour of nonconformity. This article challenges this consensus through investigation of a neglected group of clerics – the cathedral clergy of Mary I's reign. Drawing on insights emerging from recent research into the nature of Mary's church, it demonstrates how these clerics became key agents in the so-called ‘invention of the Counter-Reformation’ in Marian England. It suggests that this ‘upbringing’ gave these priests the determination and skills to become leaders of a co-ordinated campaign in favour of principled nonconformity following Elizabeth's accession. Far from lacking the zeal of their seminary and missionary counterparts, this article sees the former cathedral clergy imitating the practices of their adversaries and anticipating the strategies of the later English mission in order to promote recusancy throughout England from as early as 1560.
The Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) lies at the very heart of Judaism. This is why Mohammad spoke of Jews (and Christians) as “people of the book” (Arabic ahl al-kitab). It is a fitting title. Almost every aspect of Jewish life relates to the Bible. For example, Jewish liturgy is filled with Scripture. Prayer services include numerous excerpts from the Bible, most notably, though not exclusively, from the book of Psalms. Among these are many biblical passages that are not really prayers at all. One of the best known is the Shʾma (Deut 6:4), which proclaims the uniqueness of God. It is also included, along with other excerpts from the Bible, in the tefillin (“phylacteries”) that are worn during daily prayer and the mezuzot that Jewish families hang on the doorposts of their homes. Over the course of a year, every word of the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Bible) is read out loud in Hebrew during Sabbath services, along with thematically related selections from the prophetic books called haftarot and all five of the festival scrolls (Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes/Qohelet, and Esther). In traditional synagogues, an individual (called a gabbay) stands alongside the reader to ensure that each word is pronounced correctly.
Biblical language pervades Jewish life outside the synagogue as well. The names of many places in Israel come from the Bible. For example, the words “Tel Aviv” come from a vision in Ezekiel 3:15, where they refer to a place in Babylonia. Book titles, too, are frequently drawn from the Bible. The sixteenth-century code of Jewish law that has become normative for Jewish practice is called the Shulchan Aruch, which means “set table,” because it lays out all the laws governing Jewish life in an orderly way. However, the phrase itself comes from Ezekiel 23:41. Likewise, the Yiddish “women's Bible” came to be known as Tseene Ureene, two feminine verbs that appear in Song of Songs 3:11.
Jews also derive their identity from the Bible, which they understand as the story of their origins. During the Passover seder, a ritual meal that commemorates the Israelites’ flight from Egypt thousands of years ago, the head of the household explains that the holiday is observed “on account of what the Lord did for me when I came out of Egypt” (emphasis added).