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Recent models of psychopathology suggest the presence of a general factor capturing the shared variance among all symptoms along with specific psychopathology factors (e.g., internalizing and externalizing). However, few studies have examined predictors that may serve as transdiagnostic risk factors for general psychopathology from early development. In the current study we examine, for the first time, whether observed and parent-reported infant temperament dimensions prospectively predict general psychopathology as well as specific psychopathology dimensions (e.g., internalizing and externalizing) across childhood. In a longitudinal cohort (N = 291), temperament dimensions were assessed at 4 months of age. Psychopathology symptoms were assessed at 7, 9, and 12 years of age. A bifactor model was used to estimate general, internalizing, and externalizing psychopathology factors. Across behavioral observations and parent-reports, higher motor activity in infancy significantly predicted greater general psychopathology in mid to late childhood. Moreover, low positive affect was predictive of the internalizing-specific factor. Other temperament dimensions were not related with any of the psychopathology factors after accounting for the general psychopathology factor. The results of this study suggest that infant motor activity may act as an early indicator of transdiagnostic risk. Our findings inform the etiology of general psychopathology and have implications for the early identification for children at risk for psychopathology.
Survivors of childhood brain tumors experience neurological sequelae that disrupt everyday adaptive functioning (AF) skills. The Neurological Predictor Scale (NPS), a cumulative measure of tumor treatments and sequelae, predicts cognitive outcomes, but findings on its relation to informant-reported executive dysfunction (ED) and AF are mixed. Given known effects of frontal-subcortical system disruptions on AF, this study assessed the NPS’ relationship with AF as mediated by frontal systems dysfunction, measured by the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe).
75 participants (Mage = 23.5, SDage = 4.5) were young adult survivors of childhood brain tumors at least 5 years past diagnosis. FrSBe and Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R), a measure of AF, were administered to informants. Parallel multiple mediator models included Apathy and ED as mediators, and age at diagnosis and time between diagnosis and assessment as covariates.
More complex treatment and sequelae were correlated with poorer functioning. Mediation models were significant for all subscales: Motor Skills (MS), p = .0001; Social Communication (SC), p = .002; Personal Living (PL), p = .004; Community Living (CL), p = .007. The indirect effect of ED on SC and CL was significant; the indirect effect of Apathy was not significant for any subscales.
More complex tumor treatment and sequelae were associated with poorer long-term AF via increased ED. Cognitive rehabilitation programs may focus on the role of executive function and initiation that contribute to AF, particularly SC and CL skills, to help survivors achieve comparable levels of independence in everyday function as their peers.
The social climate of a unit is an important feature in treatment outcomes (Moos 1974). The Essen Climate Evaluation Schema (EssenCES; Schalast et al 2008) has been developed specifically for forensic settings but research in secure settings for women has been limited.
To compare staff and patient perception of social climate and it's relationship to therapeutic alliance, motivation to change and level of disturbance across levels of security within a women's secure care pathway.
To assess the implications for therapeutic milieu and service development.
Questionnaire survey of staff and patients in 2 medium and 2 low secure units using; EssenCES (Shalast et al 2008); California Psychotherapy Alliance Scale (Mormar et al 1986); and Patient Motivation Inventory (PMI; Gudjonsson et al 2007).
Comparisons are made across levels of security, treatment programme, therapeutic alliance, patient motivation and disturbed behaviour.
Social climate varied between levels of security and was also found to co vary with perceived therapeutic alliance and patient motivation to change. Differences between staff and patient ratings along with treatment implications are discussed.
Measuring the social climate in a secure women's service is an important part of a wider assessment of the therapeutic milieu that has practical implications for the ongoing development of therapy services.
The Foreclosure Echo tells the story of the ordinary people whose quest for the American dream was crushed in the foreclosure crisis when they were threatened with losing their homes. The authors, Linda E. Fisher and Judith Fox - each with decades of experience defending low-to-moderate-income people from foreclosure and predatory lending practices - have employed a range of legal, economic, and social-science research to document these stories, showing not only how people experienced the crisis, but also how lenders and public institutions failed to protect them. The book also describes the ongoing effects of the crisis - including vacant land and abandoned buildings - and how these conditions have exacerbated the economic plight of millions of people who lost their homes and have increased inequality across the country. This book should be read by anyone who wants to understand the fallout of the last financial crisis and learn what we can do now to avoid another one.