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Network analysis is an emerging approach in the study of psychopathology, yet few applications have been seen in eating disorders (EDs). Furthermore, little research exists regarding changes in network strength after interventions. Therefore the present study examined the network structures of ED and co-occurring depression and anxiety symptoms before and after treatment for EDs.
Participants from residential or partial hospital ED treatment programs (N = 446) completed assessments upon admission and discharge. Networks were estimated using regularized Graphical Gaussian Models using 38 items from the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.
ED symptoms with high centrality indices included a desire to lose weight, guilt about eating, shape overvaluation, and wanting an empty stomach, while restlessness, self-esteem, lack of energy, and feeling overwhelmed bridged ED to depression and anxiety symptoms. Comparisons between admission and discharge networks indicated the global network strength did not change significantly, though symptom severity decreased. Participants with denser networks at admission evidenced less change in ED symptomatology during treatment.
Findings suggest that symptoms related to shape and weight concerns and guilt are central ED symptoms, while physical symptoms, self-esteem, and feeling overwhelmed are links that may underlie comorbidities in EDs. Results provided some support for the validity of network approaches, in that admission networks conveyed prognostic information. However, the lack of correspondence between symptom reduction and change in network strength indicates that future research is needed to examine network dynamics in the context of intervention and relapse prevention.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
The Neolithic in north-east Asia is defined by the presence of ceramic containers, rather than agriculture, among hunter-gatherer communities. The role of pottery in such groups has, however, hitherto been unclear. This article presents the results of organic residue analysis of Neolithic pottery from Sakhalin Island in the Russian Far East. Results indicate that early pottery on Sakhalin was used for the processing of aquatic species, and that its adoption formed part of a wider Neolithic transition involving the reorientation of local lifeways towards the exploitation of marine resources.
While several authorities have held that the shamanism of indigenous Finno-Ugric and Turkic peoples influenced the Russians with whom they lived in close proximity, particularly via pagan Slavic volkhvy or sorcerers, little concrete evidence of that influence persisting in the seventeenth or eighteenth centuries has been discovered. However, several early eighteenth century woodcuts (lubki) which refer to sorcery reveal concrete links to shamanic cosmology and practice in what are otherwise enigmatic textual references and visual symbols.
We describe a versatile infrared camera/spectrograph, IRIS, designed and constructed at the Anglo-Australian Observatory for use on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. A variety of optical configurations can be selected under remote control to provide several direct image scales and a few low-resolution spectroscopic formats. Two cross-dispersed transmission echelles are of novel design, as is the use of a modified Bowen-Burch system to provide a fast f/ratio in the widest-field option. The drive electronics includes a choice of readout schemes for versatility, and continuous display when the array is not taking data, to facilitate field acquisition and focusing.
The linearity of the detector has been studied in detail. Although outwardly good, slight nonlinearities prevent removal of fixed-pattern noise from the data without application of a cubic linearising function.
Specific control and data-reduction software has been written. We describe also a scanning mode developed for spectroscopic imaging.
Gyro-phase drift is a guiding center drift that is directly dependent on the charging rate limit of dust grains. The effect of introducing a gyro-phase-dependence on the grain charge leads to two orthogonal components of guiding-center drift. One component, referred to here as grad-q drift, results from the time-varying, gyro-phase angle dependent, in-situ-equilibrium grain charge, assuming that the grain charging is instantaneous. For this component, the grain is assumed to be always in its in-situ-equilibrium charge state and this state gyro-synchronously varies with respect to the grain's average charge state. The other component, referred to here as the gyro-phase drift, arises from any non-instantaneous-charging-induced modification of the diamagnetic drift and points in the direction of -∇RLd (where RLd is the grain gyro-radius), i.e. the direction associated with increasing magnitude of in-situ-equilibrium charge state. For this component, the grain gyro-synchronously undercharges and overcharges with respect to its gyro-synchronously varying, in-situ-equilibrium charge state. These characteristics are illustrated with a single-particle code for predicting grain trajectory that demonstrates how gyro-phase drift magnitude and direction could be exploited, using an extended version of the presented model, as sensitive indicators of the charging time of dust grains because of the cumulative effect of the ever-changing charge state of a grain making repeated excursions in inhomogeneous plasma over many gyro-periods.
If a magnetized-orbit-charged grain encounters any abrupt inhomogeneity in plasma conditions during a gyro-orbit, such that the resulting in-situ equilibrium charge is significantly different between these regions (q1/q2 ~ 2, where q1 is the in-situ equilibrium charge on one side of the inhomogeneity, q2 is the in-situ equilibrium charge on the other side, and q1 < q2 < 0), then the capacitive effects of charging and discharging of the dust grain can result in a modification to the orbit-averaged grain trajectory, i.e. gyro-phase drift. The special case of q1/q2 is notioned for the purpose of illustrating the utility of the method. An analytical expression is derived for the grain velocity, assuming a capacitor approximation to the OML charging model. For cases in which a strong electric field suddenly appears in the wake or at the space-plasma-to-crater interface from solar wind and/or ultraviolet illumination and in which a magnetic field permeates an asteroid, comet, or moon, this model could contribute to the interpretation of the distribution of fields and particles.
A community outbreak of legionellosis occurred in Barrow-in-Furness, Cumbria, during July and August 2002. A descriptive study and active case-finding were instigated and all known wet cooling systems and other potential sources were investigated. Genotypic and phenotypic analysis, and amplified fragment length polymorphism of clinical human and environmental isolates confirmed the air-conditioning unit of a council-owned arts and leisure centre to be the source of infection. Subsequent sequence-based typing confirmed this link. One hundred and seventy-nine cases, including seven deaths [case fatality rate (CFR) 3·9%] were attributed to the outbreak. Timely recognition and management of the incident very likely led to the low CFR compared to other outbreaks. The outbreak highlights the responsibility associated with managing an aerosol-producing system, with the potential to expose and infect a large proportion of the local population and the consequent legal ramifications and human cost.
The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) will give us an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the transient sky at radio wavelengths. In this paper we present VAST, an ASKAP survey for Variables and Slow Transients. VAST will exploit the wide-field survey capabilities of ASKAP to enable the discovery and investigation of variable and transient phenomena from the local to the cosmological, including flare stars, intermittent pulsars, X-ray binaries, magnetars, extreme scattering events, interstellar scintillation, radio supernovae, and orphan afterglows of gamma-ray bursts. In addition, it will allow us to probe unexplored regions of parameter space where new classes of transient sources may be detected. In this paper we review the known radio transient and variable populations and the current results from blind radio surveys. We outline a comprehensive program based on a multi-tiered survey strategy to characterise the radio transient sky through detection and monitoring of transient and variable sources on the ASKAP imaging timescales of 5 s and greater. We also present an analysis of the expected source populations that we will be able to detect with VAST.
The operation and longevity of hydropower dams are often negatively impacted by sedimentation. Forest conservation can reduce soil erosion, and therefore efforts to maintain upstream forest cover within a watershed contribute to the economic life span of a hydropower facility. The cost of forest conservation can be viewed as an investment in hydropower and be financed via a payment for ecosystem services (PES) scheme. A novel modelling framework is used to estimate payments for forest conservation consisting of: (1) land-use change projection; (2) watershed erosion modelling; (3) reservoir sedimentation estimation; (4) power generation loss calculation; and (5) PES scheme design. The framework was applied to a proposed dam in Cambodia (Pursat 1). The estimated net present value of forest conservation was US$ 4.7 million when using average annual climate values over 100 years, or US$ 6.4 million when considering droughts every eight years. This can be remunerated with annual payments of US$ 4.26 ha−1 or US$ 5.78 ha−1, respectively, covering forest protection costs estimated at US$ 0.9 ha−1 yr−1. The application of this type of PES represents a rational option that allows for conservation and development of hydropower watersheds susceptible to erosion and sedimentation.
The chronometric dating of ceramic objects is normally achieved by thermoluminscence techniques (TL). Here we report both TL and a radiocarbon measurements on a Chinese earthenware hu jar (Harvard University Art Museums LTL1.2001.23 a,b). TL dates were obtained from earthenware core samples using established methods. The radiocarbon date was obtained from an organic coating present on the jar surface. The coating was preliminarily identified as urushi by a comparison of its FTIR absorption spectrum to absorption spectra obtained from modern and ancient lacquer standards. The material was found to be insoluble in a variety of solvents, mineral acids, and bases. Combustion and elemental analysis revealed that 64% of the coating mass was carbon. C measurement by AMS was carried out on a 3.9 mg sample of chemically cleaned lacquer. This measurement generated a date of 2191 ± 38 BP. Calibration of this measurement placed the age of the jar between 390BC and 160 BC at the 95% confidence interval. The calibrated radiocarbon date corroborated the TL measurement placing the jar at between 2400 and 1500 years old (400 BC to 500 AD). These findings also agreed with stylistic evidence that the jar was produced during the Western Han period (206 BC-AD 9). The literature on urushi composition, its pigment compatibility, its high carbon content, its apparent chemical stability, and the small sample required for C-accelerator mass spectrometry suggests that other lacquer-coated objects might be dated using a similar approach.
In this study the intermolecular interactions of small diameter (∼0.7nm) carbon nanotubes and γ-cyclodextrin were examined. Four samples of γ cyclodextrin and HiPco carbon nanotubes were prepared. The first, by grinding the tubes and the cyclodextrin (1:30 ratio) together in a dry mixture, the second was prepared in a similar fashion but was ground in the presence of water (1ml). Finally an aqueous solution of γ-cyclodextrin (0.3M) and HiPco carbon nanotubes (5mg) was prepared by refluxing for ∼100 hours, forming a pale yellow solution from which a number of crystals were produced, both the solution and the recrystallised material were analysed. The samples were analysed using UV-Vis-NIR and Raman spectroscopy. The results presented are the first spectroscopic evidence of an intermolecular interaction between γ-cyclodextrin and single wall nanotubes.
We have grown ZnSe epitaxial layers on bulk GaAs substrates and on GaAs epitaxial layers, with both As-rich and Ga-rich surface terminations. We have also grown ZnSe on AlAs epitaxial surfaces with different As to Al ratios. In all cases, abrupt, layer-by-layer growth is observed on the As-rich surfaces, while 3-dimensional nucleation is observed on the group III-rich surfaces. GaAs was also grown on ZnSe layers. In this case, microtwins form at the interface whose density diminishes as the layer is made thicker. A growth model is proposed consistent with these results which requires over-all electronic balance at the interface.
The complex hierarchical structure of the cornea of the eye as it is known from light and electron-microscopy is reviewed. Microscopy depicts the cornea as a layered structure with each layer parallel to the cornea's surfaces. The middle 90% of the cornea is a connective tissue layer called the stroma, which in turn is comprised of 2 μm thick sheets (lamellae) of collagen fibrils embedded in a ground substance. Fibrils within a given lamella have their axes parallel to one another, while fibril axes in adjacent lamellae make large angles with one another. Predictions of light scattering theory are then used to show how light scattering measurements made on fresh tissue can test these structures for possible artifacts due to preparative procedures. With unpolarized light, the total scattering cross-section depends on the fibrillar ultrastructure, but not on the lamellar structure. Angular scattering depends on both levels of hierarchical organization. The lamellar level of organization is especially significant for the propagation and scattering of polarized light. To date the structural implications of scattering measurements are in accord with structures seen in electron micrographs.