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This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic baits and attractants for fruit flies on the biology of its parasitoid Fopius arisanus. We tested two food-based attractants; hydrolysed corn protein (Biofruit® 3%) and sugarcane molasses (7%), their mixtures with spinosad and malathion-based insecticides, and a ready-to-use commercial bait (Success 0.02 CB®). Malathion-based lures were used as references for mortality (i.e., positive control), while negative control was honey. The formulations Biofruit® + malathion (T1), molasses + malathion (T2), and spinosad + molasses (T3) were toxic to F. arisanus, being classified as harmful (class 4). In addition, toxic baits composed of Biofruit + spinosad (T4) reduced parasitism by 97.99%, being rated as moderately harmful (class 3). Yet, Success 0.02 CB® (T7) was considered slightly toxic (class 2), causing a 64.55% reduction in parasitism. Regarding the biological parameters of F. arisanus, offspring number and parasitoid longevity were significantly reduced by using hydrolysed protein attractants when compared to the control (honey). However, sugarcane molasses improved parasitoid reproduction and longevity, as did the honey. Lastly, ingestion tests showed the major role of attractants in toxic-bait formulations against F. arisanus.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
The Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST) is an 18000 m2 radio telescope located 40 km from Canberra, Australia. Its operating band (820–851 MHz) is partly allocated to telecommunications, making radio astronomy challenging. We describe how the deployment of new digital receivers, Field Programmable Gate Array-based filterbanks, and server-class computers equipped with 43 Graphics Processing Units, has transformed the telescope into a versatile new instrument (UTMOST) for studying the radio sky on millisecond timescales. UTMOST has 10 times the bandwidth and double the field of view compared to the MOST, and voltage record and playback capability has facilitated rapid implementaton of many new observing modes, most of which operate commensally. UTMOST can simultaneously excise interference, make maps, coherently dedisperse pulsars, and perform real-time searches of coherent fan-beams for dispersed single pulses. UTMOST operates as a robotic facility, deciding how to efficiently target pulsars and how long to stay on source via real-time pulsar folding, while searching for single pulse events. Regular timing of over 300 pulsars has yielded seven pulsar glitches and three Fast Radio Bursts during commissioning. UTMOST demonstrates that if sufficient signal processing is applied to voltage streams, innovative science remains possible even in hostile radio frequency environments.
The class of radio transients called Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) encompasses enigmatic single pulses, each unique in its own way, hindering a consensus for their origin. The key to demystifying FRBs lies in discovering many of them in order to identity commonalities – and in real time, in order to find potential counterparts at other wavelengths. The recently upgraded UTMOST in Australia, is undergoing a backend transformation to rise as a fast transient detection machine. The first interferometric detections of FRBs with UTMOST, place their origin beyond the near-field region of the telescope thus ruling out local sources of interference as a possible origin. We have localised these bursts to much better than the ones discovered at the Parkes radio telescope and have plans to upgrade UTMOST to be capable of much better localisation still.
A total of 46 strains of Salmonella isolated from patients with sporadic diarrhoea or involved in foodborne outbreaks were analysed by PCR for genus identification and serotyping. Subtyping was performed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multiple amplification of phage locus typing (MAPLT) for seven variable loci. Bacteria were identified as belonging to serotype Enteritidis (33 strains; 71·7%) or Typhimurium (13 strains; 28·3%). A high similarity coefficient (94·6%) was observed in the Salmonella Enteritidis group for which were found three related PFGE profiles and only one MAPLT; strains representing profile PA/P1/MI were prevalent (27; 81·8%). Two Salmonella Typhimurium isolates were untypeable by PFGE. The remaining 11 strains had eight PFGE and three MAPLT profiles. The discriminatory power of MAPLT was lower than that of PFGE. Salmonella Enteritidis of clonal nature is predominant in Paraná State, with the most prevalent profile PA/P1/M1 associated with sporadic diarrhoea and with seven of nine reported outbreaks. In conclusion, PFGE shows higher discriminatory power among Salmonella strains.
The primary objective of our work is to understand the nanocomposite structure of SiO2 coated over graphene (G) nanoplatelets. An attempt has been made to synthesize G-SiO2 nanocomposite using sol-gel technique. The G-SiO2 nanocomposite is characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, and Electrochemical and Electrical measurement technique, respectively. The G-SiO2 nanocomposite reveals platelets characteristics much larger in size than the graphene nanoplatelets. The conductivity of G-SiO2 has been found to increase with an increase in the graphene ratio to SiO2 in nanocomposite material. The G-SiO2 has revealed interesting feature vibrational bands of graphene with SiO2 by varying the precursor of SiO2 with graphene moieties. The cyclic voltammetry studies have indicated the diffusion controlled system. The G-SiO2 nanocomposite shows interesting current–voltage characteristics with variation of graphene in nanocomposite. Our result is indicative of a transformable and viable G-SiO2 material for energy and electrical relay applications.
In May 2009, we investigated a hospital outbreak of pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) infection among healthcare personnel (HCP). Thirteen (65%) of 20 HCP with pH1N1 infection had healthcare-associated cases, which were primarily attributed to transmission among HCP. Eleven (55%) of HCP with pH1N1 infection worked for 1 day or more after the onset of illness. Personnel working with mild illness may have contributed to transmission among HCP.
The prose literature of Islamic mysticism, or Ṣufism, during the ʿAbbasid era is rich and varied. Distinct accomplishments can be credited to Ṣūfī writers who often did not shun the use of prevailing genres and styles of expression. In the face of criticism and pressures from the ulema, Ṣūfī authors often resorted to the oblique and enigmatic as tools of literary expression and ideological articulation. Beliefs were often couched in symbolical and allegorical references, and so thoroughly camouflaged at times that authors in the later centuries found it necessary to write their own commentaries.
Basically Ṣūfī writers were not particularly innovative with regard to prose categories. They favoured definitive and descriptive works, guidance and reference manuals, epistolary and instructional treatises and biographies and hagiographies. Their themes tended to explain and moralize, with heavy stress on the exemplary. Didactic techniques seem to govern most aspects of their writings, particularly in the later stages when instructing and guiding novices required much wisdom and exemplification.
On the defensive during much of the earlier centuries, Ṣufism generated a wealth of polemical and introspective literature. To enlist sympathy for their cause, Ṣūfīs developed a remarkable capacity for communication. In contriving the means, they contributed not only to literary norms but to the language as well, in the form of direct facile expressions which, in the long run, reduced the tendency toward affectation, subtlety and exaggeration.
Dyers woad (Isatis tinctoria L. # ISATI) has greatly expanded on rangelands in the Intermountain region. Herbicidal and tillage controls are not feasible on rangelands. Better knowledge of the biology of this species could help in the development of biological controls. We examined characteristics that could assist in this effort. Seed viability remained high and relatively stable, but germination decreased over a 10-month period. The seed dispersal pattern of dyers woad was best described by a negative exponential model (log10 y = 1.92-0.02x; r2=0.60), where y equals seeds/m2 and x = distance from mother plant (cm). The root system of dyers woad is dominated by a taproot with some laterals in the upper 30 cm of the soil profile. Survivorship of experimentally established populations monitored over 2 yr showed constriction at two stages: 1) germination and establishment, and 2) young rosette. The latter stage should be targeted for biological control.
Noting the limitations of the macroanalytic approach in the study of politics, a group of political scientists have focused their attention on individual members of the society—their systems of political belief, expectations, and aspirations. This group is concerned with the individual's “cognitive,” “affective,” and “evaluative” orientations toward the system.But unlike the United States, where numerous authoritative writings focus on the belief system of the individual, there has been only limited research investigating the belief system of Arabs in general and Kuwaiti Arabs in particular.
The first twelve months following the arrival of the American Protestant missionaries to the shores of Syria, the eastern Mediterranean haven of religious dissidence, constituted the “bright spring time of the mission” as one observer put it. Soon thereafter in 1824 the ecclesiastical authorities of the Maronites, “Romanists”, and Uniat Meichites awoke to the danger threatening them and began to resent their presence. The reason for the short honeymoon is not difficult to perceive: when the missionaries took stock of the situation it soon dawned upon them that they could function in one of two ways, “either silently in the bosom of native churches to revive religion or attempt a reformation of rites and ceremonies”. They chose the second course, and the end result was both hostility to their activities and a feeble Protestant community at best, unable to survive without outside protection and support.