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We study experimentally the dynamics and statistics of capillary waves forced by random steep gravity waves mechanically generated in the laboratory. Capillary waves are produced here by gravity waves from nonlinear wave interactions. Using a spatio-temporal measurement of the free surface, we characterize statistically the random regimes of capillary waves in the spatial and temporal Fourier spaces. For a significant wave steepness (0.2–0.3), power-law spectra are observed both in space and time, defining a turbulent regime of capillary waves transferring energy from the large scale to the small scale. Analysis of temporal fluctuations of the spatial spectrum demonstrates that the capillary power-law spectra result from the temporal averaging over intermittent and strong nonlinear events transferring energy to the small scale in a fast time scale, when capillary wave trains are generated in a way similar to the parasitic capillary wave generation mechanism. The frequency and wavenumber power-law exponents of the wave spectra are found to be in agreement with those of the weakly nonlinear wave turbulence theory. However, the energy flux is not constant through the scales and the wave spectrum scaling with this flux is not in good agreement with wave turbulence theory. These results suggest that theoretical developments beyond the classic wave turbulence theory are necessary to describe the dynamics and statistics of capillary waves in a natural environment. In particular, in the presence of broad-scale viscous dissipation and strong nonlinearity, the role of non-local and non-resonant interactions should be reconsidered.
It is known that tungsten oxide may be reacted with selenium sources to form WSe2 but literature reports include processing steps that involve high temperatures, reducing atmospheres, and/or oxidative pre-treatments of tungsten oxide. In this work, we report a non-vacuum process for the fabrication of compositionally high quality WSe2 thin films via the selenization of tungsten oxide under milder conditions. Tungsten source materials were various hydrated WO3 and WO2.9 compounds that were prepared using chemical solution techniques. Resulting films were selenized using a two-stage heating profile (250 °C for 15 minutes and 550 °C for 30 minutes) under a static argon atmosphere. Effects of the starting tungsten oxide phase on WSe2 formation after single and double selenization cycles were investigated using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). After two selenization cycles, hydrated WO3 was converted to (002)-oriented WSe2 that exhibits well-resolved peaks for E12g and A1g phonon modes. Only a single selenization cycle was required to convert amorphous WO2.9 to WSe2. All selenizations in this work were achieved in non-reducing atmospheres and at lower temperatures and shorter times than any non-laser-assisted processes reported for WO3-to-WSe2 conversions.
We experimentally study resonant interactions of oblique surface gravity waves in a large basin. Our results strongly extend previous experimental results performed mainly for perpendicular or collinear wave trains. We generate two oblique waves crossing at an acute angle, while we control their frequency ratio, steepnesses and directions. These mother waves mutually interact and give birth to a resonant wave whose properties (growth rate, resonant response curve and phase locking) are fully characterized. All our experimental results are found in good quantitative agreement with four-wave interaction theory with no fitting parameter. Off-resonance experiments are also reported and the relevant theoretical analysis is conducted and validated.
We present here first results of 14CO2 monitoring at two sampling sites in the equatorial region of the South American continent (station Aychapicho, Ecuador and station Llano del Hato, Venezuela). We also include the data for two other stations representing undisturbed marine atmosphere at mid-latitudes of both hemispheres, far from large continental sources and sinks of CO2 (station Izaña, Tenerife, Spain and station Cape Grim, Tasmania). Between 1991 and 1993, 14CO2 levels in the tropical troposphere were generally higher by 2–5‰ when compared to mid-latitudes of both hemispheres. This apparent maximum of 14C in the tropics can be explained by two major factors: 1) emissions of 14C-free fossil fuel CO2, restricted mainly to mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere; and 2) 14C depletion due to gas exchange with circumpolar Antarctic upwelling water, influencing mainly mid- and high southern latitudes. The δ14C record so far available for the Aychapicho station provides direct evidence for a regional reduction of atmospheric 14CO2 levels due to gas exchange with 14C-depleted equatorial surface ocean in the upwelling regions and dilution with the 14C-depleted CO2 released in these areas. Recurrent ENSO events, turning on and off the 14C-depleted CO2 source in the tropical Pacific, lead to relatively large temporal variations of the atmospheric 14C level in this region.
Tell Abu en-Ni‘aj, an agrarian Early Bronze IV village in the northern Jordan Valley, Jordan, provides a series of 24 accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) seed dates spanning seven stratified phases of occupation. Bayesian analysis of these ages reveals that habitation at Tell Abu en-Ni‘aj began between 2600 and 2500 cal BC and ended just before 2000 cal BC. This sequence provides the longest radiocarbon record of occupation for an Early Bronze IV settlement in the southern Levant and pushes the beginning of the Levantine Early Bronze IV earlier than proposed previously. When integrated with 14C dates from an array of sites in the southern Levant, Egypt, and Lebanon, this evidence aligns with recent 14C-based chronologies calling for earlier ages for Early Bronze I–III, details Early Bronze IV chronology through the course of this period, and corroborates the date of the Early Bronze IV/Middle Bronze Age transition ~2000 cal BC.
Gravity wave turbulence is investigated experimentally in a large wave basin in which irregular waves are generated unidirectionally. The roles of the basin boundary conditions (absorbing or reflecting) and of the forcing properties are investigated. To that purpose, an absorbing sloping beach opposite the wavemaker can be replaced by a reflecting vertical wall. We observe that the wave field properties depend strongly on these boundary conditions. A quasi-one-dimensional field of nonlinear waves propagates towards the beach, where they are damped whereas a more multidirectional wave field is observed with the wall. In both cases, the wave spectrum scales as a frequency power law with an exponent that increases continuously with the forcing amplitude up to a value close to
. The physical mechanisms involved most likely differ with the boundary condition used, but cannot be easily discriminated with only temporal measurements. We also studied freely decaying gravity wave turbulence in the closed basin. No self-similar decay of the spectrum is observed, whereas its Fourier modes decay first as a time power law due to nonlinear mechanisms, and then exponentially due to linear viscous damping. We estimate the linear, nonlinear and dissipative time scales to test the time scale separation that highlights the important role of a large-scale Fourier mode. By estimation of the mean energy flux from the initial decay of wave energy, the Kolmogorov–Zakharov constant of the weak turbulence theory is evaluated and found to be compatible with a recently obtained theoretical value.
In around ≈25% of early-type galaxies (ETGs) UV emission from young stellar populations is present. Molecular gas reservoirs have been detected in these systems (e.g. Young et al. (2011), providing the fuel for this residual star-formation. The environment in which this molecular gas is found is quite different than that in spiral galaxies however, with harsher radiation fields, deeper potentials and high metallicity and alpha-element abundances. Here we report on one element of our multi-faceted programme to understand the similarities and differences between the gas reservoirs in spirals and ETGs. We use spatially resolved observations from the CARMA mm-wave interferometer to investigate the size of the molecular reservoirs in the the CO-rich ATLAS3D ETGs (survey described in Alatalo et al. 2012, submitted). We find that the molecular gas extent is smaller in absolute terms in ETGs than in late-type galaxies, but that the size distributions are similar once scaled by the galaxies optical/stellar characteristic scale-lengths (Fig 1, left). Amongst ETGs, we find that the extent of the molecular gas is independent of the kinematic misalignment, despite the many reasons why misaligned gas might have a smaller extent. The extent of the molecular gas does depend on environment, with Virgo cluster ETGs having less extended molecular gas reservoirs (Fig 1, right). Whatever the cause, this further emphases that cluster ETGs follow different evolutionary pathways from those in the field. Full details of this work will be presented in Davis et al. (2012), submitted.
Recently, massive early-type galaxies have shed their red-and-dead moniker, thanks to the discovery that many host residual star formation. As part of the ATLAS-3D project, we have conducted a complete, volume-limited survey of the molecular gas in 260 local early-type galaxies with the IRAM-30m telescope and the CARMA interferometer, in an attempt to understand the fuel powering this star formation. We find that around 22% of early-type galaxies in the local volume host molecular gas reservoirs. This detection rate is independent of galaxy luminosity and environment. Here we focus on how kinematic misalignment measurements and gas-to-dust ratios can be used to put constraints on the origin of the cold ISM in these systems. The origin of the cold ISM seems to depend strongly on environment, with misaligned, dust poor gas (indicative of externally acquired material) being common in the field but completely absent in rich groups and in the Virgo cluster. Very massive galaxies also appear to be devoid of accreted gas. This suggests that in the field mergers and/or cold gas accretion dominate the gas supply, while in clusters internal secular processes become more important. This implies that environment has a strong impact on the cold gas properties of ETGs.
With the goal of assembling a new generation of more realistic single stellar population (SSP) models, we have obtained magnesium abundances for nearly 80% of the stars of the widely employed MILES empirical spectral library. Additional spectroscopic observations of carefully selected stars have recently been obtained to improve the parametric coverage of this library. Here we report on: (i) the framework of Mg abundance determination carried out at mid-resolution, (ii) the newly acquired data, and (iii) the preliminary steps towards modelling stellar populations.
We report recent results from the photometric follow-up study we are conducting in the context of the SAURON project. We use ground-based MDM V −band and Spitzer/IRAC 3.6 μm imaging to characterise our sample of E, S0 and Sa galaxies photometrically. Combined with SAURON integral-field spectroscopic observations, this information allows us to explore and understand the location of these galaxies on the Fundamental Plane relation, providing an important diagnostic tool to study their formation and evolution.
Ohmic contacts and Schottky contacts were made on an undoped AlGaN/GaN FET structure. Despite the high Al content (33%), we were still able to obtain a contact resistance of 0.3 ωmm. Pulsed measurements showed the large effect of self-heating even for circular contacts with a radius of 50 μm. The behavior ofthe Ni/Au Schottky contacts is according to the charge control model; the reverse current and capacitanceonly scale with the area of the diode. Tests with polygon type diodes showed no dependence of the reverse current on the number of polygon corners. The reverse current decreased when the devices were aged at 400°C for 30 hrs. Coplanar Waveguide discontinuities were realized on AlN substrates. A scalable lumped element model was derived from measurements for T-junctions, transmission lines, bends and crosses.
Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) class of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is generally radio-quiet, but a small percent of them are radio-loud. The recent discovery by Fermi/LAT of high-energy γ-ray emission from 4 NLS1s proved the existence of relativistic jets in these systems. It is therefore important to study this new class of γ-ray emitting AGNs. Here we report preliminary results about the observations of the July 2010 γ-ray outburst of PMN J0948+0022, when the source flux exceeded for the first time 10−6 ph cm−2 s−1 (E > 100 MeV).
Early-type galaxies (ETGs) satisfy a now classic scaling relation Re ∝ σ1.2eI−0.8e, the Fundamental Plane (FP; Djorgovski & Davis 1987; Dressler et al. 1987), between their size, stellar velocity dispersion and mean surface brightness. A significant effort has been devoted in the past twenty years to try to understand why the coefficients of the relation are not the ones predicted by the virial theorem Re ∝ σ2eI−1e.
Dissociative reactions in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been regarded as strategic responses that limit arousal. Neuroimaging studies suggest distinct prefrontal responses in individuals displaying dissociative and hyperarousal responses to threat in PTSD. Increased prefrontal activity may reflect enhanced regulation of limbic arousal networks in dissociation. If dissociation is a higher-order regulatory response to threat, there may be differential responses to conscious and automatic processing of threat stimuli. This study addresses this question by examining the impact of dissociation on fear processing at different levels of awareness.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a 1.5-T scanner was used to examine activation to fearful (versus neutral) facial expressions during consciously attended and non-conscious (using backward masking) conditions in 23 individuals with PTSD. Activation in 11 individuals displaying non-dissociative reactions was compared to activation in 12 displaying dissociative reactions to consciously and non-consciously perceived fear stimuli.
Dissociative PTSD was associated with enhanced activation in the ventral prefrontal cortex for conscious fear, and in the bilateral amygdala, insula and left thalamus for non-conscious fear compared to non-dissociative PTSD. Comparatively reduced activation in the dissociative group was apparent in dorsomedial prefrontal regions for conscious fear faces.
These findings confirm our hypotheses of enhanced prefrontal activity to conscious fear and enhanced activity in limbic networks to non-conscious fear in dissociative PTSD. This supports the theory that dissociation is a regulatory strategy invoked to cope with extreme arousal in PTSD, but this strategy appears to function only during conscious processing of threat.
Using the unique dataset obtained within the course of the SAURON project, a radically new view of the structure, dynamics and stellar populations of early-type galaxies has emerged. We show that galaxies come in two broad flavours (slow and fast rotators), depending on whether or not they exhibit clear large-scale rotation, as indicated via a robust measure of the specific angular momentum of baryons. This property is also linked with other physical characteristics of early-type galaxies, such as: the presence of dynamically decoupled cores, orbital structure and anisotropy, stellar populations and dark matter content. I here report on the observed link between this baryonic angular momentum and a mass sequence, and how this uniquely relates to the building of the red sequence via dissipative/dissipationless mergers and secular evolution.