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The experiment, conducted at Bahia, Brazil, from May to August 2010, aimed to evaluate the nitrogen (N) balance, urea excretion and microbial protein synthesis in lactating goats fed pelleted concentrates with the addition of crude protein (CP), obtained by replacing alfalfa hay with soybean meal. The diets consisted of different levels of CP and 200 g of roughage (Tifton 85 hay)/kg. Maize and mesquite bran were used as the energy source, with maize replaced by mesquite bran in the ratio of 1·7:1. Eight female Saanen goats were used, confined in individual pens and allocated to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The N balance in the body was positive, and loss of body weight (–0·03 g/day) was observed for the diet with 190 g CP/kg. The concentration (mg/dl) of urea in urine, milk and blood plasma was positively influenced in a linear form, and the highest rate of increase was found in urine, with 2 mg/dl for every 10 g CP/kg added to the diet. The microbial protein synthesis was not affected, but the diets reduced the microbial protein (44 g/day) and its ruminal production efficiency (30 g/kg total digestible nutrients). The levels above 190 g of CP are not recommended because of the energy expenditure required to excrete the urea.
Patients with a deletion at chromosome 22q11.2 (22q11DS) have 30% lifetime risk of developing a psychosis. People fulfilling clinical criteria for ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis have 30% risk of developing a psychosis within 2 years. Both high-risk groups show white-matter (WM) abnormalities in microstructure and volume compared to healthy controls (HC), which have been related to psychotic symptoms. Comparisons of WM pathology between these two groups may specify WM markers related to genetic and clinical risk factors.
Fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD) and mean diffusivity (MD) were assessed using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and WM volume with structural MRI, in 23 UHR patients, 21 22q11DS patients, and 33 HC.
Compared to UHR patients 22q11DS patients had (1) lower AD and RD in corpus callosum (CC), cortical fasciculi, and anterior thalamic radiation (ATR), (2) higher FA in CC and ATR, and (3) lower occipital and superior temporal gyrus WM volume. Compared to HC, 22q11DS patients had (1) lower AD and RD throughout cortical fasciculi and (2) higher FA in ATR, CC and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. Compared to HC, UHR patients had (1) higher mean MD, RD, and AD in CC, ATR and cortical fasciculi, (2) no differences in FA.
UHR and 22q11DS patients share a susceptibility for developing psychosis yet were characterized by distinct patterns of WM alterations relative to HC. While UHR patients were typified by signs suggestive of aberrant myelination, 22q11DS subjects showed signs suggestive of lower axonal integrity.
La centralisation au Bureau international de l’Heure des résultats d’observations de l’Opération internationale de 1933 a été très lente, puisque les dernières données attendues ont été reçues vers la fin de 1937.
Le nombre des stations ayant coopéré à l’Opération internationale et ayant transmis leurs observations à l’organisme centralisateur s’élève à soixante et onze. Ainsi qu’il a été expliqué à notre Commission mixte, lors du Congrès de l’Union géodésique et géophysique internationale tenu à Édimbourg en 1936, ces stations ont été réparties en trois groupes:
Le Ier comprenant vingt Observatoires, disposant chacun de plusieurs horloges de première classe (soit à poids sous pression et à température constantes, soit à quartz piézoélectrique);
The objective of this study was to investigate relationships between ovulation rate (OR) and embryonic and placental development in sows. Topigs Norsvin® sows (n=91, parity 2 to 17) from three different genetic backgrounds were slaughtered at 35 days of pregnancy and the reproductive tract was collected. The corpora lutea (CL) were counted and the number of vital and non-vital embryos, embryonic spacing (distance between two embryos), implantation length, placental length, placental weight and embryonic weight were assessed. The difference between number of CL and total number of embryos was considered as early embryonic mortality. The number of non-vital embryos was considered as late mortality. Relationships between OR and all other variables were investigated using two models: the first considered parity as class effect (n=91) and the second used a subset of sows with parities 4 to 10 (n=47) to analyse the genetic background as class effect. OR was significantly affected by parity (P<0.0001), but was not affected by the genetic background of the sows. Parity and genetic background did not affect embryonic and placental characteristics at 35 days of pregnancy. OR (varying from 17 to 38 CL) was positively related with early embryonic mortality (β=0.49±0.1 n/ovulations, P<0.0001), with late embryonic mortality or number of non-vital embryos (β=0.24±0.1 n/ovulations, P=0.001) and with the number of vital embryos (β=0.26±0.1 n/ovulations, P=0.01). However, dividing OR in four classes, showed that the number of vital embryos was lowest in OR class 1 (17 to 21 CL), but not different for the other OR classes, suggesting a plateau for number of vital embryos for OR above 22. There was a negative linear relationship between OR and vital embryonic spacing (β=−0.45±0.1 cm/ovulation, P=0.001), implantation length (β=−0.35±0.1 cm/ovulation, P=0.003), placental length (β=−0.38±0.2 cm/ovulation, P=0.05) and empty space around embryonic-placental unit (β=−0.4±0.2 cm/ovulation, P=0.02), indicating uterine crowding. Further analyses showed that effects of OR on embryonic and uterine parameters were related with the increase in late mortality and not early embryonic mortality. Therefore, we conclude that a high OR results in an moderate increase in the number of vital embryos at day 35 of pregnancy, but compromises development in the surviving embryonic/placental units, suggesting that the future growth and survival of the embryos might be further compromised.
Human toxocarosis is a chronic tissue parasitosis most often caused by Toxocara canis. The seroprevalence can reach up to 50%, especially among children and adolescents. The anthelmintics used in the treatment have moderate efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of quinones and their derivatives against T. canis larvae and the cytotoxicity of the larvicidal compounds. The compounds were evaluated at 1 mg mL−1 concentration in microculture plates containing third stage larvae in an Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 h. Five naphthoxiranes were selected for the cytotoxicity analysis. The cell viability evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays using murine peritoneal macrophages isolated from C57BL/6 mice revealed that the naphthoxiranes (1 and 3) were less cytotoxic at a concentration of 0·05 mg mL−1. The efficacy of naphthoxiranes (1 and 3) was examined in murine toxocarosis also. The anthelmintic activity was examined by evaluating the number of larvae in the brain, carcass, liver, lungs, heart, kidneys and eyes. Compound (3) demonstrated anthelmintic activity similar to that of albendazole by decreasing the number of larvae in the organs of mice and thus could form the basis of the development of a new anthelmintic drug.
Firstly, a brief overview will be given on different models that are able to describe the behaviour of wave propagation as a function of specific frequency ranges. Each range corresponds to different heating systems, namely, 20–100 MHz for the ion cyclotron resonant heating, 2–20 GHz for lower-hybrid heating or current drive, and 100–250 GHz for electron cyclotron resonant heating or current drive systems. The specification of every system will be explained in detail, including the typical set of equations and the assumptions needed to describe the properties of these heating or current drive systems, as well as their specific domains of validity. In these descriptions, special attention will be paid to the boundary conditions. A review of specific physical problems associated with the wave heating systems will also be provided. The review will detail the role of simulation in answering questions that arise from experiments on magnetized plasma devices devoted to fusion. A few examples that will be covered are the impact of edge turbulence on wave propagation and its consequences on heating system performance, the effects of fast particles and ponderomotive effects, among others. A study that is more focused on radio-frequency sheath effects will also be discussed. It shows that such simulations require very sophisticated tools to gain a partial understanding of the observations undertaken in dedicated experiments. To conclude this review, an overview will be given about the requirements and progress necessary to obtain relevant predictive simulation tools able to describe the wave heating systems used in fusion devices.
The 2013 multistate outbreaks contributed to the largest annual number of reported US cases of cyclosporiasis since 1997. In this paper we focus on investigations in Texas. We defined an outbreak-associated case as laboratory-confirmed cyclosporiasis in a person with illness onset between 1 June and 31 August 2013, with no history of international travel in the previous 14 days. Epidemiological, environmental, and traceback investigations were conducted. Of the 631 cases reported in the multistate outbreaks, Texas reported the greatest number of cases, 270 (43%). More than 70 clusters were identified in Texas, four of which were further investigated. One restaurant-associated cluster of 25 case-patients was selected for a case-control study. Consumption of cilantro was most strongly associated with illness on meal date-matched analysis (matched odds ratio 19·8, 95% confidence interval 4·0–∞). All case-patients in the other three clusters investigated also ate cilantro. Traceback investigations converged on three suppliers in Puebla, Mexico. Cilantro was the vehicle of infection in the four clusters investigated; the temporal association of these clusters with the large overall increase in cyclosporiasis cases in Texas suggests cilantro was the vehicle of infection for many other cases. However, the paucity of epidemiological and traceback information does not allow for a conclusive determination; moreover, molecular epidemiological tools for cyclosporiasis that could provide more definitive linkage between case clusters are needed.
Course and predictors of persistence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults are still largely unknown. Neurobiological and clinical differences between child and adult ADHD raise the need for follow-up studies of patients diagnosed during adulthood. This study investigates predictors of ADHD persistence and the possibility of full remission 7 years after baseline assessment.
A 7-year follow-up study of adults with ADHD (n = 344, mean age 34.1 years, 49.9% males) was conducted. Variables from different domains (social demographics, co-morbidities, temperament, medication status, ADHD measures) were explored with the aim of finding potential predictors of ADHD persistence.
Retention rate was 66% (n = 227). Approximately a third of the sample (n = 70, 30.2%) did not maintain ADHD criteria and 28 (12.4%) presented full remission (<4 symptoms), independently of changes in co-morbidity or cognitive demand profiles. Baseline predictors of diagnostic persistence were higher number of inattention symptoms [odds ratio (OR) 8.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.54–25.45, p < 0.001], number of hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04–1.34, p = 0.01), oppositional defiant disorder (OR 3.12, 95% CI 1.20–8.11, p = 0.02), and social phobia (OR 3.59, 95% CI 1.12–11.47, p = 0.03).
Despite the stage of brain maturation in adults suggests stability, approximately one third of the sample did not keep full DSM-IV diagnosis at follow-up, regardless if at early, middle or older adulthood. Although full remission is less common than in childhood, it should be considered as a possible outcome among adults.
We describe the preliminary design of a magnetograph and visible-light imager instrument to study the solar dynamo processes through observations of the solar surface magnetic field distribution. The instrument will provide measurements of the vector magnetic field and of the line-of-sight velocity in the solar photosphere. As the magnetic field anchored at the solar surface produces most of the structures and energetic events in the upper solar atmosphere and significantly influences the heliosphere, the development of this instrument plays an important role in reaching the scientific goals of The Atmospheric and Space Science Coordination (CEA) at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE). In particular, the CEA's space weather program will benefit most from the development of this technology. We expect that this project will be the starting point to establish a strong research program on Solar Physics in Brazil. Our main aim is acquiring progressively the know-how to build state-of-the-art solar vector magnetograph and visible-light imagers for space-based platforms to contribute to the efforts of the solar-terrestrial physics community to address the main unanswered questions on how our nearby Star works.
Immature bovine oocytes were vitrified using the cryotop method and their post-warming survivability and capability to undergo in vitro maturation, fertilization and subsequent embryonic development were evaluated. In addition throughout the embryonic 2-cell, 4-cell, morula and blastocyst stages, the expression of four developmentally important genes (Cx43, CDH1, DNMT1 and HSPA14) was analysed using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Immature oocytes (n = 550) were randomly assigned to non-vitrified (fresh) or cryotop vitrification groups using ethylene glycol (EG) with 1,2 propanediol (PROH) or dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO). After warming, oocytes survivability, embryo cleavage and embryonic developmental rates were not statistically different between the two cryoprotectants groups. However, the DMSO group had a lower (P < 0.05) oocyte maturation rate compared with the fresh and PROH groups. For morula and blastocyst rates, the DMSO group achieved a lower (P < 0.05) morula rate compared with the fresh group, while at the blastocyst stage, there were no differences between fresh and both cryoprotectants groups. For molecular analysis, at the 4-cell stage, most studied genes showed an inconsistent pattern of expression either from the PROH or DMSO groups. Noteworthily, these differences were limited at the morula and blastocyst stages. In conclusion, the cryotop method is sufficient for vitrification of immature bovine oocytes, both for embryonic developmental competence and at the molecular level. Moreover, PROH showed some advantage over DMSO as a cryoprotectant.
Plant organic reserves and sward leaf area index (LAI) influence plant growth, persistency and herbage accumulation in grazed swards. The present study was conducted to describe patterns of variation in herbage accumulation and carbohydrate and nitrogen (N) reserves in shoot and root of marandu palisade grass subjected to intensities of continuous stocking management throughout the year. Treatments corresponded to four levels of grazing intensity – severe (S), severe/moderate (S/M), moderate (M) and lenient (L) – and were implemented in the field using bands of sward surface height (SSH – 10, 20, 30 and 40 cm ± 10%, respectively) maintained through continuous stocking and variable stocking rate. Total N concentration was higher in the shoot relative to the root compartment during autumn, early and late spring. On the other hand, the concentration of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and soluble N was higher in the root compartment, regardless of grazing intensity and season of the year. When taking into account the pool of C and N reserves, the shoot compartment represented the main storage organ, since it corresponded to the largest pool of NSC (averages of 0·102 ± 0·0038 and 0·201 ± 0·0088 kg/m2 for root and shoot, respectively) and soluble N (averages of 2·7 ± 0·26 and 5·3 ± 0·59 kg/m2 for root and shoot, respectively). During late spring, the time of active plant growth, there was a clear contrast in herbage accumulation and sward LAI among grazing intensities, particularly between the severe and lenient grazing treatments. The results show that even with larger pools of soluble N and NSC in the shoot compartment, herbage accumulation was limited by the reduced leaf area of swards subjected to the severe grazing treatment, indicating that under continuous stocking growth seems to be sustained by current assimilates instead of organic reserves. Therefore, targets of grazing management for maximizing herbage accumulation throughout the year should provide adequate combinations between quantity and quality of sward leaf area. This condition was obtained in the severe/moderate and moderate grazing intensities, and corresponded to sward heights between 20 and 30 cm for marandu palisade grass.
Epigenetic studies suggest that diseases that develop in adulthood are related to certain conditions to which the individual is exposed during the initial stages of life. Experimental evidence has demonstrated that offspring born to mothers maintained on high-Na diets during pregnancy have higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) in adulthood. Although these studies have demonstrated the importance of prenatal phases to hypertension development, no evidence regarding the role of high Na intake during postnatal phases in the development of this pathology has been reported. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of Na overload during childhood on induced water and Na intakes and on cardiovascular parameters in adulthood were evaluated. Experiments were carried out in two groups of 21-d-old rats: experimental group, maintained on hypertonic saline (0·3 m-NaCl) solution and food for 60 d, and control group, maintained on tap water and food. Later, both groups were given water and food for 15 d (recovery period). After the recovery period, chronic cannulation of the right femoral artery was performed in unanaesthetised rats to record baseline MAP and heart rate (HR). The experimental group was found to have increased basal MAP (98·6 (sem 2·6) v. 118·3 (sem 2·7) mmHg, P< 0·05) and HR (365·4 (sem 12·2) v. 398·2 (sem 7·5) beats per min, P< 0·05). There was a decrease in the baroreflex index in the experimental group when compared with that in the control group. A water and Na intake test was performed using furosemide. Na depletion was found to induce an increase in Na intake in both the control and experimental groups (12·1 (sem 0·6) ml and 7·8 (sem 1·1), respectively, P< 0·05); however, this increase was of lower magnitude in the experimental group. These results demonstrate that postnatal Na overload alters behavioural and cardiovascular regulation in adulthood.
Euclid is the next ESA mission devoted to cosmology. It aims at observing most of the extragalactic sky, studying both gravitational lensing and clustering over ~15,000 square degrees. The mission is expected to be launched in year 2020 and to last six years. The sheer amount of data of different kinds, the variety of (un)known systematic effects and the complexity of measures require efforts both in sophisticated simulations and techniques of data analysis. We review the mission main characteristics, some aspects of the the survey and highlight some of the areas of interest to this meeting.
The Euclid space mission proposes to survey 15000 square degrees of the extragalactic sky during 6 years, with a step-and-stare technique. The scheduling of observation sequences is driven by the primary scientific objectives, spacecraft constraints, calibration requirements and physical properties of the sky. We present the current reference implementation of the Euclid survey and on-going work on survey optimization.
LaNiO3 thin films were deposited on SrLaAlO4 (100) and SrLaAlO4 (001) single crystal substrates by a chemical solution deposition method and heat-treated in oxygen atmosphere at 700°C in tube oven. Structural, morphological, and electrical properties of the LaNiO3 thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and electrical resistivity as temperature function (Hall measurements). The X-ray diffraction data indicated good crystallinity and a structural preferential orientation. The LaNiO3 thin films have a very flat surface and no droplet was found on their surfaces. Samples of LaNiO3 grown onto (100) and (001) oriented SrLaAlO4 single crystal substrates reveled average grain size by AFM approximately 15-30 and 20-35 nm, respectively. Transport characteristics observed were clearly dependent upon the substrate orientation which exhibited a metal-to-insulator transition. The underlying mechanism is a result of competition between the mobility edge and the Fermi energy through the occupation of electron states which in turn is controlled by the disorder level induced by different growth surfaces.
Grazing Incidence Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS) is a versatile technique for the analysis of nano and micro thin films surfaces. The scattering data depend strongly on the form and distribution of the scattering objects. In the present work GISAXS is used to study hafnium dioxide (HfO2) thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering using different deposition processes and post-deposition annealing conditions. Two distinct types of 15 nm thick samples were produced using different sputtering targets and different gas mixtures. The GISAXS results show that the ellipsoids that compose the thin films present a reduction in their size for both samples sets. For the sputtered Hf metal target samples, the ellipsoid diameter value shifted from 9 nm (as-deposited) to 6 nm following a 800 °C thermal treatment. For the sputtered HfO2 target samples the diameter value shifts from 19 nm (as-deposited) to 3 nm after a 800 °C anneal in oxygen. The size distribution, for both sets of samples, follows a Gaussian distribution function.
The empirical application of muds for therapeutic purposes is widely known. This is called pelotherapy and consists of the local or generalized application of a mixture of a solid phase and a liquid phase (peloid) for the recovery of arthro-rheumatic issues, bone-muscle traumatic damage and dermatological pathologies. During the time of mixing (maturation process) the mud is progressively colonized by thermophilic microorganisms that contribute to improvements in the peloid quality and endow the mud with organic substances. Several studies report diatoms as the main agent of thermal muds capable of producing anti-inflammatory sulphoglycolipid which renders the mud suitable for this use. The effect of the temperature is also considered important for therapeutic purposes.
Recent studies assessed physical, chemical and technological properties of some peloids in use at spa centres. Some maturation surveys have also been performed in recent years. The need for quality criteria establishment and certification of clayey products intended to be used currently is evident, especially for peloids which have therapeutic action. Consequently, this study aims at the compilation and analysis of some characteristics of peloids from the literature in order to contribute to a major database that allows the establishment of regulations and quality criteria for suitable applications of peloids.