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The aim of this study was to evaluate transcriptome changes in the muscle tissue of Bos taurus indicus cull cows subjected to recovery weight gain under grazing conditions. In all, 38 Nellore cull cows were divided randomly into two different management groups: (1) Maintenance (MA) and (2) Recovery gain (RG) from weight loss by moderate growth under high forage availability. After slaughter, RNA analysis was performed on the Longissimus thoracis muscle. Semaphorin 4A, solute carrier family 11 member 1, and Ficolin-2 were expressed in the RG, which may indicate an inflammatory response during tissue regrowth. Signaling factors, such as Myostatin, related to fibroblast activation, negative control of satellite cell proliferation in adults and muscle protein synthesis were less abundant in the RG group. The only gene related to anabolic processes that were more abundant in the MA group was related to fat deposition. The genes that were differentially expressed in the experiment showed muscle repair-related changes during RG based on the greater expression of genes involved in inflammatory responses and the lower expression of negative regulators of muscle cell proliferation and hypertrophy.
Aims were to assess the efficacy of metacognitive training (MCT) in people with a recent onset of psychosis in terms of symptoms as a primary outcome and metacognitive variables as a secondary outcome.
A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial was performed. A total of 126 patients were randomized to an MCT or a psycho-educational intervention with cognitive-behavioral elements. The sample was composed of people with a recent onset of psychosis, recruited from nine public centers in Spain. The treatment consisted of eight weekly sessions for both groups. Patients were assessed at three time-points: baseline, post-treatment, and at 6 months follow-up. The evaluator was blinded to the condition of the patient. Symptoms were assessed with the PANSS and metacognition was assessed with a battery of questionnaires of cognitive biases and social cognition.
Both MCT and psycho-educational groups had improved symptoms post-treatment and at follow-up, with greater improvements in the MCT group. The MCT group was superior to the psycho-educational group on the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) total (p = 0.026) and self-certainty (p = 0.035) and dependence self-subscale of irrational beliefs, comparing baseline and post-treatment. Moreover, comparing baseline and follow-up, the MCT group was better than the psycho-educational group in self-reflectiveness on the BCIS (p = 0.047), total BCIS (p = 0.045), and intolerance to frustration (p = 0.014). Jumping to Conclusions (JTC) improved more in the MCT group than the psycho-educational group (p = 0.021). Regarding the comparison within each group, Theory of Mind (ToM), Personalizing Bias, and other subscales of irrational beliefs improved in the MCT group but not the psycho-educational group (p < 0.001–0.032).
MCT could be an effective psychological intervention for people with recent onset of psychosis in order to improve cognitive insight, JTC, and tolerance to frustration. It seems that MCT could be useful to improve symptoms, ToM, and personalizing bias.
Most glaciological studies in Argentina have focused on the large outlet glaciers of the Southern Patagonia Icefield (SPI); the numerous smaller neighboring glaciers have received significantly less attention. We present an inventory of 248 medium- to small-size glaciers (0.01–25 km2) adjacent to the northeast margin of the SPI, describe their change over the period 1979–2005 and assess local and regional climatic variations in an attempt to explain the observed glacier changes. Based on an ASTER mosaic from 20 February 2005 and the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model, we identified a total glacier area of 187.2 ± 7.4 km2 between 600 and 2870 m a.s.l. Glaciers are largely debris-free and are concentrated in the western, more humid sector adjacent to the SPI. Using a 20 March 1979 US military intelligence Hexagon KH-9 satellite photograph, we measured a total areal reduction of ∼33.7 km2 (15.2%) between 1979 and 2005. Ablation season temperatures from the study area have followed a regional warming trend that could partly explain the observed glacier shrinkage. Annual precipitation estimates show a gradual decrease between 1979 and 2002 that may also have contributed to the ice mass loss.
We resolve spatially the star formation history of 300 nearby galaxies from the CALIFA integral field survey to investigate: a) the radial structure and gradients of the present stellar populations properties as a function of the Hubble type; and b) the role that plays the galaxy stellar mass and stellar mass surface density in governing the star formation history and metallicity enrichment of spheroids and the disks of galaxies. We apply the fossil record method based on spectral synthesis techniques to recover spatially and temporally resolved maps of stellar population properties of spheroids and spirals with galaxy mass from 109 to 7×1011 M⊙. The individual radial profiles of the stellar mass surface density (μ⋆), stellar extinction (AV), luminosity weighted ages (〈logage〉L), and mass weighted metallicity (〈log Z/Z⊙〉M) are stacked in seven bins of galaxy morphology (E, S0, Sa, Sb, Sbc, Sc and Sd). All these properties show negative gradients as a sight of the inside-out growth of massive galaxies. However, the gradients depend on the Hubble type in different ways. For the same galaxy mass, E and S0 galaxies show the largest inner gradients in μ⋆; and Andromeda-like galaxies (Sb with log M⋆ (M⊙) ∼ 11) show the largest inner age and metallicity gradients. In average, spiral galaxies have a stellar metallicity gradient ∼ −0.1 dex per half-light radius, in agreement with the value estimated for the ionized gas oxygen abundance gradient by CALIFA. A global (M⋆-driven) and local (μ⋆-driven) stellar metallicity relation are derived. We find that in disks, the stellar mass surface density regulates the stellar metallicity; in spheroids, the galaxy stellar mass dominates the physics of star formation and chemical enrichment.
Methods to recover the fossil record of galaxy evolution encoded in their optical spectra have been instrumental in processing the avalanche of data from mega-surveys along the last decade, effectively transforming observed spectra onto a long and rich list of physical properties: from stellar masses and mean ages to full star formation histories. This promoted progress in our understanding of galaxies as a whole. Yet, the lack of spatial resolution introduces undesirable aperture effects, and hampers advances on the internal physics of galaxies. This is now changing with 3D surveys. The mapping of stellar populations in data-cubes allows us to figure what comes from where, unscrambling information previously available only in integrated form. This contribution uses our starlight-based analysis of 300 CALIFA galaxies to illustrate the power of spectral synthesis applied to data-cubes. The selected results highlighted here include: (a) The evolution of the mass-metallicity and mass-density-metallicity relations, as traced by the mean stellar metallicity. (b) A comparison of star formation rates obtained from Hα to those derived from full spectral fits. (c) The relation between star formation rate and dust optical depth within galaxies, which turns out to mimic the Schmidt-Kennicutt law. (d) PCA tomography experiments.
The NIXNOX project, sponsored by the Spanish Astronomical Society, is a Pro-Am collaboration with the aim of finding sites with dark skies. All sky data of the night sky brightness is being obtained by amateur astronomers with Sky Quality Meter (SQM) photometers. We are not looking for remote locations because the places should be easily accessible by people with children. Our goal is to motivate citizens to observe the night sky. NIXNOX will provide information to answer the question: where can I go to observe the stars with my family?
CALIFA (Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area) is a 3D spectroscopic survey of 600 nearby galaxies that we are obtaining with PPaK@3.5m at Calar Alto (Sánchez et al. 2012; Husemann et al. 2012). This pioneer survey is providing valuable clues on how the mass and metallicity grow in the different galactic spatial sub-components (“bulge” and “disk”). Processed through spectral synthesis techniques, CALIFA datacubes allow us to, for the first time, spatially resolve the star formation history of galaxies (Cid Fernandes et al. 2012). The richness of this approach is already evident from the results obtained for the first ~ 100 galaxies of the sample (Pérez et al. 2012). We have found that galaxies grow inside-out, and that the growth rate depends on a galaxy's mass. Here, we present the radial variations of physical properties sorting galaxies by their morphological type (Figure 1). We have found a good correlation between the stellar mass surface density, stellar ages and metallicities and the Hubble type, but being the the early type spirals (Sa-Sbc) the galaxies with strong negative age and metallicity gradient from the bulge to the disk.
Kaolin is an important material that is used in industrial applications, including ceramics, paper, paints, fiberglass, inks, pharmaceuticals, and cement. The presence of impurities, particularly iron and titanium bearing materials, imparts color to kaolin. During weathering or hydrothermal alteration, significant levels of iron oxides can be deposited that leave a concentrated kaolinitic clay unusable for industrial application. Therefore, several chemical methods have been applied to kaolin beneficiation in order to reduce these contaminants. Ferric oxide dissolution is of particular interest for producers of industrial minerals such as kaolin. The objective of this work was to examine the kinetics of iron dissolution form low grade kaolin using oxalic acid solutions. The effects of acid concentration and reaction temperature were studied. It was determined that the iron dissolution rate increases with oxalic acid concentration, temperature. Leaching data showed that iron dissolution from low grade kaolin is due to diffusion through the product layer. The activation energy of the process was 46.32 kJ/mol.
In recent years, consumer attitudes toward fat of animal origin have changed owing to findings that some milk fatty acids (FAs) are positive for human health, especially conjugated linolenic acid and n-3 FAs. Accordingly, the manipulation of the fat content and FA composition of cows’ milk via nutritional strategies has been an important target for the dairy industry in many countries. Twenty commercial Holstein–Friesian dairy herds of Asturias (northern Spain) with 1106 dairy cows were examined in order to evaluate milk FA profiles under different management systems. These herds were divided into three groups according to management: (1) indoor herds: cows feeding indoors, (2) mixed herds: indoor management system but with at least 6 h of grazing outdoors and (3) outdoor herds: cows allowed 6–18 h of grazing per day. Milk from the indoor herds exhibited the highest concentration of fat (3.57%; P⩽0.01), protein (3.14%; P⩽0.001), lactose (4.76%; P⩽0.01) and urea (29.4 mg dl−1; P⩽0.01). The milk of outdoor herds had a lower (P⩽0.05) content of short-chain FAs than that of the indoor and mixed herds (10.89 versus 11.52 and 11.35 g 100 g−1 FA). The milk of the indoor herds had higher concentrations of saturated fatty acids (SFA) (67.56 g 100 g−1 FA; P⩽0.001) and palmitic and palmitoleic acids (30.16 and 1.82 g 100 g−1 FA, respectively), while that of the mixed and outdoors herds had higher concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) (34.58 g 100 g−1 FA; P⩽0.001) and long-chain FAs, especially stearic (13.89 g 100 g−1 FA; P⩽0.01), vaccenic (2.77 g 100 g−1 FA; P⩽0.001), conjugated linoleic (0.92 g 100 g−1 FA; P⩽0.001) and linolenic (0.42 g 100 g−1 FA; P⩽0.001) acids. Results from this study suggest that the incorporation of forage and pasture in the diet of dairy cows can improve the FA profile of milk.
Hypertension is a key feature of the metabolic syndrome. Lifestyle and dietary changes may affect blood pressure (BP), but the knowledge of the effects of dietary fat modification in subjects with the metabolic syndrome is limited. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of an isoenergetic change in the quantity and quality of dietary fat on BP in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. In a 12-week European multi-centre, parallel, randomised controlled dietary intervention trial (LIPGENE), 486 subjects were assigned to one of the four diets distinct in fat quantity and quality: two high-fat diets rich in saturated fat or monounsaturated fat and two low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diets with or without 1·2 g/d of very long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation. There were no overall differences in systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP or pulse pressure (PP) between the dietary groups after the intervention. The high-fat diet rich in saturated fat had minor unfavourable effects on SBP and PP in males.
The Very Large Telescope (VLT) Observatory on Cerro Paranal (2635
m) in Northern Chile is approaching completion. After the four 8-m
Unit Telescopes (UT) individually saw first light in the last years,
two of them were combined for the first time on October 30, 2001 to
form a stellar interferometer, the VLT Interferometer. The remaining
two UTs will be integrated into the interferometric array later this
year, so that any two UTs can be used for interferometry. In this
article, we will describe the subsystems of the VLTI and the planning
for the following years.
Ion exchange experiments have been performed with the FEBEX bentonite. Five grams of dry powder of this clay were put inside dialysis bags, which were located inside PFA reactors filled with 125 ml of water of a given chemical composition (Moody, Grimsel, and bentonitic-granitic type waters). The reactors containing the clay powder/water mixture were heated to different temperatures (from room temperature up to 80°C) along a time span ranging from 1 day to 1 year. Water was renewed according to a prescribed schedule but not the clay, which remained in place for the whole extent of each test. After each water renewal, major cations, silica, total inorganic carbon, and pH were analyzed. At the end of each test, the exchange complex and CEC of the bentonite were measured. These experiments have been modeled with a conveniently modified version of the EQ3/6 software package where ion exchange reactions were formulated as half reactions and added to its database. In general, model results are in fairly good agreement with experimental data, especially in the case of dissolved cations. Computed values of exchanged concentrations also match the measurements, although in some cases they deviate from them. The fact that the numerical results reproduce the observed patterns of exchange tests indicates that the adopted geochemical conceptual model is appropriate. Some features of the geochemical evolution of these tests also take place at the “mock-up” and “in situ” FEBEX tests.
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