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The error box of the unusual Gamma-Ray Burst of March 5, 1979 falls completely inside the optical and radio image of the Supernova Remnant N49 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. This region was observed twice in x-rays with the High Resolution Imager of the Einstein Observatory, six weeks and nearly two years after the Gamma-Ray Burst. We show the comparison between the two observations.
Temperatures and iron abundances in two distinct regions of the Perseus Cluster, based on X-ray observations made with SPARTAN 1, are reported. Iron abundance values relative to solar are and , and the temperatures are and for the regions 0′ to 5′ and 6′ to 20′ from the cluster center, respectively. The uncertainties are 90% confidence.
In the mid-sixties the Universe was thought to be quite bland, so the first instruments that detected gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) were intended for a very different application. Through fortuitous similarity with the techniques needed to detect nuclear explosions, the Vela satellites had the ability to recognize that a GRB is occurring, provide enhanced telemetry for the burst, and locate it (Chapter 1; Klebesadel et al. 1973). These characteristics have been necessary for virtually all subsequent GRB instrumentation. Instrumentation for all other high-energy astrophysics applications know what direction to look and when. The randomness of GRBs in space and time requires specialized adaptations of the standard gamma-ray detectors used on the ground (scintillators, proportional counters, solid state detectors, charge-coupled devices (CCDs)). In the following sections, we will discuss the principles and strategies used in GRB instrumentation in four areas that dominate a design: spectral techniques, temporal techniques, determining a direction to the burst, and networks of multiple-wavelength sensors.
The early workhorses of GRB instrumentation were gamma-ray scintillators such as NaI and CsI used in, for example, the Konus experiments (Mazets et al. 1981), the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO; Klebesadel et al. 1980), the International Sun–Earth Explorer (ISEE-3; Anderson et al. 1978), the French-Soviet Venera satellites (Barat et al. 1981) and the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM; Forest et al. 1980). Hurley (1984) has a detailed review of the early instrumentation. Gamma rays interact within a crystal, producing an optical signal that is processed by a photomultiplier.
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