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Based on biophysical ice-core data collected in the landfast ice off Barrow, Alaska, USA, in 2002 and 2003, a one-dimensional ice–ocean ecosystem model was developed to determine the factors controlling the bottom-ice algal community. The data and model results revealed a three-stage ice-algal bloom: (1) onset and early slow growth stage before mid-March, when growth is limited by light; (2) fast growth stage with increased light and sufficient nutrients; and (3) decline stage after late May as ice algae are flushed out of the ice bottom. Stages 2 and 3 are either separated by a transition period as in 2002 or directly connected by ice melting as in 2003, when in situ light and nutrient enrichment experiments showed only light limitations. The modeled net primary production of ice algae (NPPAi) from March to June is 1.2 and 1.7 g Cm–2 for 2002 and 2003, respectively, within the range of previous observations. Model sensitivity studies found that overall NPPAi increased almost proportionally to the initial nutrient concentrations in the water column. A phytoplankton bloom (if it occurs as in 2002) would compete with ice algae for nutrients and lead to reduced NPPAi. About 45% of the NPPAi was exported to the shallow benthos.
Extended defect formation is studied in ion implanted GaAs. A number of different species including Si+, Al+, Mg+, Ge+, As+, and Sn* have been investigated. Cross-sectional TEM studies have been done comparing the as-implanted structure (amorphous or crystalline) with the final defect location and morphology. The defects are identified by the same classification scheme used for implanted and annealed silicon. It is found that the threshold dose for type I defect formation is very sensitive to the implant energy for heavier ion masses. Type II, III and IV defects are unstable at annealing temperatures below 900°C. Type V defects are of a loop morphology for Si* and Ge* implants. The source of the interstitials may be a kickout process as the implanted species moves onto substitutional sites. Type V defects for Sn implants appear as precipitates which at the annealing temperature appear to be migrating in the liquid phase. Upon cooling the Sn precipitates, in many cases, solidify as grey (α) Sn.
Undoped AlAs/AlxGa1−xAs superlattice structures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy and annealed under Si3N4, SiO2 or WNX encapsulant films, both with and without the presence of implanted Sn. Enhancement of the Al-Ga interdiffusion coefficient occurred under the Si3N4 film due to in-diffusion of Si. Enhancement was even greater during diffusion of the Sn implant under both Si3N4 and SiO2. Underneath the WNX film, however, interdiffusion was suppressed even in the presence of Sn. We simulated these results with SUPREM IV and show that both the Fermi level effect and vacancy injection from the cap are necessary to cause significant enhancement of Al-Ga superlattice disordering.
Vapor phase cleaning of silicon wafers is reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on oxide etching and removal, including the mechanisms involved in vapor HF etching of silicon oxides. Other items discussed include native oxide formation, impurity removal, and device applications. Future directions involving other chemistries and integrated processing are summarized.
Sputtered A1N films developed for piezoelectric resonators are extremely chemically reactive. As-sputtered films react with boiling water resulting in a complete loss of the AIN bond structure. Experiments to determine the effect on chemical stability of annealing the sputtered films at 1000 °C, indicate annealing in an oxidizing gas leads to partial oxidation of AlN. Annealing in an inert gas prevents oxidation but does not protect the films from attack by boiling water. Annealing in a reducing gas followed by annealing in an inert gas renders A1N films stable in boiling water. A1N film structure and composition have been studied via Refractive Index, XRD, SIMS, SEM, AES, XPS and FTIR evaluations.
Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) is emerging as a practical high Tc superconducting thin film preparation technique for industrial application. Intrinsically this technique involves a large number of variable parameters. This is especially critical for the quarternary or higher high Tc materials. Thus, effective methods are required to optimize the parameters for the preparation of high Tc films. A matrix experimental design named Robust Design has been employed for this purpose. The first-phase design was based on a starting knowledge of growth temperature and pressure, and annealing temperature for MOCVD preparation of YBCO thin films. A minimum lab effort of only nine deposition experiments was then used to optimize the process control parameters of precursor oven temperature, carrier gas (Ar) flow rate, O2 flow rate and N2O flow rate. The results were then followed by three confirmation depositions. The Robust Design resulted in the growth of YBCO film with Tc consistently in the range of 87.0 K to 90.2 K and Jc improved from about 1.0 × 106 A/cm2 to 3–5 × 106 A/cm2.
Thermal hillocks in sputter-deposited Al films have been studied as a part of a broad study of stress-induced diffusional processes in Al. Trace amounts of the impurities Ti, W, and O were incorporated into the films during deposition, causing them to be much stronger than most sputter deposited Al films. Stress measurement during thermal cycling, using the wafer curvature method, showed that these Al films are very strong; this finding was corroborated by hardness measurements. Microstructural studies using TEM and FIB showed that the hillocks start to form at the Al/SiO2 interface and grow under the original Al film, with its columnar grain structure. In some cases, the film fails as hillocks grow completely through the original film. The Al film on top of the hillocks appears to inhibit hillock growth by creating a back pressure associated with power law creep of the film. We modeled this form of hillock formation by modifying the boundary conditions in Chaudhari's hillock model . Our model describes hillock formation by diffusion of Al atoms from the surrounding area into isolated hillocks, assuming that the original Al film on top of hillocks deforms following power law creep. Our model can be applied to many different situations by using different creep laws for the top Al film.
Metal-induced crystallization (MIC) of amorphous Si is gaining increased interest because of its potential use for low-temperature fabrication of integrated circuits. In this work, the MIC technique was used to make Si nanocrystals and the effects of stress on the crystallization were studied. Amorphous Si films were deposited onto the Si substrate with thermal oxides on top by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) and then patterned into nanoscale pillars by electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching. A conformal low-temperature oxide (LTO) layer was deposited to cover the pillars, followed by an anisotropic etch back to form a spacer, leaving only the top surface of the pillars exposed to the 5 nm Ni sputtering deposition afterwards. An HF dip was used to partially remove the LTO spacers on the pillars, leading to different LTO thicknesses on different samples. These samples were then annealed to crystallize the amorphous Si pillars, forming Si nanocrystals. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations after anneal found a clear dependence of the crystallization rate on the pillar size as well as the LTO thickness. The crystallization rate was lower for pillars with thicker LTO spacers, while for the same LTO thickness the crystallization rate was lower for pillars with narrower width. A model based on the stress in the pillars is proposed to explain this dependence. This model suggests some methods to control the nickel-induced crystallization process and achieve higher quality Si nanocrystals.
With the increasing demand for one-lung ventilation in both thoracic surgery and other procedures, identifying the correct placement becomes increasingly important. Currently, endobronchial intubation is suspected based on a combination of auscultation and physiological findings. We investigated the ability of the visual display of airflow-induced vibrations to detect single-lung ventilation with a double-lumen endotracheal tube.
Double-lumen tubes were placed prior to surgery. Tracheal and endobronchial lumens were alternately clamped to produce unilateral lung ventilation of right and left lung. Vibration response imaging, which detects vibrations transmitted to the surface of the thorax, was performed during both right- and left-lung ventilation. Geographical area of vibration response image as well as amount and distribution of lung sounds were assessed.
During single-lung ventilation, the image and video obtained from the vibration response imaging identifies the ventilated lung with a larger and darker image on the ventilated side. During single-lung ventilation, 87.2 ± 5.7% of the measured vibrations was detected over the ventilated lung and 12.8 ± 5.7% over the non-ventilated lung (P < 0.0001). It was also noted that during single-lung ventilation, the vibration distribution in the non-ventilated lung had a majority of vibration detected by the medial sensors closest to the midline (P < 0.05) as opposed to the midclavicular sensors when the lung is ventilated.
During single-lung ventilation, vibration response imaging clearly showed increased vibration in the lung that is being ventilated. Distribution of residual vibration differed in the non-ventilated lung in a manner that suggests transmission of vibrations across the mediastinum from the ventilated lung. The lung image and video obtained from vibration response imaging may provide useful and immediate information to help one-lung ventilation assessment.