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A laboratory-based X-ray microprobe, composed of a high-brilliance microfocus X-ray tube, coupled with a small glass capillary, has been developed for materials applications. Because of total external reflectance of X rays from the smooth inside bore of the glass capillary, the microprobe has a high sensitivity as well as a high spatial resolution. The use of X rays to excite elemental fluorescence offers the advantages of good peak-to-background, the ability to operate in air, and minimal specimen preparation. In addition, the development of laboratory-based instrumentation has been of Interest recently because of greater accessibility when compared with synchrotron X-ray microprobes.
Nonlawyer advocates are one proposed solution to the access to justice crisis. Theory and research suggest that nonlawyers might be effective, yet scholars know very little, empirically, about nonlawyer practice in the United States. Using data from more than 5,000 unemployment insurance appeal hearings and interviews with lawyers and nonlawyers who represent employers in these hearings, this article explores how both types of representatives develop expertise and what this means for effectiveness. We find judges play a critical role in shaping nonlawyer legal expertise and nonlawyers develop expertise almost exclusively through “trial and error.” We find evidence that while experienced nonlawyers can help parties through their expertise with common court procedures and basic substantive legal concepts, they are not equipped to challenge judges on contested issues of substantive or procedural law in individual cases, advance novel legal claims, or advocate for law reform on a broader scale. These findings have implications for future access to justice research and interventions.
We are mapping 29 rotational transitions of 21 chemical and isotopic molecular species in the central Orion molecular ridge with Nyquist sampling using the new 15-element focal plane array receiver QUARRY on the FCRAO 14 m telescope. Our goal is to obtain complete, unbiased data sets for a study of the interrelated physics and chemistry in GMC cores.
We present results from a multiwavelength study of the blazar PKS 1954–388 at radio, UV, X-ray, and gamma-ray energies. A RadioAstron observation at 1.66 GHz in June 2012 resulted in the detection of interferometric fringes on baselines of 6.2 Earth-diameters. This suggests a source frame brightness temperature of greater than 2 × 1012 K, well in excess of both equipartition and inverse Compton limits and implying the existence of Doppler boosting in the core. An 8.4-GHz TANAMI VLBI image, made less than a month after the RadioAstron observations, is consistent with a previously reported superluminal motion for a jet component. Flux density monitoring with the Australia Telescope Compact Array confirms previous evidence for long-term variability that increases with observing frequency. A search for more rapid variability revealed no evidence for significant day-scale flux density variation. The ATCA light-curve reveals a strong radio flare beginning in late 2013, which peaks higher, and earlier, at higher frequencies. Comparison with the Fermi gamma-ray light-curve indicates this followed ~ 9 months after the start of a prolonged gamma-ray high-state—a radio lag comparable to that seen in other blazars. The multiwavelength data are combined to derive a Spectral Energy Distribution, which is fitted by a one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton (SSC) model with the addition of external Compton (EC) emission.
As endemic measles is eliminated through immunization, countries must determine the risk factors for the importation of measles into highly immunized populations to target control measures. Despite eliminating endemic measles, New Zealand suffers from outbreaks after introductions from abroad, enabling us to use it as a model for measles introduction risk. We used a generalized linear model to analyze risk factors for 1137 measles cases from 2007 to June 2014, provide estimates of national immunity levels, and model measles importation risk. People of European ethnicity made up the majority of measles cases. Age is a positive risk factor, particularly 0–2-year-olds and 5–17-year-old Europeans, along with increased wealth. Pacific islanders were also at greater risk, but due to 0–2-year-old cases. Despite recent high measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine immunization coverage, overall population immunity against measles remains ~90% and is lower in people born between 1982 and 2005. Greatest measles importation risk is during December, and countries predicted to be sources have historical connections and highest travel rates (Australia and UK), followed by Asian countries with high travel rates and higher measles incidences. Our results suggest measles importation due to travel is seeding measles outbreaks, and immunization levels are insufficient to continue to prevent outbreaks because of heterogeneous immunity in the population, leaving particular age groups at risk.
Life has been described as information flowing in molecular streams (Dawkins, 1996).Our growing understanding of the impact of horizontal gene transfer on evolutionary dynamics reinforces this fluid-like flow of molecular information (Joyce, 2002). The diversity of nucleic acid sequences, those known and yet to be characterized across Earth's varied environments, along with the vast repertoire of catalytic and structural proteins, presents as more of a dynamic molecular river than a tree of life. These informational biopolymers function as a mutualistic union so universal as to have been termed the Central Dogma (Crick, 1958). It is the distinct folding dynamics-the digital-like base pairing dominating nucleic acids, and the environmentally responsive and diverse range of analog-like interactions dictating protein folding (Goodwin et al., 2012)-that provides the basis for the mutualism. The intertwined functioning of these analog and digital forms of information (Goodwin et al., 2012) unified within diverse chemical networks is heralded as the Darwinian threshold of cellular life (Woese, 2002).
The discovery of prion diseases (Chien et al., 2004; Jablonka and Raz, 2009; Paravastu et al., 2008) introduced the paradigm of protein templates that propagate conformational information, suggesting a new context for Darwinian evolution. When taking both protein and nucleic acid moelcular evolution into consideration (Cairns- Smith, 1966; Joyce, 2002), the conceptual framework for chemical evolution can be generalized into three orthogonal dimensions as shown in Figure 5.1 (Goodwin et al., 2014). The 1st dimension manifests structural order through covalent polymerization reactions and includes chain length, sequence, and linkage chemistry inherent to a dynamic chemical network. The 2nd dimension extends the order in dynamic conformational networks through noncovalent interactions of the polymers. This dimension includes intramolecular and intermolecular forces, from macromolecular folding to supramolecular assembly to multicomponent quaternary structure. Folding in this 2nd dimension certainly depends on the primary polymer sequence, and the folding/assembly diversity yields an additional set of environmentally constrained supramolecular folding codes. For example, double-stranded DNA assemblies are dominated by the rules of complementary base pairing, while the self-propagating conformations of prions are based on additional noncovalent, environmentally-dependent interactions.
How do political actors learn about their environment when the “data” provided by political processes are characterized by rare events and highly discontinuous variation? In such learning environments, what can theory predict about how learning actors will take costly actions that are difficult to reverse (e.g., eliminating programs, approving a risky new product, revising a security policy, firing or recalling an appointed or elected official)? We develop a formal model for this problem and apply it to the termination of bureaucratic agencies. The conventional wisdom that “the older a bureau is, the less likely it is to die” (Downs 1967, Inside Bureaucracy) persists but has never been properly tested. This paper offers a learning-based stochastic optimization model of agency termination that offers two counterintuitive predictions. First, politicians terminate agencies only after learning about them, so the hazard of agencies should be nonmonotonic, contradicting Downs's prediction. Second, if terminating agencies is costly, agencies are least likely to be terminated when politicians are fiscally constrained or when the deficit is high. We assess the model by developing a battery of tests for the shape of the hazard function and estimate these and other duration models using data on U.S. federal government agencies created between 1946 and 1997. Results show that the hazard rate of agency termination is strongly nonmonotonic and that agencies are less likely to be terminated under high deficits and divided government. For the first 50 years of the agency duration distribution, the modal termination hazard occurs at five years after agencies are enabled. Methodologically, our approach ties the functional form of a hazard model tightly to theory and presents an applied “agenda” for testing the shape of an empirical hazard function. With extensions, our model and empirical framework are applicable to a range of political phenomena.
Mainstream psychiatry emphasises controlling symptoms by taking medications. This approach ignores the role of context in shaping illness experiences and how people engage with mental health professionals. The focus on symptom control and medication management also narrows the function of the psychiatrist. This editorial argues that knowledge of patients’ lives is important for providing empathic care that is oriented to the outcomes that matter to patients. In addition, care that attends to the person-in-context motivates and sustains mental health providers by putting meaning back into medicine. Truly patient-centred care demands pushing back against the reductionism of contemporary psychiatry to thoughtfully engage with the complexities of patients’ lives.
To explore the feasibility of a workplace farmstand programme through the utilization of an online ordering system to build awareness for local food systems, encourage community participation, and increase local fruit and vegetable availability.
A 4-week pilot to explore feasibility of workplace farmstand programmes through a variety of outcome measures, including survey, mode of sale, weekly sales totals and intercept interviews.
A large private company in Sarpy County, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.
Employees of the company hosting the farmstand programme.
Pre-programme, a majority of employees indicated that quality (95·4 %), variety (94·6 %) and cost of fruits and vegetables (86·4 %) were driving factors in their fruit and vegetable selection when shopping. The availability of locally or regionally produced fruits and vegetables was highly important (78·1 %). Participants varied in their definition of local food, with nearly half (49·2 %) reporting within 80·5 km (50 miles), followed by 160·9 km (100 miles; 29·5 %) and 321·9 km (200 miles; 12·1 %). Weekly farmstand purchases (both walk-ups and online orders) ranged from twenty-eight to thirty-nine employees, with weekly sales ranging from $US 257·95 to 436·90 for the producer. The mode of purchase changed throughout the pilot, with higher use of online ordering in the beginning and higher use of walk-up purchasing at the end.
The workplace farmstand pilot study revealed initial interest by both employees and a producer in this type of programme, helped to establish a sustained producer–employer relationship and led to additional opportunities for both the producer and employer.
The focus of this book is on the Italic people of Apulia during the fourth century BC, when Italic culture seems to have reached its peak of affluence. Scholars have largely ignored these people and the region they inhabited. During the past several decades archaeologists have made significant progress in revealing the cultures of Apulia through excavations of habitation sites and un-plundered tombs, often published in Italian journals. This book makes the broad range of recent scholarship - from new excavations and contexts to archaeometric testing of production hypotheses to archaeological evidence for reconsidering painter attributions - available to English-speaking audiences. In it thirteen scholars from Italy, the United States, Great Britain, France, and Australia present targeted essays on aspects of the cultures of the Italic people of Apulia during the fourth century BC and the surrounding decades.