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Although the science of team science is no longer a new field, the measurement of team science and its standardization remain in relatively early stages of development. To describe the current state of team science assessment, we conducted an integrative review of measures of research collaboration quality and outcomes.
Collaboration measures were identified using both a literature review based on specific keywords and an environmental scan. Raters abstracted details about the measures using a standard tool. Measures related to collaborations with clinical care, education, and program delivery were excluded from this review.
We identified 44 measures of research collaboration quality, which included 35 measures with reliability and some form of statistical validity reported. Most scales focused on group dynamics. We identified 89 measures of research collaboration outcomes; 16 had reliability and 15 had a validity statistic. Outcome measures often only included simple counts of products; publications rarely defined how counts were delimited, obtained, or assessed for reliability. Most measures were tested in only one venue.
Although models of collaboration have been developed, in general, strong, reliable, and valid measurements of such collaborations have not been conducted or accepted into practice. This limitation makes it difficult to compare the characteristics and impacts of research teams across studies or to identify the most important areas for intervention. To advance the science of team science, we provide recommendations regarding the development and psychometric testing of measures of collaboration quality and outcomes that can be replicated and broadly applied across studies.
Researchers have explored using the internet and social media to recruit participants to specific research projects. Less systematic work has been done to inform the engagement of large populations in virtual communities to advance clinical and translational science. We report on our first step to use social media to engage Minnesota residents by studying the willingness of participants to engage in a virtual (Facebook) community about the concepts of health and health-related research.
Data was collected at the 2018 Minnesota State Fair using a cross-sectional, 46-item survey with assessment including socio-demographics and willingness to engage in a Facebook group for health-related research. Quantitative analysis included univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses. Content analysis was used to generate themes from open-ended survey responses.
500 people completed the survey; after data cleaning 418 participant responses informed this report. A majority were younger than age 50 (73%), female (66%), and married/partnered (54%). Overall, 46% of participants agreed/strongly agreed they are willing to join the Facebook group. Multivariate logistic regression identified social media use over the past 6 months as the sole variable independently associated with willingness to join the Facebook group (once a day vs. never or rarely OR=1.82 (0.86, 3.88), several hours a day vs. never or rarely OR=2.17 (1.17, 4.02, overall p-value 0.048).
Facebook holds potential for reaching a broader community, democratizing access to and engagement with clinical and translational research. Social media infrastructure and content could be disseminated to other institutions with Clinical and Translational Science Awards.
Over 80% of CTSA programs have a community advisory board (CAB). Little is known about how research discussed with CABs aligns with community priorities (bidirectionality). This program evaluation assessed researcher presentations from 2014 to 2018 to the CABs linked to our CTSA at all three sites (Minnesota, Arizona, and Florida) for relevance to local community needs identified in 2013 and/or 2016. From content analysis, of 65 presentations total, 41 (63%) addressed ≥1 local health needs (47% Minnesota, 60% Florida, and 80% Arizona). Cross-cutting topics were cancer/cancer prevention (physical activity/obesity/nutrition) and mental health. Results could help to prioritize health outcomes of community-engaged research efforts.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Virtual communities are an untested method to enhance community engagement in biomedical research. Our CTSA Hubs collaborated to assess receptivity to engage in a statewide Facebook (FB) group. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Cross-sectional online survey administered via iPads at the MN State Fair in 2018 to adults aged 18+ years residing in MN assessed demographics, social media use, interest in participating in a FB group for biomedical research; and open-ended questions on health topics of interest, and what would keep people engaged in this group. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Respondents (N=487) were 21% racial minorities and 65% female sex. Most (87%, n=422) had created a personal FB profile. Of these, the proportion who agreed/strongly agreed was: 57% that the FB group sounded interesting, 45% were interested in being part of it, 41% were willing to share it with others, 62% that it would allow the community’s thoughts/ideas to be heard and 59% wanted to learn about opportunities to participate in research on health topics they care about. Using content analysis, the top 3 health topics people wanted to learn about were chronic disease and prevention, wellness, and mental health. Top ways to keep people engaged were providing personable, relevant health information; and interactive bi-directional discussions. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Findings will inform development of a FB group to engage diverse populations in biomedical research.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Over 80% of CTSA programs have a community advisory board (CAB), an effective strategy to increase community engagement (CE) in research. Little is known about how the research discussed with CABs aligns with community priorities (i.e., bi-directionality). This program evaluation assessed the health topics presented by researchers to the CABs linked to our CE Program at all three Mayo Clinic sites (MN, AZ, and FL) for relevance to local community needs. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Two coders classified Mayo researcher presentations to our CABs from 2014-2018 for relevance to needs identified in the local 2013 and/or 2016 County Health Needs Assessments and specific topic(s); with high levels of agreement (Kappa=0.90). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Overall, of the 65 presentations 41 (63%) addressed one or more local health needs (47% MN, 60% FL, 80% AZ). Cross-cutting health topics addressed at 2 sites were physical activity/obesity/nutrition and mental health. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Findings were shared with our CABs to obtain input on future directions. The FL and AZ CABs are systematic in seeking out or initiating research projects that address local health needs, an approach the MN site is interested in adopting. Ultimately, it is important to demonstrate improved health outcomes with CTSA-based CE research strategies. Understanding community health needs and depth of researchers in those areas may help to focus priorities for demonstrating such outcomes.
In order to control and optimize chicken quality products, it is necessary to improve the description of the responses to dietary amino acid (AA) concentration in terms of carcass composition and meat quality, especially during the finishing period. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Lysine (Lys, i.e. a limiting AA used as reference in AA nutrition) and AA other than Lys (AA effect). In total, 12 experimental diets were formulated with four levels of digestible Lys content (7, 8.5, 10 and 11.5 g/kg) combined with either a low (AA−), adequate control (AAc) and high (AA+) amount of other essential AA (EAA) expressed as a proportion of Lys. They were distributed to male Ross PM3 from 3 to 5 weeks of age. No significant AA×Lys interaction was found for growth performance or carcass composition. Body weight and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved by addition of Lys but were impaired in broilers receiving the AA− diets, whereas breast meat yield and abdominal fat were only affected by Lys. No additional benefit was found when the relative amount of other EAA was increased. There was a significant AA×Lys interaction on most of the meat quality traits, including ultimate pH, color and drip loss, with a significant effect of both AA and Lys. For example, AA− combined with reduced Lys level favored the production of meat with high ultimate pH (>6.0), dark color and low drip loss whereas more acid, light and exudative meat (<5.85) was produced with AA+ combined with a low Lys level. In conclusion, growth performance, carcass composition and meat quality are affected by the levels of dietary Lys and AA in finishing broilers. In addition, interactive responses to Lys and AA are found on meat quality traits, leading to great variations in breast pHu, color and drip loss according AA balance or imbalance.
Body condition score (BCS) is a subjective assessment of the proportion of body fat an animal possesses and is independent of frame size. There is a growing awareness of the importance of mature animal live-weight given its contribution to the overall costs of production of a sector. Because of the known relationship between BCS and live-weight, strategies to reduce live-weight could contribute to the favouring of animals with lesser body condition. The objective of the present study was to estimate the average difference in live-weight per incremental change in BCS, measured subjectively on a scale of 1 to 5. The data used consisted of 19 033 BCS and live-weight observations recorded on the same day from 7556 ewes on commercial and research flocks; the breeds represented included purebred Belclare (540 ewes), Charollais (1484 ewes), Suffolk (885 ewes), Texel (1695 ewes), Vendeen (140 ewes), as well as, crossbreds (2812 ewes). All associations were quantified using linear mixed models with the dependent variable of live-weight; ewe parity was included as a random effect. The independent variables were BCS, breed (n=6), stage of the inter-lambing interval (n=6; pregnancy, lambing, pre-weaning, at weaning, post-weaning and mating) and parity (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5+). In addition, two-way interactions were used to investigate whether the association between BCS and live-weight differed by parity, a period of the inter-lambing interval or breed. The association between BCS and live-weight differed by parity, by a period of the inter-lambing interval and by breed. Across all data, a one-unit difference in BCS was associated with 4.82 (SE=0.08) kg live-weight, but this differed by parity from 4.23 kg in parity 1 ewes to 5.82 kg in parity 5+ ewes. The correlation between BCS and live-weight across all data was 0.48 (0.47 when adjusted for nuisance factors in the statistical model), but this varied from 0.48 to 0.53 by parity, from 0.36 to 0.63 by stage of the inter-lambing interval and from 0.41 to 0.62 by breed. Results demonstrate that consideration should be taken of differences in BCS when comparing ewes on live-weight as differences in BCS contribute quite substantially to differences in live-weight; moreover, adjustments for differences in BCS should consider the population stratum, especially breed.
Understanding how critical sow live-weight and back-fat depth during gestation are in ensuring optimum sow productivity is important. The objective of this study was to quantify the association between sow parity, live-weight and back-fat depth during gestation with subsequent sow reproductive performance. Records of 1058 sows and 13 827 piglets from 10 trials on two research farms between the years 2005 and 2015 were analysed. Sows ranged from parity 1 to 6 with the number of sows per parity distributed as follows: 232, 277, 180, 131, 132 and 106, respectively. Variables that were analysed included total born (TB), born alive (BA), piglet birth weight (BtWT), pre-weaning mortality (PWM), piglet wean weight (WnWT), number of piglets weaned (Wn), wean to service interval (WSI), piglets born alive in subsequent farrowing and sow lactation feed intake. Calculated variables included the within-litter CV in birth weight (LtV), pre-weaning growth rate per litter (PWG), total litter gain (TLG), lactation efficiency and litter size reared after cross-fostering. Data were analysed using linear mixed models accounting for covariance among records. Third and fourth parity sows had more (P<0.05) TB, BA and heavier BtWT compared with gilts and parity 6 sow contemporaries. Parities 2 and 3 sows weaned more (P<0.05) piglets than older sows. These piglets had heavier (P<0.05) birth weights than those from gilt litters. LtV and PWM were greater (P<0.01) in litters born to parity 5 sows than those born to younger sows. Sow live-weight and back-fat depth at service, days 25 and 50 of gestation were not associated with TB, BA, BtWT, LtV, PWG, WnWT or lactation efficiency (P>0.05). Heavier sow live-weight throughout gestation was associated with an increase in PWM (P<0.01) and reduced Wn and lactation feed intake (P<0.05). Deeper back-fat in late gestation was associated with fewer (P<0.05) BA but heavier (P<0.05) BtWT, whereas deeper back-fat depth throughout gestation was associated with reduced (P<0.01) lactation feed intake. Sow back-fat depth was not associated with LtV, PWG, TLG, WSI or piglets born alive in subsequent farrowing (P>0.05). In conclusion, this study showed that sow parity, live-weight and back-fat depth can be used as indicators of reproductive performance. In addition, this study also provides validation for future development of a benchmarking tool to monitor and improve the productivity of modern sow herd.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Learning Objectives of this session: Identify possible reasons for misdiagnosis of bipolar patients of African ancestry by reviewing differences in symptom presentation between African American (AA) and European American (EA) bipolar individuals. Introduction: Bipolar disorder is a chronic mental illness with a prevalence rate up to 5.5% of the US population and is associated with substantial personal and economic morbidity/mortality. Misdiagnosis is common in bipolar disorder, which can impact treatment and outcome. Misdiagnosis disproportionally affects racial/ethnic minorities; in particular, AAs are often misdiagnosed with schizophrenia. There is interest in better understanding the contribution of differential illness presentation and/or racial bias to misdiagnosis. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Patients and Methods Utilizing the Genetic Association Information Network (GAIN) public database, this study compared clinical phenomenology between bipolar patients of African Versus European ancestry (AA=415 vs. EA=1001). The semi-structured Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS) was utilized to evaluate individual symptom endorsement contributing to diagnostic confirmation. A χ2 test was used to compare group differences in DIGS harvested mania and psychosis sections, and overview of psychiatric medications. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Results: The symptom of auditory hallucination was significantly more endorsed in AA bipolar patients than EA bipolar patients (57.9% AA vs. 36.1% EA, p≤0.0001). Conversely, the symptom of elevated or euphoric mood was significantly less endorsed in AA bipolar patients than in EA patients (94.6% AA vs. 97.5% EA, p=0.027). AA, in comparison to EA bipolar patients, had a significantly higher prevalence of lifetime exposure to haloperidol (36.9% AA vs. 29.4% EA, p=0.017) and fluphenazine (12.3% AA vs. 6.7% EA, p=0.004). In contrast, AA, in comparison to EA bipolar patients, had a significantly lower prevalence rate of lifetime exposure to lithium (52.5% AA vs. 74.2% EA, p<0.0001), and lamotrigine (13.7% AA vs. 35.6% EA, p<0.0001). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Conclusion: The higher rate of psychotic symptom endorsement and lower rate of core manic symptom endorsement represent differential illness presentation that may contribute to misdiagnosis in African-American bipolar patients. The higher rate of high potency typical antipsychotic treatment and lower rate of classic mood stabilizing treatment may also contribute poorer bipolar treatment outcome. While structured diagnostic interviews are the gold standard in diagnostic confirmation, this study is limited by lack of knowledge of clinician/expert interviewer interpretation of symptom endorsement which may contribute to symptom misattribution and misdiagnosis. Incorporation of additional African American participants in research is a critical future direction to further delineate symptom presentation and diagnosis to serve as validation for these results.