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Restriction of food intake is a central feature of anorexia nervosa (AN) and other eating disorders, yet also occurs in the absence of psychopathology. The neural mechanisms of restrictive eating in health and disease are unclear.
This study examined behavioral and neural mechanisms associated with restrictive eating among individuals with and without eating disorders. Dietary restriction was examined in four groups of women (n = 110): healthy controls, dieting healthy controls, patients with subthreshold (non-low weight) AN, and patients with AN. A Food Choice Task was administered during fMRI scanning to examine neural activation associated with food choices, and a laboratory meal was conducted.
Behavioral findings distinguished between healthy and ill participants. Healthy individuals, both dieting and non-dieting, chose significantly more high-fat foods than patients with AN or subthreshold AN. Among healthy individuals, choice was primarily influenced by tastiness, whereas, among both patient groups, healthiness played a larger role. Dorsal striatal activation associated with choice was most pronounced among individuals with AN and was significantly associated with selecting fewer high-fat choices in the task and lower caloric intake in the meal the following day.
A continuous spectrum of behavior was suggested by the increasing amount of weight loss across groups. Yet, data from this Food Choice Task with fMRI suggest there is a behavioral distinction between illness and health, and that the neural mechanisms underlying food choice in AN are distinct. These behavioral and neural mechanisms of restrictive eating may be useful targets for treatment development.
The mainstay of management of epistaxis refractory to first aid and cautery is intranasal packing. This review aimed to identify evidence surrounding nasal pack use.
A systematic review of the literature was performed using standardised methodology.
Twenty-seven eligible articles were identified relating to non-dissolvable packs and nine to dissolvable packs. Nasal packing appears to be more effective when applied by trained professionals. For non-dissolvable packs, the re-bleed rates for Rapid Rhino and Merocel were similar, but were higher with bismuth iodoform paraffin paste packing. Rapid Rhino packs were the most tolerated non-dissolvable packs. Evidence indicates that 96 per cent of re-bleeding occurs within the first 4 hours after nasal pack removal. Limited evidence suggests that dissolvable packs are effective and well tolerated by patients. There was a lack of evidence relating to: the duration of pack use, the economic effects of pack choice and the appropriate care setting for non-dissolvable packs.
Rapid Rhino packs are the best tolerated, with efficacy equivalent to nasal tampons. FloSeal is easy to use, causes less discomfort and may be superior to Merocel in anterior epistaxis cases. There is no strong evidence to support prophylactic antibiotic use.
Gambling disorder is a relatively common psychiatric disorder recently re-classified within the DSM-5 under the category of ‘substance-related and addictive disorders'.
To compare white matter integrity in patients with gambling disorder with healthy controls; to explore relationships between white matter integrity and disease severity in gambling disorder.
In total, 16 participants with treatment-resistant gambling disorder and 15 healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). White matter integrity was analysed using tract-based spatial statistics.
Gambling disorder was associated with reduced fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum and superior longitudinal fasciculus. Fractional anisotropy in distributed white matter tracts elsewhere correlated positively with disease severity.
Reduced corpus callosum fractional anisotropy is suggestive of disorganised/damaged tracts in patients with gambling disorder, and this may represent a trait/vulnerability marker for the disorder. Future research should explore these measures in a larger sample, ideally incorporating a range of imaging markers (for example functional MRI) and enrolling unaffected first-degree relatives of patients.
Recent studies have shown that trusting attitudes and behavior are biologically influenced. Focusing on the classic trust game, it has been demonstrated that oxytocin increases trust and that humans are endowed with genetic variation that influences their behavior in the game. Moreover, several studies have shown that a large share of the variation in survey responses to trust items is accounted for by an additive genetic component. Against this backdrop, this article makes two important contributions. First, utilizing a unique sample of more than 2,000 complete Swedish twin pairs, we provide further evidence of the heritability of social trust. Our estimates of the additive genetic component in social trust were consistent across the sexes – .33 for males and .39 for females – and are similar to the results reported in earlier studies. Secondly, we show that social trust is phenotypically related to three psychological traits – extraversion, personal control, and intelligence – and that genetic factors account for most of these correlations. Jointly, these psychological factors share around 30% of the genetic influence on social trust both for males and females. Future studies should further explore the possible causal pathways between genes and trust using panel data on both psychological traits and social trust.
The influence of five monoamine candidate genes on depressive symptom trajectories in adolescence and young adulthood were examined in the Add Health genetic sample. Results indicated that, for all respondents, carriers of the dopamine receptor D4 5-repeat allele were characterized by distinct depressive symptom trajectories across adolescence and early adulthood. Similarly, for males, individuals with the monoamine oxidase A 3.5-repeat allele exhibited unique depressive symptom trajectories. Specifically, the trajectories of those with the dopamine receptor D4 5-repeat allele were characterized by rising levels in the transition to adulthood, while their peers were experiencing a normative drop in depressive symptom frequency. Conversely, males with the monoamine oxidase A 3.5-repeat allele were shown to experience increased distress in late adolescence. An empirical method for examining a wide array of allelic combinations was employed, and false discovery rate methods were used to control the risk of false positives due to multiple testing. Special attention was given to thoroughly interrogate the robustness of the putative genetic effects. These results demonstrate the value of combining dynamic developmental perspectives with statistical genetic methods to optimize the search for genetic influences on psychopathology across the life course.
The current status of the DRIFT (Directional Recoil Identification From Tracks)
experiment at Boulby Mine is presented, including the latest limits on the WIMP
spin-dependent cross-section from 1.5 kg days of running with a mixture of CS2
and CF4. Planned upgrades to DRIFT IId are detailed, along with ongoing work
towards DRIFT III, which aims to be the world’s first 10 m3-scale directional
Dark Matter detector.
This study assesses the relationship of social desirability response bias with self-reported physical, mental and cognitive health, successful ageing, and socio-demographic attributes among 1,860 older women at the University of California, San Diego's Clinical Center for the Women's Health Initiative and the Sam and Rose Stein Institute for Research on Aging. The women were aged between 57 and 91 years and lived in the San Diego community. Measures included a ten-item Marlowe–Crowne Social Desirability Scale, and self-report scales of physical, mental and cognitive health, successful ageing and wellbeing, as well as standard socio-demographic attributes. Bivariate correlation and multiple regression models indicated that social desirability scores negatively associated with self-reported levels of hostility, anxiety, perceived stress and self-reported cognitive failures, and that they predicted additional variance in multiple regression analyses above models containing socio-demographic predictors alone. On the other hand, even the strongest associations were what are generally considered ‘small effects’ (r<0.30). Overall, while the findings support the general validity of most of the self-report measures in studies of normal and successful ageing, consideration of social desirability response bias in the interpretation of self-reports of low levels of some key constructs (anxiety, hostility, stress, self-perceived cognitive deficits) is warranted.
Scholars in many fields have long noted the importance of social context in the development of political ideology. Recent work suggests that political ideology also has a heritable component, but no specific gene variant or combination of variants associated with political ideology have so far been identified. Here, we hypothesize that individuals with a genetic predisposition toward seeking out new experiences will tend to be more liberal, but only if they are embedded in a social context that provides them with multiple points of view. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we test this hypothesis by investigating an association between self-reported political ideology and the 7R variant of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4), which has previously been associated with novelty seeking. Among those with DRD4-7R, we find that the number of friendships a person has in adolescence is significantly associated with liberal political ideology. Among those without the gene variant, there is no association. This is the first study to elaborate a specific gene-environment interaction that contributes to ideological self-identification, and it highlights the importance of incorporating both nature and nurture into the study of political preferences.
EURECA (European Underground Rare Event Calorimeter Array) is an
astro-particle physics facility aiming to directly detect galactic dark
matter. The Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane has been selected as host
laboratory. The EURECA collaboration unites CRESST, EDELWEISS and the
Spanish-French experiment ROSEBUD, thus concentrating and focussing effort
on cryogenic detector research in Europe into a single facility. EURECA will
use a target mass of up to one ton, enough to explore WIMP – nucleon scalar
scattering cross sections in the region of 10-9 – 10-10 picobarn.
A major advantage of EURECA is the planned use of more than just one target
material (multi target experiment for WIMP identification).
To describe the pathophysiology of biofilm communities and their role in otorhinolaryngological disease, with reference to the published literature.
Review of relevant literature, using Medline and the combined search terms ‘biofilms’ and ‘otorhinolaryngology’, and also various related keywords such as ‘tonsil’ and ‘adenoid’.
Description of biofilm pathophysiology and of published reports of biofilms in otorhinolaryngological disease.
Virtually all microbes live in biofilm communities. Within these communities, the microbes assume differing specialised roles which confer survival advantages on the community. These communities cause chronic and device-associated infections. Within the specialist field of otorhinolaryngology, biofilms have been shown to play a role in many infections, including: chronic otitis media, cholesteatoma, chronic tonsillitis, chronic sinusitis, and infections of tracheostomies, endotracheal tubes and cochlear implants.
Orthodox, desiccation-tolerant seeds lose desiccation tolerance during germination. Here, we quantify the timing of the loss of desiccation tolerance, and explore the implications of this event for seed mortality and the shape of germination progress curves for pioneer tree species. For the nine species studied, all seeds in a seedlot lost desiccation tolerance after the same fixed proportion of their time to germination, and this proportion was fairly constant across the species (0.63–0.70). The loss of desiccation tolerance after a fixed proportion of the time to germination has the implication that the maximum number of seeds in a seedlot that can be killed by a single drying event during germination (Mmax) increases with an increasing time to 50% germination (t50) and an increasing slope of the germination progress curve. Consequently, to prevent the seed population from becoming highly vulnerable to desiccation-induced mortality, species with a greater t50 would be expected to have a shallower germination progress curve. In conclusion, these data suggest that the loss of desiccation tolerance during germination may constitute a significant, but previously unexplored, source of mortality for seeds in seasonal environments with unpredictable rainfall.
Robyn M. Dawes, Department of Social & Decision Sciences Carnegie Mellon University,
David Faust, Department of Psychology University Rhode Island,
Paul E. Meehl, Psychology Department University of Minnesota
A psychiatric patient displays ambiguous symptoms. Is this a condition best treated by psychotherapy alone or might it also require an antipsychotic medication with occasionally dangerous side effects? An elderly patient complains of memory loss but neurological examination and diagnostic studies are equivocal. The neuropsychologist is asked to administer tests to help rule out progressive brain disease. A medical work-up confirms a patient's worst fears: He has terminal cancer. He asks the doctor how long he has to put his life in order.
These three brief scenarios illustrate a few of the many situations in which experts are consulted to diagnose conditions or to predict human outcomes. Optimal planning and care often hinge on the consultant's judgmental accuracy. Whether as physicians, psychiatrists, or psychologists, consultants perform two basic functions in decision-making: they collect and interpret data. Our interest here is in the interpretive function, specifically the relative merits of clinical versus actuarial methods.
METHODS OF JUDGMENT AND MEANS OF COMPARISON
In the clinical method the decision-maker combines or processes information in his or her head. In the actuarial or statistical method the human judge is eliminated and conclusions rest solely on empirically established relations between data and the condition or event of interest. A life insurance agent uses the clinical method if data on risk factors are combined through personal judgment. The agent uses the actuarial method if data are entered into a formula, or tables and charts that contain empirical information relating these background data to life expectancy.
The improved cost-effectiveness of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRIg) as a diagnostic tool for vestibular schwannoma has resulted in smaller tumours being diagnosed. There has been a change in the clinical presentation of these tumours and up to four per cent may present with unilateral tinnitus. The limitation of auditory brain stem response (ABR) as a screening tool that detects small tumours is recognized and there is a strong argument for using MRIg as the initial investigation.
Various screening guidelines have been proposed, some include submitting patients with unilateral tinnitus for MRIg. This report describes the findings in a group of 174 patients presenting with unilateral tinnitus who underwent MRIg as part of a guideline-directed screen to exclude vestibular schwannoma. Five patients had a cause for their tinnitus diagnosed, one a vestibular schwannoma. Two had intracranial aneurysms and another three had pathology revealed that merited onward referral. A further nine patients had incidental findings that neither accounted for their symptoms nor needed further investigation or referral.
The rationale for screening these patients with MRIg is discussed.
The use of diathermy to achieve haemostasis after tonsillectomy remains controversial. We have reviewed the English language literature, and found no convincing evidence that diathermy is any more likely to cause post-operative haemorrhage than the use of ligatures. The results of a prospective, randomized study of 1036 consecutive tonsillectomies are presented. No significant difference was found in post-operative haemorrhage rates when either diathermy or ligatures were used. Diathermy was found to reduce operating time compared to ligatures. The possibilities for day-case tonsillectomy are discussed.