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The participation of informal caregivers in the café of patients with psychotic symptoms in coordination with self-help groups have been found to reduce the expressed emotion in combination with psychoeducations interventions help create a supportive environment.
This study investigates the differences in the family atmosphere of informal caregivers of patients with psychotic symptoms.
To compare whether or not the participation of informal caregivers of patients with psychotic symptoms in self-organized associations helps to foster a supportive family environment, hence reducing the risk of relapse.
Snowballing sampling consisting of 510 informal caregivers of patients with psychotic symptoms was used in the current study. The Family Environment Scale of Moos and Moos and socio-demographic questions were implemented to collect the data. Control Cronbach's Alpha reliability of scale gave value a = 0.795.
The comparison showed that informal caregivers of patients with psychotic symptoms irrespective of their participation or not in self-help associations do not show significant differences in Family Environment Scale. Significant statistical difference between the two groups (P < 0.05) only occurred in the subcategory “organization”, as the first group (m = 4.68, df = ± 2.233) were found to have lower values compared to the other group (m = 5.21, df = ± 2.233).
The study demonstrated that informal caregivers of patients with psychotic symptoms involved in self-help groups do not show to have a particular difference in the family atmosphere than families who do not participate in self-help associations.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
To investigate the association between parity and the risk of incident dementia in women.
We pooled baseline and follow-up data for community-dwelling women aged 60 or older from six population-based, prospective cohort studies from four European and two Asian countries. We investigated the association between parity and incident dementia using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age, educational level, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and cohort, with additional analysis by dementia subtype (Alzheimer dementia (AD) and non-Alzheimer dementia (NAD)).
Of 9756 women dementia-free at baseline, 7010 completed one or more follow-up assessments. The mean follow-up duration was 5.4 ± 3.1 years and dementia developed in 550 participants. The number of parities was associated with the risk of incident dementia (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02–1.13). Grand multiparity (five or more parities) increased the risk of dementia by 30% compared to 1–4 parities (HR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.02–1.67). The risk of NAD increased by 12% for every parity (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.02–1.23) and by 60% for grand multiparity (HR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.00–2.55), but the risk of AD was not significantly associated with parity.
Grand multiparity is a significant risk factor for dementia in women. This may have particularly important implications for women in low and middle-income countries where the fertility rate and prevalence of grand multiparity are high.
Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) have been operationalized as exhibiting a greater level of complexity than basic ADL. In the same way, incorporating more advanced ADLs may increase the sensitivity of functional measures to identify cognitive changes that may precede IADL impairment. Towards this direction, the IADL-extended scale (IADL-x) consists of four IADL tasks and five advanced ADLs (leisure time activities).
Retrospective, cross-sectional study.
Athens and Larissa, Greece.
1,864 community-dwelling men and women aged over 64.
We employed both the IADL-x and IADL scales to assess functional status among all the participants. Diagnoses were assigned dividing the population of our study into three groups: cognitively normal (CN), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia patients. Neuropsychological evaluation was stratified in five cognitive domains: memory, language, attention-speed, executive functioning and visuospatial perception. Z scores for each cognitive domain as well as a composite z score were constructed. Models were controlled for age, sex, education and depression.
In both IADL-x and IADL scales dementia patients reported the most functional difficulties and CN participants the fewest, with MCI placed in between. When we restricted the analyses to the CN population, lower IADL-x score was associated with worse cognitive performance. This association was not observed when using the original IADL scale.
There is strong evidence that the endorsement of more advanced IADLs in functional scales may be useful in detecting cognitive differences within the normal spectrum.
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