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To evaluate the awareness and knowledge about weight status and its management.
A 1 d cross-sectional survey. Basic anthropometric assessments (weight, height, BMI and waist circumference) and a self-administered questionnaire were considered.
Nineteen Clinical Nutrition or Endocrinology and Metabolic Disorders Units or Dietetics Services in the Italian region of Lombardy.
All adults attending the ‘Obesity Day’ initiative.
A total of 914 participants (605 female and 309 male) were recruited. Although most of the participants (83·5 %) considered obesity to be a disease, 38·5 % were likely to misperceive their weight status. In particular, 38·8 % of normal-weight adults believed themselves to be overweight, whereas 71·1 % and 37·5 % of classes I and II/III obese adults classified themselves as being overweight and mildly obese, respectively. However, most of the overweight (90·2 %), mildly (96·8 %) and moderately/severely obese adults (99·1 %) recognized the need to lose weight. In all, 37·8 % of the sample underestimated the role of physical activity in weight management. Interestingly, only 17·2 % of dieters (previous or current) declared being advised by their doctor to lose weight. Multivariate models revealed that higher age, low education and higher BMI were important determinants of poor weight control and management. In addition, previous dieting appeared not to provide better knowledge, whereas the role of physical activity was recognized mainly by those practising it.
The present study suggests that in Italy knowledge about weight management should be improved not only in the general population but also among health-care professionals. To confirm this finding, there is now the rationale for a nationally representative survey. New educational programmes can be designed on the basis of the information collected.
The application of different characterization techniques to the study of coal fly ash formation and of its behaviour in particulate control devices is discussed. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) are used for bulk elemental analyses, while X-Ray Photoelectron and Auger Spectroscopies are used for surface elemental analyses. Structural characterization is carried out by powder X-Ray Diffraction and Raman Microfocus Spectroscopy. The effect of different collection efficiencies of electrostatic precipitators on emitted fly ash characteristics is addressed. Furthermore size fractionated fly ash is analyzed to investigate the mechanisms of particle growth.
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