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The giant gypsum crystals of Naica cave have fascinated scientists since their discovery in 2000. Human activity has changed the microclimate inside the cave, making scientists wonder about the potential environmental impact on the crystals. Over the last 9 years, we have studied approximately 70 samples. This paper reports on the detailed chemical–structural characterization of the impurities present at the surface of these crystals and the experimental simulations of their potential deterioration patterns. Selected samples were studied by petrography, optical and electronic microscopy, and laboratory X-ray diffraction. 2D grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, X-ray μ-fluorescence, and X-ray μ-absorption near-edge structure were used to identify the impurities and their associated phases. These impurities were deposited during the latest stage of the gypsum crystal formation and have afterward evolved with the natural high humidity. The simulations of the behavior of the crystals in microclimatic chambers produced crystal dissolution by 1–4% weight fraction under high CO2 concentration and permanent fog, and gypsum phase dehydration under air and CO2 gaseous environment. Our work suggests that most surface impurities are of natural origin; the most significant anthropogenic damage on the crystals is the extraction of water from the caves.
Non-specific chronic low back pain is one of common causes of disability and a recurrent medical complaint with high costs. From rehabilitative medicine, physiotherapy programs and general postural recommendations are offered. Although this treatment is aimed to reduce disability, severity of pain and anxiety-depressive symptoms, many patients report partial improvements and recurrence of pain. Therefore, a new approach to treat this pathology with a broaden focus on psychososocial issues that might modulate pain and its evolution is required.
Aims and hypothesis
To assess the effectiveness of two complementary interventions to physiotherapy, such as relaxation techniques (specifically, sophrology) and cognitive behavioral intervention. It is hypothesized that intervention groups will significantly improve their adherence to physiotherapy and will gain control over their pain. Ultimately, this will foster better quality of life.
Longitudinal design with pre-post intervention measures and follow-up appointments (at 6 and 12 months) carried out in a sample of 66 participants. The sample will be divided into three groups: control (physiotherapy), intervention group 1 (physiotherapy & sophrology) and intervention group 2 (physiotherapy & cognitive behavioral intervention). In all groups biomedical aspects regarding type, evolution and characterization of pain as well as several psychosocial factors will be assessed.
Preliminary results are expected by December 2013.
If hypotheses are confirmed, we will be able to provide empirical evidences to justify a multidisciplinary care model for chronic low back pain, which will favor a significant cost reduction in terms of health care and human suffering.
Schizophrenia (SKZ) is a disease characterized by positive and negative symptoms, thoughts and behaviour disorganization with a progressive socio-cognitive impairment1; deficits in facial emotion recognition (FER) represent one of the most serious problems linked to interpersonal problems2. In addition, these patients have often comorbid condition of alcohol and substances abuse3.
to compare the ability of FER in patients with SKZ using alcohol and/or substances (SKZ+SUD) compared to schizophrenics without SUD (SUD-SKZ).
we enrolled 53 subjects (M=40, F=13) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of SKZ (SCID I). The sample was divided according to alcohol and/or substance abuse (AUS and DUS) into two groups, compared for socio-demographic and clinic characteristics (PANSS and Bell model4). We analyzed the association between abuse condition and Ekman test performance.
SKZ+SUD (n=20; M=16, F=4) and SKZ-SUD (n=33; M=24, F=9) show a statistically significant age difference with a mean (SD) of 38.4 years (10.5) and 46.0 years (8.7) respectively (p=0.006). SKZ+SUD Ekman test score (mean=43.1, SD=6.9) was statistically higher (p=0.006) than SKZ-SUD (mean=34.6, SD=12.0). The different performance was more evident in comparison with poly-abusers (44.94±7.05 vs 12.04±34.6; p=0.002). We further noticed the role of disorganization as a mediator of the relationship between abuse and FER score (p=0.017): the proportion of the effect of abuse on Ekman test score was 48%.
In subjects with SKZ, FER seems to be less impaired in abusers than non-abusers. We also showed an important role of thoughts and behavioral disorganization as a mediator between SKZ+SUD and FER.
Previous studies suggest a relationship between decreased serum cholesterollevels and impulsive/aggressive behaviors ; howeverwe found just one study in the literature based in eating disorder .
To investigate the potentialrelationship between lipid profile (cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides) andmeasures of impulsivity, aggression or suicidal behavior in a sample of nevertreated patient whit Eating disorder and healthy controls.
The first episode of eatingdisorders group consisted of 199 (age range 14-60) subjects included in DETECTAprogram of Cantabria, Spain, from 2011 to 2013. Other group of 199healthy controls were initially recruited from the community and matched by ageand gender. Socio-demographic information was collected for each subject. Clinicalcharacteristics were ascertained either from clinical charts or by directquestioning the study participants. Lifetime diagnosis of impulse control wasassessed with questionnaires developed ad hoc. Impulsivity was evaluated using self-administered questionnaires, EatingDisorder Inventory and Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory.
Differences found betweensubgroups did not differ from those shown in the literature, with higher levelsof impulsivity in the group of Bulimia. However in the partial correlation we did not find a relationship betweencholesterol levels and Impulsivity. We neither found this relationshipbetween suicide attempts, pathological gambling, compulsive buying disorder, self-harm or kleptomania.
Although the biological mechanism between plasma hypocholesterolemia andimpulsive behavior has not been fully elucidated this relationship has beenestablished in others pathologies , howeverin eating disorders so far, this theory has not been proved.
The start of Child and Adolescent attention to gender dysphoria is very recent. In our Unit, it has objectified a growing increase in such demand over recent years.
As a typical example would be a patient of 13 years following gender dysphoria begins to present school failure and behavior problems at home with emotional instability.
According to the recommendations of the Group Identity and Sexual Differentiation (GIDSEEN) after early detection is to guide parents towards a comprehensive treatment at a specialized interdisciplinary teams and a psychosocial approach to improve the quality of life, decrease mental comorbidity and gender dysphoria own. Having no such care in our community has been necessary to make a referral to another community to attend this demand.
Currently it is giving adequate attention to these cases, but except for referral to another community. However, as we are seeing progression care in our area in the future could be feasible. Therefore, we consider as a first step dysphoria quantify each case in our area.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Milk production intensification has led to several unwanted aspects, such as sustainability issues and environmental pollution. Among these, increased milk outputs that have been achieved over the last 70 years have led to several health and pathophysiological conditions in high yielding dairy animals, including metabolic diseases that were uncommon in the past. Increased occurrence of diverse metabolic diseases in cattle and other domestic animals is a key feature of domestication that not only affects the animals' health and productivity, but also may have important and adverse health impacts on human consumers through the elevated use of drugs and antibiotics. These aspects will influence economical and ethical aspects in the near future. Therefore, finding and establishing proper biomarkers for early detection of metabolic diseases is of great interest. In the present review, recent work on the discovery of fitness, stress and welfare biomarkers in dairy cows is presented, focusing in particular on possible biomarkers of energy balance and oxidative stress in plasma and milk, and biomarkers of production-related diseases and decreased fertility.
Increased animal productivity has reduced animal fitness, resulting in increased susceptibility to infectious and metabolic diseases, locomotion problems and subfertility. Future animal breeding strategies should focus on balancing high production levels with health status monitoring and improved welfare. Additionally, understanding how animals interact with their internal and external environment is essential for improving health, fitness, and welfare. In this context, the continuous validation of existing biomarkers and the discovery and field implementation of new biomarkers will enable us to understand the specific physiological process and regulatory mechanisms used by the organism to adapt to different environmental conditions. Thus, biomarkers may be used to monitor welfare and improve management and breeding strategies. In this article, we describe major achievements in the establishment of biomarkers in dairy cows and small ruminants. This review mainly focuses on the physiological biomarkers used to monitor animal responses to, and recovery from, environmental perturbations. We highlight future avenues for research in this field and present a timely positioning document to the scientific community.
Among children exposed to elevated maternal depression symptoms (MDS), recent studies have demonstrated reduced internalizing and externalizing problems for those who have attended formal childcare (i.e., center-based, family-based childcare). However, these studies did not consider whether childcare attendance is associated with benefits for the child only or also with reduced MDS. Using a four-wave longitudinal cross-lagged model, we evaluated whether formal childcare attendance was associated with MDS or child behavior problems and whether it moderated longitudinal associations between MDS and child behavior problems and between child behavior problems and MDS. The sample was drawn from a population-based cohort study and consisted of 908 biologically related mother–child dyads, followed from 5 months to 5 years. Attending formal childcare was not associated with MDS or child behavior problems but moderated the association between MDS at 3.5 years and child internalizing and externalizing problems at 5 years as well as between girls’ externalizing problems at 3.5 years and MDS at 5 years. No other moderation of formal childcare was found. Findings suggest that attending formal childcare reduces the risks of behavior problems in the context of MDS but also the risk of MDS in the context of girls’ externalizing problems.
Trichomonas vaginalis is an extracellular parasite that colonizes the human urogenital tract leading to trichomoniasis, the most common sexually-transmitted non-viral disease worldwide. The immune response plays a critical role in the host defense against this parasite. Trichomonas' DNA contains unmethylated CpG motifs (CpGDNA) that in other microorganisms act as modulators of the immune response. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for CpGDNA immune modulation are still unclear. As macrophages participate in the first line of defense against infection, we investigated the type of immune response of murine macrophages to T. vaginalis DNA (TvDNA). We observed high expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12p40 in macrophages stimulated with TvDNA. In contrast, the anti-inflammatory response, assessed by IL-10 and IL-13 mRNA expression was delayed. This suggests that the immune response induced by TvDNA is modulated through cytokine production, mediated partly by NADPH-oxidase activity, as TvDNA induced reactive species of oxygen production and a rounded morphology in macrophages indicative of an M1 phenotype. Furthermore, infected mice pretreated with TvDNA displayed persistent vulvar inflammation and decreased parasite viability consistent with higher proinflammatory cytokine levels during infection compared to untreated mice. Overall, our findings suggest that TvDNA pretreatment modulates the immune response favouring parasite elimination.
This study examined whether the interaction between parenting and inhibitory control predicts hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention in 195 children. Observation data of positive parenting were collected at 4 years, and mother reports of coercive parenting at 5 years, inhibitory control at 6 years, and hyperactivity-impulsivity/inattention at 7 years were obtained. The common and unique variance of hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention symptoms were examined as outcomes using a bifactor model. Results indicated that positive parenting practices predicted lower levels of hyperactivity-impulsivity/inattention behaviors at age 7 only when children's inhibitory control was high. These results support the vantage sensitivity model, which posits that some individuals show an increased sensitivity to positive experiences exclusively, and support the appropriateness of a targeted prevention approach in early childhood.
Calcium homeostasis is crucial for the normal function of the organism. Parathyroid hormone, calcitriol and calcitonin play critical roles in the homeostatic regulation of calcium. Serotonin and prolactin have also been shown to be involved in the regulation of calcium homeostasis. In modern dairy cows, the endocrine pathways controlling calcium homeostasis during non-lactating and non-pregnant physiological states are unable to fully support the increased demand of calcium required for milk synthesis at the onset of lactation. This review describes different endocrine systems associated with the regulation of calcium homeostasis in mammalian species around parturition with special focus on dairy cows. Additionally, classic and novel strategies to reduce the incidence of hypocalcemia in parturient dairy cows are discussed.
Milk is an important protein source in human diets, providing around 32 g protein/l (for bovine milk, which constitutes some 85% of global consumption). The most abundant milk proteins are α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, αs-casein, β-casein, and κ-casein. Besides their nutritional value, milk proteins play a crucial role in the processing properties of milk, such as solubility, water bonding, heat stability, renneting and foaming, among others. In addition, and most importantly for this review, these proteins are the main source of bioactive components in milk. Due to the wide range of proposed beneficial effects on human health, milk proteins are considered as potential ingredients for the production of health-promoting functional foods. However, most of the evidence for bioactive effects comes from in vitro studies, and there is a need for further research to fully evaluate the true potential of milk-derived bioactive factors. Animal genetics and animal nutrition play an important role in the relative proportions of milk proteins and could be used to manipulate the concentration of specific bioactive peptides in milk from ruminants. Unfortunately, only a few studies in the literature have focused on changes in milk bioactive peptides associated to animal genetics and animal nutrition. The knowledge described in the present review may set the basis for further research and for the development of new dairy products with healthy and beneficial properties for humans.
The identification of young massive star clusters (YMCs) at high redshift is becoming a real fact. We present recent results from Hubble deep imaging and VLT/ MUSE - X-Shooter observations boosted by strong gravitational lensing. We report on two parsec-scale star-forming systems at z = 6.145 and 2.37 (>10 Gyrs of look back time) currently representing the best candidate high-z YMCs. All of this also implies that the search for globular cluster precursors has already begun.
We investigated the distribution of comorbidities among adult tuberculosis (TB) patients in Chiapas, the poorest Mexican state, with a high presence of indigenous population, and a corridor for migrants from Latin America. Secondary analysis on 5508 new adult TB patients diagnosed between 2010 and 2014 revealed that the most prevalent comorbidities were diabetes mellitus (DM; 19.1%) and undernutrition (14.4%). The prevalence of DM in these TB patients was significantly higher among middle aged (41–64 years) compared with older adults (⩾65 years) (38.6% vs. 23.2%; P < 0.0001). The prevalence of undernutrition was lower among those with DM, and higher in communities with high indigenous presence. Immigrants only comprised 2% of all TB cases, but were more likely to have unfavourable TB treatment outcomes (treatment failure, death and default) when compared with those born in Chiapas (29.5% vs. 11.1%; P < 0.05). Unfavourable TB outcomes were also more prevalent among the TB patients with undernutrition, HIV or older age, but not DM (P < 0.05). Our study in Chiapas illustrates the challenges of other regions worldwide where social (e.g. indigenous origin, poverty, migration) and host factors (DM, undernutrition, HIV, older age) are associated with TB. Further understanding of these critical factors will guide local policy makers and health providers to improve TB management.
Abnormalities in reward circuit function are considered a core feature of addiction. Yet, it is still largely unknown whether these abnormalities stem from chronic drug use, a genetic predisposition, or both.
In the present study, we investigated this issue using a large sample of adolescent children by applying structural equation modeling to examine the effects of several dopaminergic polymorphisms of the D1 and D2 receptor type on the reward function of the ventral striatum (VS) and orbital frontal cortex (OFC), and whether this relationship predicted the propensity to engage in early alcohol misuse behaviors at 14 years of age and again at 16 years of age.
The results demonstrated a regional specificity with which the functional polymorphism rs686 of the D1 dopamine receptor (DRD1) gene and Taq1A of the ANKK1 gene influenced medial and lateral OFC activation during reward anticipation, respectively. Importantly, our path model revealed a significant indirect relationship between the rs686 of the DRD1 gene and early onset of alcohol misuse through a medial OFC × VS interaction.
These findings highlight the role of D1 and D2 in adjusting reward-related activations within the mesocorticolimbic circuitry, as well as in the susceptibility to early onset of alcohol misuse.
During the Epoch of Reionization (EoR), feedback effects reduce the efficiency of star formation process in small halos or even fully quench it. The galaxy luminosity function (LF) may then turn over at the faint-end. We analyze the number counts of z > 5 galaxies observed in the fields of four Frontier Fields (FFs) clusters and obtain constraints on the LF faint-end: for the turn-over magnitude at z ∼ 6, MUVT ≳-13.3; for the circular velocity threshold of quenching star formation process, vc* ≲ 47 km s−1. We have not yet found significant evidence of the presence of feedback effects suppressing the star formation in small galaxies.
Oxytocin release, milking characteristics, and teat condition were investigated with reduced claw vacuum and pulsation settings compared to milking at regular settings with or without pre-stimulation. The reduced vacuum and pulsation settings during low milk flow are expected to protect the teat tissue before the occurrence of milk ejection at the start of milking, and at the end of milking during a potential overmilking period, i.e. at a milk flow <200 g/min. Seven cows were machine-milked either after a 60 s manual pre-stimulation, or without pre-stimulation and reduced vacuum and pulsation settings, or at full vacuum and normal pulsation during the start of milking. Plasma oxytocin (OT) concentration increased similarly in response to manual pre-stimulation and to both milking with reduced, or with full vacuum and pulsation settings, however delayed by 1 min if the cluster was attached without pre-stimulation. In all treatments OT concentrations remained elevated throughout milking. Milk flow curves were mostly non-bimodal at milkings after manual pre-stimulation and bimodal at milkings without pre-stimulation. The main milking time was shorter and average milk flow was higher during milking after pre-stimulation, but did not differ between treatments without pre-stimulation. Milk yields and peak flow rates were not affected by treatments. Either reduced or full vacuum settings were again applied during an intended overmilking from 200 to 100 g/min of milk flow towards the end of milk harvest. Pre-milking teat ultrasound cross sections were recorded one day before the experiment started. Post-milking ultrasound cross sections were performed at 15 min after each experimental milking. Teat wall thickness was increased after milking as compared to pre-milking but did not differ among treatments. In conclusion, OT release and milking performance are similar if milking is performed with pre-stimulation, or without pre-stimulation but reduced claw vacuum and b-phase during low milk flow.
Goat dairy products are an important source of animal protein in the tropics. During the dry season, pasture scarcity leads animals to lose up to 40% of their body weight, a condition known as Seasonal Weight Loss (SWL) that is one of the major constraints in ruminant production. Breeds with high tolerance to SWL are relevant to understand the physiological responses to pasture scarcity so they could be used in programs for animal breeding. In the Canary Islands there are two dairy goat breeds with different levels of tolerance to SWL: the Palmera, susceptible to SWL; and the Majorera, tolerant to SWL. Fat is one of the milk components most affected by environmental and physiological conditions. This study hypothesises that feed-restriction affects Majorera and Palmera breeds differently, leading to different fatty acid profiles in the mammary gland and milk. An interaction between breed and feed-restriction was observed in the mammary gland. Feed-restriction was associated with an increase in oleic acid and a decrease in palmitic acid percentage in the Palmera breed whereas no differences were observed in the Majorera breed. Palmitic and oleic acids together constituted around 60% of the total fatty acids identified, which suggests that Palmera breed is more susceptible to SWL. In milk, feed-restriction affected both breeds similarly. Regarding the interaction of the breed with the treatment, we also observed similar responses in both breeds, but this influence affects only around 2% of the total fatty acids. In general, Majorera breed is more tolerant to feed-restriction.