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In this work we apply high-resolution X-ray diffractometry to the study of InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well structures on (001) and(lll)B GaAs substrates. The samples consisted of p-i-n diodes with a multiple quantum well embedded in the i-region and were simultaneously grown on (001) and (111)B substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. For the characterization we have used symmetric and asymmetric reflections at different azimuthal positions. The interpretation of the diffraction profiles has been possible thanks to our recently developed simulation model, which allows the calculation of any reflection regardless of the substrate orientation. X-ray results about composition and thickness are very similar in the samples simultaneously grown on both orientations as expected from our specific growth conditions. The information obtained from X-ray characterization is consistent with the results of photoluminescence and photocurrent measurements within the experimental uncertainty of the techniques. In (lll)B samples, X-ray diffractometry provides structural information which cannot be easily obtained from optical characterization techniques.
This article documents the development of a community-based drug intervention for low- to mild-risk drug users who surrendered as part of the Philippine government's anti-drug campaign. It highlights the importance of developing evidence-informed drug recovery interventions that are appropriate to the Asian culture and to developing economies. Interviews and consultations with users and community stakeholders reveal the need for an intervention that would improve the drug recovery skills and life skills of users. Evidence-based interventions were adapted using McKleroy and colleagues’ (2006) Map of Adaptation Process (MAP) framework. The resulting intervention reflected the country's collectivist culture, relational values, propensity for indirect and non-verbal communication, and interdependent self-construal. The use of small groups, interactive and creative methodologies, and the incorporation of music and prayer also recognised the importance of these in the Philippine culture.
In 2011 the Incidence Assay Critical Path Working Group reviewed the current state of HIV incidence assays and helped to determine a critical path to the introduction of an HIV incidence assay. At that time the Consortium for Evaluation and Performance of HIV Incidence Assays (CEPHIA) was formed to spur progress and raise standards among assay developers, scientists and laboratories involved in HIV incidence measurement and to structure and conduct a direct independent comparative evaluation of the performance of 10 existing HIV incidence assays, to be considered singly and in combinations as recent infection test algorithms. In this paper we report on a new framework for HIV incidence assay evaluation that has emerged from this effort over the past 5 years, which includes a preliminary target product profile for an incidence assay, a consensus around key performance metrics along with analytical tools and deployment of a standardized approach for incidence assay evaluation. The specimen panels for this evaluation have been collected in large volumes, characterized using a novel approach for infection dating rules and assembled into panels designed to assess the impact of important sources of measurement error with incidence assays such as viral subtype, elite host control of viraemia and antiretroviral treatment. We present the specific rationale for several of these innovations, and discuss important resources for assay developers and researchers that have recently become available. Finally, we summarize the key remaining steps on the path to development and implementation of reliable assays for monitoring HIV incidence at a population level.
Undoped layers of GaN grown by MOVPE on sapphire substrates have been characterized by photoluminescence, photocapacitance and photoinduced current transient spectroscopy (PICTS). Photocapacitance reveals in all samples two specific signatures at photon energies of 1 eV and 2.5 eV. The photocapacitance decrease observed at 1 eV seems to be due to an electron capture process from the valence band, whereas the capacitance increase at 2.5 eV is related to an electron emission process. The fact that the capacitance step at 1 eV is only seen after photoionization at energies above 2.5 eV, and the observed correlation between its amplitude and the photoluminescence intensity of the “yellow band”, lead us to conclude that both transitions are linked to the same trap, which is also suggested to be responsible for the yellow band. The position of this trap, at 2.5 eV below the conduction band, is confirmed by PICTS measurements, that show a hole thermal emission activation energy of 0.9 eV at 350 K.
In this work high gain GaN photoconductive UV detectors have been fabricated and characterized, and a novel gain mechanism, dominant in these detectors, is described. DC responsivities higher than 103A/W have been measured for an incident power of lW/m2 at room temperature. The photoconductive gain depends directly on the bias voltage and scales with incident power as P−k (k ≈ 0.9) for more than five decades. A decrease of both gain and k parameter with temperature has also been observed. As a consequence of the slow non-exponential transient response, AC gain measurements result in lower values for gain and k parameter, which are frequency dependent. The high responsivity, non-linear behavior and slow non-exponential transient response, are all modeled taking into account a modulation mechanism of the layer conductive volume. Such spatial modulation is due to the photovoltaic response of the potential barriers related to the surface and charged dislocations arrays.
Crystal morphology of GaN layers grown on Si(111) evolves from whisker-like microcrystals to compact films as a function of the III/V ratio. Small changes in the III/V ratio (from Ga-rich to N-rich) during the growth of a compact layer result in the appearance of microcrystals on the top of the layer, indicating a sharp transition between the two growth regimes.
Four different morphologies are obtained by increasing the III/V ratio: a) completely columnar whisker-like samples exhibiting a pair of intense excitonic emissions at 3.471−3.478 eV; b) a mixture of compact regions with columnar microcrystals showing two pairs of excitonic emissionsnbsp c) compact layers with very small microcrystals on the top surface with a weaker dominant transition at 3.415 eV (±5meV) and, d) full compact and smooth layers with a single dominant excitonic emission at 3.466 eV. A combination of PL measurements with SEM photographs and CL imaging reveals that both pairs of emissions in samples b) come from the columnar microcrystals. The high energy pair (3.471−3.478eV) is attributed to the free-exciton A and a donor-bound exciton while the low energy pair (3.452−3.458eV) is assigned to acceptor-bound excitons associated to valence bands Γ9v and Γ7uv. Power and temperature dependence together with time-resolved data show that the dominant peak at 3.415eV (± 5meV) present in samples c) correspond to a donor-acceptor transition. CL measurements as a function of electron beam energy (depth) also indicate that this emission is more intense towards the interface between the layer and the sample. Finally, the excitonic emission in samples d) is shifted to lower energies due to residual biaxial tensile strain of thermal origin.
Au/GaN and Pt/GaN contacts have been studied with XPS. According to XPS depth profiling, the N signal is weak in the region below the metal contact and the Pt or Au signal decreases much more slowly than expected for a sharp interface. Next, we have performed in situ studies of the formation of Au contacts on GaN. In contrast to the results from depth profiling, we observe 2D growth and little or no chemical interaction between Au and GaN. This suggests that conventional calculations of sputtering yields and ion-beam-induced mixing cannot be applied to the analysis of noble metal/GaN depth profiles. Heating during or after Au deposition results in strong clustering, observed by both XPS and AFM. The Schottky barrier height measured by XPS is 1.15 eV.
High quality AlN layers with full widths at half maximum values of 10 arcmin and average surface roughness (rms) of 48Å were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111) substrates. A systematic study and optimization of the growth conditions was performed in order to use these AlN layers as buffers in the growth of GaN films. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were employed to determine the surface and structural quality of the layers. Best AlN films were obtained at high substrate temperatures (Tsubs>900°C) and III/V ratios close to stoichiometry. Growth conditions with III/V ratios beyond stoichiometry (Al-rich) did not further improve the crystal quality. In these cases a higher substrate temperature is needed to prevent condensation of Al on the surface. GaN films with full width at half maximum of 10 arcmin and improved optical properties were grown on top of optimized AlN buffer layers.
Low temperature photoluminescence spectra of Be-doped layers grown on Si (111) by molecular beam epitaxy have been analyzed. Emissions at 3.466 eV and 3.384 eV, and a broad band centered at 2.4-2.5 eV are observed. Their evolution with temperature and excitation power, and time resolved PL measurements ascribe an excitonic character for the luminescence at 3.466 eV, whereas the emission at 3.384 eV is associated with a donor-acceptor pair transition. This recombination involves residual donors and Be-related acceptors, which are located around 90meV above the valence band, confirming Be as the shallowest acceptor reported in GaN. The intensity of the band at 2.4-2.5 eV increases with the Be content. This emission involves a band of deep acceptors generated by Be complex defects, as suggested by the parameter g = 2.008 ± 0.003 obtained by photoluminescence-detected electron paramagnetic resonance.
Optical thresholds, that correspond to a level located at 1 eV above the valence band, are observed by photocapacitance techniques in n-type Mg-doped GaN. In undoped GaN, this level has been previously related to the yellow emission detected by photoluminescence. In Mg-doped GaN, this yellow luminescence is only observed for excitation energies below the Mg-related band (2.9 - 3 eV). This result evidences that Mg-doping may reduce but not avoid the formation of the yellow band related defects in n-type and semiinsulating Mg-doped samples. The fact that the yellow luminescence is not observed for excitation energies above the bandgap may be justified by a higher efficiency of the Mg-related recombination path.
High-resolution monochromated electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) at subnanometric spatial resolution and <200 meV energy resolution has been used to assess the valence band properties of a distributed Bragg reflector multilayer heterostructure composed of InAlN lattice matched to GaN. This work thoroughly presents the collection of methods and computational tools put together for this task. Among these are zero-loss-peak subtraction and nonlinear fitting tools, and theoretical modeling of the electron scattering distribution. EELS analysis allows retrieval of a great amount of information: indium concentration in the InAlN layers is monitored through the local plasmon energy position and calculated using a bowing parameter version of Vegard Law. Also a dielectric characterization of the InAlN and GaN layers has been performed through Kramers-Kronig analysis of the Valence-EELS data, allowing band gap energy to be measured and an insight on the polytypism of the GaN layers.
In this work, we report the characterization of Spin-On Glass (SOG) as low temperature gate insulator. Our SOG film was deposited at temperature of 200°C, which is compatible to use on flexible substrates. The optical and electrical characterization showed that the refractive index and dielectric constant are very close to those of thermally grown SiO2. Also, analysis of surface roughness by AFM is presented. We demonstrated the use of SOG as gate insulator, fabricating and characterizing inverted staggered a-SiGe:H TFTs. The observed results are promising and suggest that SOG films deposited at 200°C in the Laboratory of Microelectronics of INAOE could be an alternative to improve electrical characteristics of TFTs on low temperature flexible substrates.
The defect distribution of a graded composition InGaAs layer grown on GaAs by MBE has been characterized by TEM (XTEM, PVTEM, HREM). The observed configuration does not correspond completely with that theoretically predicted. Dislocation misfit segments are in a quantity much bigger than in constant composition layers. Dislocation density is quite uniform up to a certain layer thickness t1. Few dislocations are observed between this t1 thickness and a larger thickness t2. Dislocation density is below the detection limit of XTEM for thicknesses bigger than t2. Some dislocations are observed to penetrate in the GaAs substrate.
Several mechanisms (reactions between 600 dislocations, Hagen-Strunk and modified Frank-Read processes) are proposed to explain the interactions of dislocations in the epilayer and their penetration in the substrate.
In this work it is shown that thin AlN buffer layers cause N-polarity GaN epilayers, with a high inversion domains density. When the AlN thickness increases, the polarity of the epilayer changes to Ga. The use of a low temperature AlN nucleation layer leads to a flat AlN/Si(111) interface. This contributes to decrease the inversion domains density in the overgrown GaN epilayer with a Ga polarity.
The local structure around In atoms in InGaN epilayers grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and by Metal-Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (MOCVD) was studied by means of Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS). The averaged In fraction of MOCVD grown samples ranged from 10% to 40% as estimated by Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA). The In fraction of MBE grown samples spanned the range from 13% to 96%. The In–N bond length was found to vary slightly with composition, both for MBE and MOCVD grown samples. Moreover, for the same In content, the In-N bond lengths in MOCVD samples were longer than those in MBE grown samples. In contrast, the In-In radial separations in MOCVD and MBE samples were found to be indistinguishable for the same In molar fraction. The In-Ga bond length was observed to deviate from average cation-cation distance predicted by Vegard's law for MBE grown samples which indicates alloy compositional fluctuations.
We report a Raman scattering study of local vibrational modes (LVMs) on Mg-doped GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Besides Mg:Ga local vibrational modes clearly observed at 262 and 565 cm−1, several peaks were detected in the spectral regions around 2200 cm−1 and 2900 cm−1. The modes in the 2200 cm−1 spectral region correspond to local modes of hydrogen complexes and hydrogen-decorated defects, and indicate the presence of a fairly high concentration of H in the samples. The peaks observed in the 2900 cm−1 region are assigned to carbon-hydrogen local modes and are indicative of the presence of C impurities in the samples. These measurements show that both C and H impurities may be present in sizable amounts not only in metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) samples but also in MBE grown samples, and this may have an effect on the electrical conductivity ofp-type GaN:Mg samples.
A direct comparison of the optical energies of MBE- and MOVPE-grown InxGa1-xN epilayers of similar InN content is performed for the first time. The InN fraction in the 7 MBE samples examined ranged from x ∼ 0.11 to x ∼ 0.35 while the range in available MOVPE epilayers is [0, 0.4]. Wavelength Dispersive X-ray (WDX) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopies were used to measure composition and local structure (alloy character) of the samples. Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy in situ, ex situ photoluminescence (PL) mapping and large-area optical absorption spectroscopy were used to measure various optical energies. The composition dependence of the optical energies is determined by the growth method. The absorption bandgap and luminescence peak energies vary linearly with x for both growth methods, suggesting a near-zero value of the bowing parameter. But the energy intercept at zero InN content in MOVPE samples is close to the wurtzite-GaN bandgap of 3.4 eV at room temperature, as expected, while the equivalent for MBE samples falls near 3.2 eV.
Microplasmas are nowadays a powerful tool with multiple
practical applications. The performance of a specific instrumentation for a
plasma needle capable of producing non-thermal plasmas and a DBD reactor
able to produce atmospheric pressure plasmas, both of them designed and
already constructed, is reported. These devices operate at 13.56 MHz and are
driven by a specifically built radio frequency (RF) resonant converter. The
reactors, which operate at atmospheric pressure in a He-air gas mixture at a
1.5 SLPM flow, have been successfully applied to eliminate E. coli bacteria. In the
needle case, bacterial samples were submitted typically to a 500 V peak
voltage plasma discharge for 120 s. In the DBD treatment, the samples were
processed with typical 750 V peak voltage plasma discharges for 80 s. The
sample pH was used as a criterion to measure the effectiveness of the plasma
treatment, in such a way that the return to the basal pH value after the
treatment can be assumed as the validation of the complete bacterial