Trypanosoma cruzi is currently classified into 2 major phylogenetic lineages, T. cruzi I and II, that correlate with the formerly described zymodeme 1 and 2, respectively. Another isoenzymic group (zymodeme 3–Z3) was also described. In this study, we analysed the genetic diversity among Z3 isolates of the Brazilian Amazon by restriction fragment length polymorphism of the intergenic transcribed spacers (ITSs) of the ribosomal RNA cistron and the size of the divergent domain D7 of the 24Sα rRNA gene. DNAs from 12 T. cruzi Z3 isolates obtained from humans (2), Panstrongylus geniculatus (1), and Rhodnius brethesi (9) were submitted to PCR amplification of the ITSs plus the 5·8S rDNA. The PCR products were digested with 4 distinct endonucleases and the profiles analysed by a numerical methodology. The phenetic dendrogram revealed a clear dichotomy in the Z3 group, defining 2 groups that were named Z3-A and Z3-B. Dimorphism was also found in the band sizes of the amplified D7 divergent domain of the 24Sα rDNA, which showed a perfect correlation with the ITSs clustering. The organization of the ribosomal cistron was investigated by Southern blotting and shown to be conserved in the genome of the 2 Z3 groups. This study shows that the rDNA cistron allows the definition of 2 distinct subclusters in Z3 isolates.