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Social cognition has been associated with functional outcome in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP). Social cognition has also been associated with neurocognition and cognitive reserve. Although cognitive reserve, neurocognitive functioning, social cognition, and functional outcome are related, the direction of their associations is not clear. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to analyze the influence of social cognition as a mediator between cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning in FEP both at baseline and at 2 years.
The sample of the study was composed of 282 FEP patients followed up for 2 years. To analyze whether social cognition mediates the influence of cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning, a path analysis was performed. The statistical significance of any mediation effects was evaluated by bootstrap analysis.
At baseline, as neither cognitive reserve nor the cognitive domains studied were related to functioning, the conditions for mediation were not satisfied. Nevertheless, at 2 years of follow-up, social cognition acted as a mediator between cognitive reserve and functioning. Likewise, social cognition was a mediator between verbal memory and functional outcome. The results of the bootstrap analysis confirmed these significant mediations (95% bootstrapped CI (−10.215 to −0.337) and (−4.731 to −0.605) respectively).
Cognitive reserve and neurocognition are related to functioning, and social cognition mediates in this relationship.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Slow-growing, male chickens raised with outdoor access have been found to be a nutritious protein source with 24.83% protein in breast muscle. They have an acceptable carcass quality with at least 20% less abdominal fat, 3% more breast yield, and 3% more thigh yield than the birds raised in confinement. Similarly, slow-growing male chickens grown with outdoor access have a good bone quality with femur weight, length and diameter (16.5 g, 96.7 mm, and 8.61 mm, respectively). Considering fatty acid profile as a meat quality trait, breast muscles of slow-growing birds grown with outdoor access compared to those without such access have significantly higher polyunsaturated fatty acids level (3.85 vs. 3.36%), lower n6:n3 PUFA ratio (7.8 vs. 9.22) and lower saturated fatty acids content (26.29 vs. 28.73%). Raising slow-growing male chickens in production systems with outdoor access has been confirmed to be beneficial for the animals, the producers, the consumers and the environment.
Before weaning, breast milk is the physiological form of neonatal nutrition, providing pups with all nutrient requirements. Maternal low-protein diet (LPD) during pregnancy and lactation induces adverse changes in key maternal organs, which have negative effects on pup development. We studied the effects of maternal LPD on liver weight, mammary gland (MG) cell differentiation, milk composition and production and pup development throughout lactation. We fed rats with control (C) or LPD (R) during pregnancy and lactation. At 7 d early, 14 d mid and 21 d late lactation stages, maternal biochemical parameters, body, liver and MG weights were analysed. MG cell differentiation was analysed by haematoxylin and eosin staining; milk nutrient composition and production were studied; pup body, liver and brain weights, hippocampal arachidonic acid (AA) and DHA were quantified. Results showed lower body and liver weights, minor MG cell differentiation and lower serum insulin and TAG in R compared with C. R milk contained less protein and higher AA at early and mid stages compared with C. R pup milk and fat intake were lower at all stages. R protein intake at early and mid stages and DHA intake at mid and late stages were lower compared with C. In R pups, lower body, liver and brain weights were associated with decreased hippocampal AA and DHA. We conclude that maternal LPD impairs liver and MG function and induces significant changes in maternal milk composition, pup milk intake and organ development.
Language development requires children to learn how to understand ambiguous pronouns, as in Panda Bear is having lunch with Puppy. He wants a pepperoni slice. Adults tend to link he with Puppy, the prior grammatical subject, but young children either fail to exhibit this bias (Arnold, Brown-Schmidt & Trueswell, 2007) or do so more slowly than adults (Hartshorne et al., 2015a; Song & Fisher, 2005). In the current study, we test whether language exposure affects this bias in elementary-school-age children. Children listened to stories like the one above, and answered questions like “Who wants a pepperoni slice?” which reveal their pronoun interpretation. Individual variation in the rate of selecting the subject character correlated with measures of print exposure, such that children who read more are more likely to follow the subject bias. This is the first study to establish that print exposure affects spoken pronoun comprehension in children.
Increased pressure on the poultry industry by animal-rights organisations and environmentally-conscious consumers has led to the rising popularity of cage-free housing system for hens. One of the main dangers of cage-free housing systems is the possibility for laying hens to damage their keels. Keel bone fracture incidence rate ranges up to 85%, and can lead to extensive pain in any bird, and potentially be the cause of the death for a hen in a cage-free environment. It was reported that kneel bone damage observed in flocks housed in non-cage systems was 30 to 95% while in furnished cages it was 15 to 55%. The purpose of this review is to compare the prevalence of the problem found in the three main housing systems (conventional, enriched cage, and cage-free), discuss if such damage could affect the behaviour and production of laying hens, and provide potential solutions for reducing the prevalence of keel bone damage. Keel fractures can negatively affect a hen in its day-to-day life by causing pain and restricting its movements. The prevalence of keel bone damage varies considerably among the studies due to differences in the system design, genetic line, age and method for determining the keel damage, which makes difficult to compare the systems. The genetic selection, adequate nutrition and modifications in the house design have shown to be useful tools in reducing keel bone damage in laying hens.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Oncostreams represent a novel growth pattern of GBM. In this study we uncovered the cellular and molecular mechanism that regulates the oncostreams function in GBM growth and invasion. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We studied oncostreams organization and function using genetically engineered mouse gliomas models (GEMM), mouse primary patient derived GBM model and human glioma biopsies. We evaluated the molecular landscape of oncostreams by laser capture microdissection (LCM) followed by RNA-Sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Oncostreams are multicellular structures of 10-20 cells wide and 2-400 μm long. They are distributed throughout the tumors in mouse and human GBM. Oncostreams are heterogeneous structures positive for GFAP, Nestin, Olig2 and Iba1 cells and negative for Neurofilament. Using GEMM we found a negative correlation between oncostream density and animal survival. Moreover, examination of patient’s glioma biopsies evidenced that oncostreams are present in high grade but no in low grade gliomas. This suggests that oncostreams may play a role in tumor malignancy. Our data also indicated that oncostreams aid local invasion of normal brain. Transcriptome analysis of oncostreams revealed 43 differentially expressed (DE) genes. Functional enrichment analysis of DE genes showed that “collagen catabolic processes”, “positive regulation of cell migration”, and “extracellular matrix organization” were the most over-represented GO biological process. Network analysis indicated that Col1a1, ACTA2, MMP9 and MMP10 are primary target genes. These genes were also overexpressed in more malignant tumors (WT-IDH) compared to the less malignant (IDH1- R132H) tumors. Confocal time lapse imagining of 3D tumor slices demonstrated that oncostreams display a collective motion pattern within gliomas that has not been seen before. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In summary, oncostreams are anatomically and molecularly distinctive, regulate glioma growth and invasion, display collective motion and are regulated by the extracellular matrix. We propose oncostreams as novel pathological markers valuable for diagnosis, prognosis and designing therapeutics for GBM patients.
To develop a new predictive equation for fat mass percentage (%FM) based on anthropometric measurements and to assess its ability to discriminate between obese and non-obese individuals.
Adults (n 275; 181 women) aged 20–63 years with BMI between 17·4 and 42·4 kg/m2.
Thirty-seven per cent of our sample was obese using %FM measured by air-displacement plethysmography (BOD POD®; Life Measurement Instruments). The fat mass was computed from the difference between weight and fat-free mass (FFM). FFM was estimated using an equation obtained previously in the study from weight, height and sex of the individuals. The %FM estimated from the obtained FFM showed a sensitivity of 90·3 (95 % CI 86·8, 93·8) % and a specificity of 58·0 (95 % CI 52·1, 63·8) % in the diagnosis of obesity. Ninety-three per cent of participants with obesity and 65 % of participants without obesity were correctly classified.
The anthropometry-based equation obtained in the present study could be used as a screening tool in clinical and epidemiological studies not only to estimate the %FM, but also to discriminate the obese condition in populations with similar characteristics to the participant sample.
In 2018, the Clostridium difficile LabID event methodology changed so that hospitals doing 2-step tests, nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) plus enzyme immunofluorescence assay (EIA), had their adjustment modified to EIA-based tests, and only positive final tests (eg, EIA) were counted in the numerator. We report the immediate impact of this methodological change at 3 Milwaukee hospitals.
In this article, we report low-temperature electron spin resonance (ESR) investigations carried out on solution processed three-layer inverted solar cell structures: PC61BM/CH3NH3PbI3/PEDOT:PSS/Glass, where PC61BM and PEDOT:PSS act as electron and hole transport layers, respectively. ESR measurements were conducted on ex-situ light (1 Sun) illuminated samples. We find two distinct ESR spectra. First ESR spectra resembles a typical powder pattern, associated with gx = gy = 4.2; gz = 9.2, found to be originated from Fe3+ extrinsic impurity located in the glass substrate. Second ESR spectra contains a broad (peak-to-peak line width ∼ 10 G) and intense ESR signal appearing at g = 2.008; and a weak, partly overlapped, but much narrower (peak-to-peak line width ∼ 4 G) ESR signal at g = 2.0022. Both sets of ESR spectra degrade in intensity upon light illumination. The latter two signals were found to stem from light-induced silicon dangling bonds and oxygen vacancies, respectively. Our controlled measurements confirm that these centers were generated during UV-ozone treatment of the glass substrate –a necessary step to be performed before PEDOT:PSS is spin coated. This work forms a significant step in understanding the light-induced- as well as extrinsic defects in perovskite solar cell materials.
We have studied the structural and morphological properties on the pyrochlore (Er2-x Srx)Ru2O6 system, for x = 0.0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.07, 0.10, and 0.15. Polycrystalline samples were prepared by solid-state reaction (SR) and sol-gel acrylamide polymerization (SGAP). Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to follow the thermal transformations such as reagents decomposition, phase transformation, chemical stability, and volatilization of organic material of samples. The reagents and synthesized products by the different methods of synthesis were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). All samples crystallize Er2Ru2O6 PDF (72-7620) in the cubic unit cell with Fd
m (No. 227) space group and form a solid solution up to x = 0.15. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows considerable variations and similitudes in sizes, very few phases and shapes of polycrystals can be observed. Polycrystalline samples prepared by solid-state reaction (SR) present a grain size varies between 77 nm to 250 nm.
To determine the association between the use of opioids and benzodiazepines and the risk of falls with hip fracture in populations older than 65 years in Colombia.
A case-control study with patients older than 65 years with diagnosis of hip fracture. Two controls were obtained per case. The drugs dispensed in the previous 30 days were identified. Sociodemographic, diagnostic, pharmacological (opioids and benzodiazepines), and polypharmacy variables were analyzed. A logistic regression model was used to analyze the risk of fall with hip fracture while using these drugs.
We included 287 patients with hip fractures and 574 controls. There was a female predominance (72.1%) and a mean age of 82.4 ± 8.0 years. Of the patients, 12.7% had been prescribed with opioids and 4.2% with benzodiazepines in the previous month. The adjusted multivariate analysis found that using opioids (OR:4.49; 95%CI:2.72–7.42) and benzodiazepines (OR:3.73; 95%CI:1.60–8.70) in the month prior to the event was significantly associated with a greater probability of suffering a fall with hip fracture.
People who are taking opioids and benzodiazepines have increased risk for hip fracture in Colombia. Strategies to educate physicians regarding the pharmacology of older adults should be strengthened.
Structural DNA nanotechnology offers the capacity to construct ultraminiaturized devices with programmed nanoscale geometry, mechanical and dynamic properties, and site-specific molecular functionalities. These features and the possibility to position and orient molecules in user-defined ways may be exploited to create custom instruments for precision measurements of molecular-scale structure, dynamics, and interactions. Such devices may help constrain molecular motion along interesting reaction coordinates and may also exert forces to probe the mechanical properties or dynamics of molecules under study. Multiple ways of reading out device states may be used, including atomic force microscopy or transmission electron microscopy imaging, single-molecule or bulk fluorescence, or ionic conductivity as in nanopore systems. Early successes with custom scientific instruments based on DNA origami underline the tremendous potential to enable new approaches to making scientific discoveries in biological and synthetic materials systems.
DNA nanostructures are a set of materials with well-defined physical, chemical, and biological properties that can be used on their own or incorporated with other materials for many applications. Herein, the practical aspects of utilizing DNA nanostructures (structural or dynamic) as materials are comprehensively covered. This article first summarizes properties of DNA molecules and practical considerations and then discusses the fundamental design principles of structural DNA nanostructures. Finally, various aspects of dynamic DNA nanostructure-based actuation and computation are included.
Previous reviews suggest there is minimal evidence for an association between duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and neurocognition. This is based on tallied findings of studies with small samples and neurocognition viewed as a single construct. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the association between DUP and individual neurocognitive domains and tests in first-episode psychosis (FEP).
MOOSE and PRISMA guidelines were followed. Forty-three studies involving 4647 FEP patients were included. For studies providing correlations between DUP and neurocognition, 12 separate meta-analyses were performed based on neurocognitive domains/indices. The influence of demographic/clinical variables was tested using weighted linear meta-regression analyses.
The relationship between DUP and most neurocognitive domains/indices was not significant. Longer DUP was associated with a larger cognitive deterioration index, i.e. current minus premorbid intellectual functioning (N = 4; mean ES −0.213, 95% confidence interval (CI) (−0.344 to −0.074), p = 0.003). Findings were homogeneous, with no evidence of publication bias or significant influence from moderators. For studies providing mean and standard deviations for neurocognitive measures and DUP, 20 meta-regressions were performed on individual neurocognitive tests. One significant finding emerged showing that longer DUP was associated with fewer Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-perseverative errors (mean ES −0.031, 95% CI (−0.048 to −0.013), p < 0.001). Exploratory meta-regressions in studies with mean DUP <360 days showed longer DUP was significantly associated with poorer performance on Trail Making Test A and B and higher Full-Scale IQ.
There may not be a generalised association between DUP and neurocognition, however, specific cognitive functions may be associated with longer DUP or delayed help-seeking.
It is known that some forage trees have potential defaunating capacity, as rumen protozoa population is reduced when ruminant are feed with them (Odenyo et al., 1997ª,b). The effect has been attributed to saponins (Diaz et al., 1992) and tannins (Odenyo et al., 1997a,b). It is also known that PEG binds to tannins and has been used to reduce the deleterious effect found in animals feed tanniferous trees (Makkar et al., 1998). However, to our knowledge it has not been studied if using PEG to increase digestibility will, on the other hand, affect the defaunating capacity of the tree. The objective of the present study was to develop a simple technique to screen forage trees for defaunation capacity and to assess if PEG could be used to overcome this effect.
Forage trees are commonly use for livestock feeding in the tropics. It is known that some species can affect the rumen protozoa population (Odenyo et al., 1997). However, little is known about the potential effect upon rumen protozoa of several species which are also use as feed in tropical systems. The objective of the experiment was to assess the defaunating capacity of forage trees. In companion reports (Monforte et al., 2005) we reported plants with a potential defaunating effect as evaluated under an in vitro batch culture system (Sandoval et al., 2005). Here we present those plants which did not have or had low effect on protozoa population in an in vitro culture.