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For decades, fructose intake has been recognised as an environmental risk for metabolic syndromes and diseases. Here we comprehensively examined the effects of fructose intake on mice liver transcriptomes. Fructose-supplemented water (34 %; w/v) was fed to both male and female C57BL/6N mice at their free will for 6 weeks, followed by hepatic transcriptomics analysis. Based on our criteria, differentially expressed genes (DEG) were selected and subjected to further computational analyses to predict key pathways and upstream regulator(s). Subsequently, predicted genes and pathways from the transcriptomics dataset were validated via quantitative RT-PCR analyses. As a result, we identified eighty-nine down-regulated and eighty-eight up-regulated mRNA in fructose-fed mice livers. These DEG were subjected to bioinformatics analysis tools in which DEG were mainly enriched in xenobiotic metabolic processes; further, in the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, it was suggested that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an upstream regulator governing overall changes, while fructose suppresses the AhR signalling pathway. In our quantitative RT-PCR validation, we confirmed that fructose suppressed AhR signalling through modulating expressions of transcription factor (AhR nuclear translocator; Arnt) and upstream regulators (Ncor2, and Rb1). Altogether, we demonstrated that ad libitum fructose intake suppresses the canonical AhR signalling pathway in C57BL/6N mice liver. Based on our current observations, further studies are warranted, especially with regard to the effects of co-exposure to fructose on (1) other types of carcinogens and (2) inflammation-inducing agents (or even diets such as a high-fat diet), to find implications of fructose-induced AhR suppression.
Neuroticism, a ‘Big Five’ personality trait, has been associated with sub-clinical traits of both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of the current study was to examine whether causal overlap between ASD and ADHD traits can be accounted for by genetic and environmental risk factors that are shared with neuroticism. We performed twin-based structural equation modeling using self-report data from 12 items of the Neo Five-Factor Inventory Neuroticism domain, 11 Social Responsiveness Scale items, and 12 Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale items obtained from 3,170 young adult Australian individual twins (1,081 complete pairs). Univariate analysis for neuroticism, ASD, and ADHD traits suggested that the most parsimonious models were those with additive genetic and unique environmental components, without sex limitation effects. Heritability of neuroticism, ASD, and ADHD traits, as measured by these methods, was moderate (between 40% and 45% for each respective trait). In a trivariate model, we observed moderate phenotypic (between 0.45 and 0.62), genetic (between 0.56 and 0.71), and unique environmental correlations (between 0.37and 0.55) among neuroticism, ASD, and ADHD traits, with the highest value for the shared genetic influence between neuroticism and self-reported ASD traits (rg = 0.71). Together, our results suggest that in young adults, genetic, and unique environmental risk factors indexed by neuroticism overlap with those that are shared by ASD and ADHD.
Substance misuse and associated health-risking behaviors are prevalent in emerging adulthood. There is a knowledge gap concerning the post-high school effects of community-based delivery systems for universal preventive interventions implemented during young adolescence. This study reports effects of the PROSPER delivery system through age 19, 7.5 years past baseline.
A cohort sequential design included 28 public school districts randomly assigned to the PROSPER partnership delivery system or usual-programming conditions. PROSPER community teams implemented a family-focused intervention in 6th grade and a school-based intervention in 7th grade. Outcomes for the age 19, post-high school report included lifetime, current, and frequency of substance misuse, as well as antisocial and health-risking sexual behaviors. Intent-to-treat, multi-level analyses of covariance of point-in-time outcomes were conducted, along with analyses of risk-related moderation of intervention effects.
Results showed emerging adults from PROSPER communities reported significantly lower substance misuse across a range of types of substances, with relative reduction rates of up to 41.0%. No significant findings were observed for associated antisocial and health-risking sexual behavior indices; or for lifetime rates of sexually transmitted infections. Risk-related moderation effects were non-significant, suggesting generally comparable outcomes across higher- and lower-risk subgroups of emerging adults.
The PROSPER delivery system for brief universal preventive interventions has potential for public health impact by reducing long-term substance misuse, with positive results extending beyond high school.
Glacier surface mass-balance measurements on Greenland started more than a century ago, but no compilation exists of the observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. Such data could be used in the evaluation of modelled surface mass balance, or to document changes in glacier melt independently from model output. Here, we present a comprehensive database of Greenland glacier surface mass-balance observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. The database spans the 123 a from 1892 to 2015, contains a total of ~3000 measurements from 46 sites, and is openly accessible through the PROMICE web portal (http://www.promice.dk). For each measurement we provide X, Y and Z coordinates, starting and ending dates as well as quality flags. We give sources for each entry and for all metadata. Two thirds of the data were collected from grey literature and unpublished archive documents. Roughly 60% of the measurements were performed by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS, previously GGU). The data cover all regions of Greenland except for the southernmost part of the east coast, but also emphasize the importance of long-term time series of which there are only two exceeding 20 a. We use the data to analyse uncertainties in point measurements of surface mass balance, as well as to estimate surface mass-balance profiles for most regions of Greenland.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
We examined the cross-sectional relationship between environmental tobacco smoke exposure, continuous performance test (CPT) measures, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or learning disability symptoms in school-aged children.
In total, 989 children (526 boys, mean age 9.1 ± 0.7 years), recruited from five South Korean cities participated in this study. We used urine cotinine as a biomarker for environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and obtained the children's scores on a CPT. Parents completed the Korean versions of the ADHD Rating Scale – IV (ADHD-RS) and Learning Disability Evaluation Scale (LDES). Using generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), we assessed the associations between urine cotinine concentrations, neuropsychological variables, and symptoms of ADHD and learning disabilities. Additionally, we conducted structural equation models to explore the effects' pathways.
After adjusting for a range of relevant covariates, GLMM showed urinary cotinine levels were significantly and positively associated with CPT scores on omission errors, commission errors, response time, and response time variability, and with parent- and teacher-rated ADHD-RS scores. In addition, urine cotinine levels were negatively associated with LDES scores on spelling and mathematical calculations. The structural equation model revealed that CPT variables mediated the association between urine cotinine levels and parental reports of symptoms of ADHD and learning disabilities.
Our data indicate that environmental exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with ADHD and learning disabilities in children, and that impairments in attention and inhibitory control probably mediate the effect.
Alfentanil was reported to relax the rat aorta by direct action on the vascular smooth muscle. The aims of this in vitro study were to examine the effect of alfentanil on phenylephrine-induced contractions in the rat aorta and to determine the cellular mechanism associated with this process.
Endothelium-denuded aortic rings were suspended in order to record isometric tension. In the rings with or without 10−6 mol naloxone or 10−5 mol verapamil, the concentration–response curves for phenylephrine and potassium chloride were generated in the presence or absence of alfentanil (10−6, 5 × 10−5, 10−4 mol). In the rings exposed to a calcium-free isotonic depolarizing solution, the contractile response induced by the addition of calcium was assessed in the presence or absence of alfentanil (5 × 10−5, 10−4 mol).
Alfentanil (5 × 10−5, 10−4 mol) attenuated (P < 0.05) the phenylephrine-induced contraction in the ring with or without 10−6 mol naloxone but had no effect on the phenylephrine-induced contraction in the rings pretreated with verapamil. Alfentanil (5 × 10−5, 10−4 mol) produced a significant rightward shift (P < 0.01) in the potassium chloride dose–response curve, and attenuated the contractile response (P < 0.001) induced by calcium in the calcium-free isotonic depolarizing solution in a dose-dependent manner.
A supraclinical dose of alfentanil attenuates the phenylephrine-induced contraction via an inhibitory effect on calcium influx by blocking the l-type calcium channels in the rat aortic vascular smooth muscle.
Surveillance is an important component of influenza control. This report describes the establishment and first results of the Korean Influenza Surveillance Scheme (KISS), an integrated clinical and laboratory surveillance network involving 622 public health centres (PHCs) and private clinics. Sentinel physicians reported cases of influenza-like illness (ILI) weekly and forwarded specimens for virus isolation and characterization. Influenza activity during the opening 2000–2001 season was milder and delayed compared with previous years. The ILI consultation rate corresponded well with the number of influenza virus isolates, both peaking in week 10 of 2001. Influenza A(H3N2) was the dominant isolate. The peak ILI consultation rate was higher in private clinics than in PHCs (5·04 vs 1·79 cases/1000 visits). An evaluation questionnaire generated potential enhancements to the scheme. KISS appears to represent the pattern of influenza activity accurately and will have a valuable role in monitoring and preventing epidemics in Korea.
Blood culture-based diagnosis can only detect a fraction of the total burden of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi. The objective of the study was to detect additional typhoid fever cases through serological tests. A total of 1732 prolonged fever episodes were evaluated using three serological tests, Widal, Tubex® and Typhidot-M® in a typhoid fever endemic area of southern China. A case definition which included a positive Widal test (TO⩾80 & TH>A), a positive Tubex® test (⩾4) and a positive Typhidot-M® test, increased the detection of cases by more than twofold from 13 to 28 cases. The case definition has a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 39%. Case definitions based on combinations of serological tests can detect additional typhoid fever cases with higher specificity than a single serological test. Improved case detection is essential to understand the true disease burden and can help to boost the power of intervention trials.
In this paper, we measured the field emission properties of reconstructed P-doped diamond under various anode-diamond distances and compared with the oxidized surface. Voltage drops in the vacuum was estimated to be 4.95 and 26.6 V/μm for the reconstructed and the oxidized, respectively. Moreover, we calculated the barrier height ratio between each surface. Our data indicates the changes in electron affinity strongly affect on the field emission properties.
The spatially resolved distribution of strain, misfit and threading dislocations, and crystallographic orientation in uncoalesced GaN layers grown on Si(111) substrates by maskless cantilever epitaxy was studied by white-beam Laue x-ray microdiffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and orientation imaging microscopy. Tilt boundaries formed at the column/wing interface with the misorientation strongly depending on the growth conditions. A depth-dependent deviatoric strain gradient is found in the GaN. Types and density of misfit dislocations as well as their arrangement within different dislocation arrays was quantified. The results are discussed with respect to the miscut of the Si(111) surface and misfit dislocations formed at the interface.
Zinc oxide and cobalt hydroxide films with ordered lamellar structures were electrochemically produced via interfacial surfactant templating. This method utilizes interfacial amphiphile assemblies on a working electrode as a template to electrodeposit inorganic nanostructures. Surfactants with anionic head groups (e.g. sodium dodecyl sulfate, 1-hexadecanesulfonate sodium salt, dodecylbenzenesulfonate sodium salt, and dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt) formed bilayer assemblies with Zn2+ and Co2+ ions on the working electrode and guided the lamellar growth of ZnO and Co(OH)2 films. In order to gain the ability to precisely tailor inorganic lamellar structures, the effect of co-solvent and type of working electrode on the repeat distances, homogeneity and orientation of the interfacial amphiphilic bilayers were investigated. The results described here will provide a useful foundation to design and optimize synthetic conditions for electrochemical construction of inorganic lamellar structures.
Birthweight has implications for physical and mental health in later life. Using data from Caucasian twins collected in Australia, the Netherlands and the United States, and from East Asian twins collected in Japan and South Korea, we compared the total phenotypic, genetic and environmental variances of birthweight between Caucasians and East Asians. Model-fitting analyses yielded four major findings. First, for both males and females, the total phenotypic variances of birthweight were about 45% larger in Caucasians than in East Asians. The larger phenotypic variances were mainly attributable to a greater shared environmental variance of birth- weight in Caucasians (ranging from 62% to 67% of variance) than Asians (48% to 53%). Second, the genetic variance of birthweight was equal in Caucasians and East Asians for both males and females, explaining a maximum of 17% of variance. Third, small variations in total phenotypic variances of birthweight within Caucasians and within East Asians were mainly due to differences in nonshared environmental variances. We speculate that maternal effects (both genetic and environmental) explain the large shared environmental variance in birthweight and may account for the differences in phenotypic variance in birthweight between Caucasians and East Asians. Recent molecular findings and specific environmental factors that are subsumed by maternal effects are discussed.
The composition of yeast communities in the rumen of cattle was investigated using comparative DNA sequence analysis of yeast 26S rDNA genes. 26S rDNA libraries were constructed from rumen fluid (FF), rumen solid (FS) and rumen epithelium (FE). A total of 97 clones, containing a partial 26S rDNA sequence of 0·6 kb length, were sequenced and subjected to an on-line similarity search.
The 41 FF clones could be divided into five classes. The largest class was affiliated with Pezizomycotina class (85·4% of clones), and the remaining classes were related with the Urediniomycotina (2·4%), Hymenomycetes (4·9%), Ustilaginomycetes (4·9%) and Saccharomycotina (2·4%) classes. The 26 FE clones could be divided into three classes and the Saccharomycetes class (92·4% of clones) was the largest group. The remaining classes were related with either Pezizomycotina (3·8%) or Ustilaginomycetes (3·8%). The 30 FS clones were all affiliated with Saccharomycotina. Saccharomycotina were predominant in rumen epithelium and rumen solid while Pezizomycotina were predominant in rumen fluid. Yeast belonging to the Saccharomycotina class was predominant in the rumen as a whole (57%). One clone (FF34) had less than 90% similarity to any sequence in the database and was thus apparently unrelated to any previously described yeast.
We study the optical and structural properties of rib-loaded waveguides working in the 600-900 nm spectral range. A Si nanocrystal-rich SiOx with Si excess nominally ranging from 10 to 20% forms the active region of the waveguide. Starting materials were fused silica wafers and 2 μm-thick SiO2 thermally grown onto Si substrate. Si nanocrystals were precipitated by annealing at 1100°C after quadruple Si ion implantation to high doses in a flat profile. The complete phase separation and formation of Si nanocrystals were monitored by means of optical tools, such as Raman, optical absorption and photoluminescence. Grain size distribution was obtained by electron microscopy. The actual Si excess content was obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The rib-loaded structure of the waveguide was fabricated by photolitographic and reactive ion etching processes, with patterned rib widths ranging from 1 to 8 μm. M-lines spectroscopy measurements provided a direct measurement of the refractive index and thickness of the active layers versus Si excess. When coupling a probe signal at 780 nm or 633 nm into the waveguide, an attenuation of at least 11 dB/cm was observed. These propagation losses have been attributed to Mie scattering, waveguide irregularities and direct absorption by the silicon nanocrystals.
In this paper, we report a self-assembly of surfactant molecules at the interface of air/hygroscopic quaternary ammonium salts such as tetrabutylammonium acetate (TBAAc), tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB), and tetrabutylammonium nitrate (TBAN), where they show different hygroscopicity, TBAAc > TBAB > TBAN. Homogeneously dissolved surfactants rearrange themselves when they contact air due to high moisture adsorption behavior of such organic salts. Highly ordered lamellar phases with different lattice spacings have been observed when surfactants with long alkyl chains were used. Alkylammonium halides form monolayers, while neutral alkylamines forms bilayers based upon basal spacings of their X-ray diffraction patterns. The change in basal spacings in lamellar patterns, the alkyl chain conformation of surfactants, and Hbonding property of neutral amine surfactants are discussed in detail.
We have studied the change of the spectral response in a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) by using the impurity-free vacancy disordering (IFVD) to change the bandgap of the GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well absorption layer. IFVD process has been carried out with PECVD-grown SiO2 capping on the MOCVD-grown QWIP structure, whose absorption region consists of 25 periods of 3.6nm thick Si-doped GaAs well and 50nm thick Al0.24Ga0.76As barrier. The PL peak of MQW decreased with the increase of annealing temperature and time from 802 nm to 700 nm at 15 K. The fabricated QWIP whose absorption region was intermixed at 850 °C by IFVD technique showed the maximum change in spectral response from 8 to 10 um when compared to a QWIP without intermixing. This result implies that the intermixing technology can be used to make multicolor QWIP without growing multiple IR absorption regions.
Organofunctional silanes are the key intermediates for production of silicon polymeric chemicals. Traditionally, platinum catalysts on carbon support materials have been used for these hydrosilylation reactions. The efficiency of the current commercial Pt/C catalyst is not very satisfactory, so a catalyst of platinum on aluminum oxide support was developed to accelerate the reactions. The Pt/Al2O3catalyst greatly increases both reaction and conversion rates. However, the acidic nature of the supporting material is sometimes undesirable. Recently, a new class of platinum-copper bimetallic catalysts has been developed at Dow Corning, using co-deposition techniques with platinum chloride and copper chloride precursors. The bimetallic catalysts have also demonstrated significantly improved on hydrosilylation reaction efficiency and rates. The activity, selectivity, and stability of the catalysts are related to their structural properties, including catalyst particle size, size distribution, and particle composition. The knowledge of catalyst structures are, therefore, very important for understanding the performance of the catalysts and for optimizing production processes.