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For decades, fructose intake has been recognised as an environmental risk for metabolic syndromes and diseases. Here we comprehensively examined the effects of fructose intake on mice liver transcriptomes. Fructose-supplemented water (34 %; w/v) was fed to both male and female C57BL/6N mice at their free will for 6 weeks, followed by hepatic transcriptomics analysis. Based on our criteria, differentially expressed genes (DEG) were selected and subjected to further computational analyses to predict key pathways and upstream regulator(s). Subsequently, predicted genes and pathways from the transcriptomics dataset were validated via quantitative RT-PCR analyses. As a result, we identified eighty-nine down-regulated and eighty-eight up-regulated mRNA in fructose-fed mice livers. These DEG were subjected to bioinformatics analysis tools in which DEG were mainly enriched in xenobiotic metabolic processes; further, in the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, it was suggested that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an upstream regulator governing overall changes, while fructose suppresses the AhR signalling pathway. In our quantitative RT-PCR validation, we confirmed that fructose suppressed AhR signalling through modulating expressions of transcription factor (AhR nuclear translocator; Arnt) and upstream regulators (Ncor2, and Rb1). Altogether, we demonstrated that ad libitum fructose intake suppresses the canonical AhR signalling pathway in C57BL/6N mice liver. Based on our current observations, further studies are warranted, especially with regard to the effects of co-exposure to fructose on (1) other types of carcinogens and (2) inflammation-inducing agents (or even diets such as a high-fat diet), to find implications of fructose-induced AhR suppression.
Neuroticism, a ‘Big Five’ personality trait, has been associated with sub-clinical traits of both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of the current study was to examine whether causal overlap between ASD and ADHD traits can be accounted for by genetic and environmental risk factors that are shared with neuroticism. We performed twin-based structural equation modeling using self-report data from 12 items of the Neo Five-Factor Inventory Neuroticism domain, 11 Social Responsiveness Scale items, and 12 Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale items obtained from 3,170 young adult Australian individual twins (1,081 complete pairs). Univariate analysis for neuroticism, ASD, and ADHD traits suggested that the most parsimonious models were those with additive genetic and unique environmental components, without sex limitation effects. Heritability of neuroticism, ASD, and ADHD traits, as measured by these methods, was moderate (between 40% and 45% for each respective trait). In a trivariate model, we observed moderate phenotypic (between 0.45 and 0.62), genetic (between 0.56 and 0.71), and unique environmental correlations (between 0.37and 0.55) among neuroticism, ASD, and ADHD traits, with the highest value for the shared genetic influence between neuroticism and self-reported ASD traits (rg = 0.71). Together, our results suggest that in young adults, genetic, and unique environmental risk factors indexed by neuroticism overlap with those that are shared by ASD and ADHD.
Substance misuse and associated health-risking behaviors are prevalent in emerging adulthood. There is a knowledge gap concerning the post-high school effects of community-based delivery systems for universal preventive interventions implemented during young adolescence. This study reports effects of the PROSPER delivery system through age 19, 7.5 years past baseline.
A cohort sequential design included 28 public school districts randomly assigned to the PROSPER partnership delivery system or usual-programming conditions. PROSPER community teams implemented a family-focused intervention in 6th grade and a school-based intervention in 7th grade. Outcomes for the age 19, post-high school report included lifetime, current, and frequency of substance misuse, as well as antisocial and health-risking sexual behaviors. Intent-to-treat, multi-level analyses of covariance of point-in-time outcomes were conducted, along with analyses of risk-related moderation of intervention effects.
Results showed emerging adults from PROSPER communities reported significantly lower substance misuse across a range of types of substances, with relative reduction rates of up to 41.0%. No significant findings were observed for associated antisocial and health-risking sexual behavior indices; or for lifetime rates of sexually transmitted infections. Risk-related moderation effects were non-significant, suggesting generally comparable outcomes across higher- and lower-risk subgroups of emerging adults.
The PROSPER delivery system for brief universal preventive interventions has potential for public health impact by reducing long-term substance misuse, with positive results extending beyond high school.
Glacier surface mass-balance measurements on Greenland started more than a century ago, but no compilation exists of the observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. Such data could be used in the evaluation of modelled surface mass balance, or to document changes in glacier melt independently from model output. Here, we present a comprehensive database of Greenland glacier surface mass-balance observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. The database spans the 123 a from 1892 to 2015, contains a total of ~3000 measurements from 46 sites, and is openly accessible through the PROMICE web portal (http://www.promice.dk). For each measurement we provide X, Y and Z coordinates, starting and ending dates as well as quality flags. We give sources for each entry and for all metadata. Two thirds of the data were collected from grey literature and unpublished archive documents. Roughly 60% of the measurements were performed by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS, previously GGU). The data cover all regions of Greenland except for the southernmost part of the east coast, but also emphasize the importance of long-term time series of which there are only two exceeding 20 a. We use the data to analyse uncertainties in point measurements of surface mass balance, as well as to estimate surface mass-balance profiles for most regions of Greenland.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
We examined the cross-sectional relationship between environmental tobacco smoke exposure, continuous performance test (CPT) measures, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or learning disability symptoms in school-aged children.
In total, 989 children (526 boys, mean age 9.1 ± 0.7 years), recruited from five South Korean cities participated in this study. We used urine cotinine as a biomarker for environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and obtained the children's scores on a CPT. Parents completed the Korean versions of the ADHD Rating Scale – IV (ADHD-RS) and Learning Disability Evaluation Scale (LDES). Using generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), we assessed the associations between urine cotinine concentrations, neuropsychological variables, and symptoms of ADHD and learning disabilities. Additionally, we conducted structural equation models to explore the effects' pathways.
After adjusting for a range of relevant covariates, GLMM showed urinary cotinine levels were significantly and positively associated with CPT scores on omission errors, commission errors, response time, and response time variability, and with parent- and teacher-rated ADHD-RS scores. In addition, urine cotinine levels were negatively associated with LDES scores on spelling and mathematical calculations. The structural equation model revealed that CPT variables mediated the association between urine cotinine levels and parental reports of symptoms of ADHD and learning disabilities.
Our data indicate that environmental exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with ADHD and learning disabilities in children, and that impairments in attention and inhibitory control probably mediate the effect.
The effect of ion beams on the formation of Si nanoclusters from a-SiOx films and their luminescence properties is investigated. a-SiOx films with Si content ranging from 33 to 50 at. % were deposited by Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (ECR-PECVD) of SiH4 and O2. Prior to anneal, some samples were implanted with 380 keV Si to a dose ranging from 5.7 × 1014 cm-2 to 5.7 × 1016 cm-2. All films were rapid thermal annealed under flowing Ar environment, and hydrogenated after anneals to passivate defects and to enhance the luminescence of Si nanoclusters. For films with Si content less than 40 at. %, ion beam slightly reduces the photoluminescence (PL) intensity and induces a slight blueshift of the luminescence. For films with Si content greater than 40 at. %, ion beam greatly increases the PL intensity. Based on the effect of the ion beams dose and the ion specie, we propose that ion beams damage greatly promotes nucleation of small Si clusters from the a-SiOx matrix.
We study the optical and structural properties of rib-loaded waveguides working in the 600-900 nm spectral range. A Si nanocrystal-rich SiOx with Si excess nominally ranging from 10 to 20% forms the active region of the waveguide. Starting materials were fused silica wafers and 2 μm-thick SiO2 thermally grown onto Si substrate. Si nanocrystals were precipitated by annealing at 1100°C after quadruple Si ion implantation to high doses in a flat profile. The complete phase separation and formation of Si nanocrystals were monitored by means of optical tools, such as Raman, optical absorption and photoluminescence. Grain size distribution was obtained by electron microscopy. The actual Si excess content was obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The rib-loaded structure of the waveguide was fabricated by photolitographic and reactive ion etching processes, with patterned rib widths ranging from 1 to 8 μm. M-lines spectroscopy measurements provided a direct measurement of the refractive index and thickness of the active layers versus Si excess. When coupling a probe signal at 780 nm or 633 nm into the waveguide, an attenuation of at least 11 dB/cm was observed. These propagation losses have been attributed to Mie scattering, waveguide irregularities and direct absorption by the silicon nanocrystals.
HgMnCdTe/CdTe photodiodes with responsivity cutoffs of up to 1.54 pm have been fabricated by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE). The mesa device structure consists of a boron-implanted mosaic fabricated on a p-type Hg1−x−yMnxCdyTe layer grown on a CdTe substrate. A reverse breakdown voltage (VB) of 50 V and a leakage current density of 1.5 × 10−4 A/cm2 at V = −10 V was measured at room temperature (295K). A 0.75 pF capacitance was also measured under a 5 V reverse bias at room temperature. This device performance based on the quaternary HgMnCdTe shows both theoretical and practical promise of superior performance for wavelengths in the range 1.3 to 1.8 μm for fiber optic applications.
Zinc oxide and cobalt hydroxide films with ordered lamellar structures were electrochemically produced via interfacial surfactant templating. This method utilizes interfacial amphiphile assemblies on a working electrode as a template to electrodeposit inorganic nanostructures. Surfactants with anionic head groups (e.g. sodium dodecyl sulfate, 1-hexadecanesulfonate sodium salt, dodecylbenzenesulfonate sodium salt, and dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt) formed bilayer assemblies with Zn2+ and Co2+ ions on the working electrode and guided the lamellar growth of ZnO and Co(OH)2 films. In order to gain the ability to precisely tailor inorganic lamellar structures, the effect of co-solvent and type of working electrode on the repeat distances, homogeneity and orientation of the interfacial amphiphilic bilayers were investigated. The results described here will provide a useful foundation to design and optimize synthetic conditions for electrochemical construction of inorganic lamellar structures.
In this study, using oxide breakdown voltage and time-dependent-dielectric breakdown measurements, thermal wave modulated reflectance and chemical etching/optical microscopy, we investigated effects of Si ion implantation upon formation of D-defects and thin gate oxide integrity. Our data show that addition of Si ion implantation with a dose of up to 1013 ions/cm2 improves oxide integrity if the implantation is done at a certain step just before sacrificial oxidation in the Mb DRAM process. However, no improvement in oxide integrity is observed when the same implantation is done on the virgin wafer surfaces at the start of the same Mb DRAM process. We discuss our hypothesis that the improvement in oxide integrity is due to a reduction in the D-defect density in the near-surface region of the wafer.
Single crystal NiSi2 films of type A and type B orientations with thicknesses ranging from 70–600Å have been grown on (111), n-type Si substrates. TEM and channeling measurements indicate that these films are of excellent epitaxial quality with uniform orientations over the entire range of observation. HRTEM studies show regular and atomically abrupt interfaces for both NiSi2 orientations with occasional localized planar defects. I-V and photoresponse measurements of the Schottky barrier heights(SBH) of the type A films yield consistent values of 0.62±.01eV. However, for type B films I-V measurements give a SBH of 0.69±.01eV while the photoresponse results give 0.77±.05eV. This discrepancy can be explained quantitatively by a phenomenological model in which a small percentage of low barrier height regions is incorporated into the type B films.
To obtain the optimal growth conditions of Mo/Si multilayer structures, produced with e-beam evaporation, the effect of using enhanced deposition temperatures is investigated in detail. We describe the variations of the structure for multilayers deposited at substrate temperatures ranging from 300 K to 550 K. A temperature of 490 K was found to be the optimum resulting in low interface roughness and moderate inter-diffusion. The decrease of the dspacing at the optimum substrate temperature, compared to coatings deposited at room temperature, is explained by a change in free volume of the Si layer.
In-plane and out-of-plane lattice parameters were measured in a series of coherent Fe-Cu multilayers using non-axial high resolution electron microscopy (HREM). The results indicate that the multilayers are tetragonally distorted with the magnitude of the distortion varying with the thickness of the Fe component. These distortions preclude an understanding of the multilayer structure in terms of conventional elasticity theory. The breakdown of epitaxy for thicker Fe layers was also investigated and it was found that the b.c.c. Fe grew with  parallel to  of the coherent f.c.c. multilayer.
A capacitance relative humidity (RH) sensor is described that has a design, construction, and material composition that result in an inexpensive and robust sensor. This sensor has a multilayer, free-standing film construction. It consists of a humidity sensitive polyimide (PI) dielectric core and conductive layers consisting of carbon filled polysulfone on each side of the polyirnide film to form a capacitor. The polyimide used is a BPDA-ODA type, and replaces a PMDA-ODA type polyimide used in a previous version of this sensor. The BPDA-ODA sensor has a nominal capacitance of 200 pF and a nominal sensitivity of 13% at 100% RH. The characteristics of this humidity sensor are discussed and compared to the characteristics of the PMDA-ODA type sensor. Characteristics considered include the PI film moisture uptake and water vapor transmission, and the sensors' sensitivity to relative humidity, frequency response, and aging at 85°C/85% RH. The dual-state sorption model and free volume calculations are used to demonstrate that observed differences in the film are due to differences in chemical composition between the films.
Multilayer (ML) structures composed of Mo-Be, Ru-Be and Rh-Be with bilayer periods of - 6 nm have been grown using dc magnetron sputter deposition. The ML microstructure has been characterized using x-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and the normal incidence reflectivity has been measured at soft x-ray wavelengths.
Epitaxial thin film multilayers are limited by the need for both lattice and thermal expansion matching. Recently, a new deposition technique, known as van der Waals epitaxy, has been developed to overcome these limitations. Van der Waals Epitaxy (VDWE)promises the ability to deposit multilayers based on the property of interest without being limited by lattice and thermal expansion mismatch. The crystallographic two dimensional metal chalcogenides are characterized by strong covalent bonding within a layer and weak van der Waals bonds between layers. By combining the layered nature of the metal chalcogenides with other layered materials as well as crystallographic 3D materials, oriented single crystal layers can be deposited, resulting in novel structures with atomically abrupt interfaces. However, even with the weak van der Waals bond, substrate/film interactions play a large role in the final structure.
To study the substrate/film interaction occurring during van der Waals Epitaxy growth on 3D surfaces, the metal chalcogenide GaSe has been systematically deposited on GaAs(1 11) substrates. To develop an understanding of the interaction of the substratewith the growing film, growth of GaSe on both atomically rough and smooth substrates was studied. Comparison of the information developed through RHEED, TEM and AFM have been used to understand the basic nucleation and growth process as well as the observation and formation of film defects.
The solid phase crystallization behavior of argon ion (Ar+) implanted very thin polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) films has been investigated. Poly-Si films of 500Å thickness were deposited at 625°C by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). The films were amorphized by Ar+ implantation with 7 ° tilt angle. The amount of ions implanted was varied from 2.0 × 1013 cm-2 to 1.2 × 1015 cm-2 and the acceleration voltages from 40KeV to 120KeV. The films were recrystallized by furnace annealing at 580°C for 48 hours in N2 atmosphere, followed by 1000°C annealing The crystallinity of the recrystallized Si films and the distribution of the argon atoms in the film were investigated. It was found that the crystallinity strongly depended on the Ar+ implantation dose. The average grain size of Ar+ implanted film was about 0.25μm, which was smaller than that of Si+ implanted film of the same dose, 0.45μm. Ar atoms retarded the grain growth rate during the annealing process and the excess Ar atoms in Si films were segregated at the surface of silicon films after 1000°C annealing Poly-Si thin film transistors (TFTs) were fabricated at high temperature using Ar+ implantation technique. Remarkable electrical characteristics (Ids- Vgs) were obtained such as an electron mobility of 35 cm2/V.s, which was attributed to the enhancement of crystallinity by Ar+ implantation. But, segregated Ar atoms near the interface would give rise to structural deformation and crystalline defects which can act as the scattering and’ trapping centers for carriers.