To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Research is being conducted on low energy x-ray and electron physics and application in the 100-1000 eV region. Work on the optimization of fluorescence analysis for light elements, including the development of efficient dispersive systems as the multilayer analysers of the Langmuir-Blodgett type, has been continued. Along with the ultrasoft x-ray program has been one on photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy. An evaluation of the application of low energy electron spectroscopy for surface characterization is being made.
Effective patient engagement is central to patient-centered outcomes research. A well-designed infrastructure supports and facilitates patient engagement, enabling study development and implementation. We sought to understand infrastructure needs from recipients of Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) pilot grant awards.
We surveyed recipients of PCORI pilot project awards on self-perceived strengths in engagement infrastructure through PCORI’s Ways of Engaging-Engagement Activity Tool survey, and interviewed leaders of 8 projects who volunteered as exemplars. Descriptive statistics summarized the survey findings. We conducted a thematic analysis of the interview transcripts.
Of the 50 surveyed pilots, 22 answered the engagement infrastructure questions (44% response rate). Survey and interview findings emphasized the importance of committed institutional leadership, ongoing relationships with stakeholder organizations, and infrastructure funding through Clinical and Translational Science Awards, PCORI, and institutional discretionary funds.
These findings highlight the importance of and how to improve upon existing institutional infrastructure.
It has become clear in the past few years that the distribution and kinematics of HI in M31 is far from simple. The new high-resolution survey made with the Westerbork SRT in the 21-cm line of atomic hydrogen by Brinks and Shane (1983) shows this dramatically. Along almost any line of sight through M31 two separate velocity systems are sampled. Based on a previous survey Shane (1978) and later Bajaja and Shane (1982) proposed that the extra component is due to warping of the plane of the galaxy into the direction of and crossing the line-of-sight. Roberts et al. (1978) and Whitehurst et al. (1978) emphasized that the observed profile structure ruled out confinement of the gas to a thin plane. Unwin (1983) reached a similar conclusion on the basis of his survey. The most complete model produced up until now which accounts for the two velocity systems is the one by Henderson (1979), based on the 100-m Effelsberg survey of M31 by Cram et al. (1980)
Around 70% of total seed phosphorus is represented by phytate which must be hydrolysed to be bioavailable in non-ruminant diets. The limited endogenous phytase activity in non-ruminant animals make it common practice to add an exogenous phytase source to most poultry and pig feeds. The mature grain phytase activity (MGPA) of cereal seeds provides a route for the seeds themselves to contribute to phytate digestion, but MGPA varies considerably between species and most varieties in current use make negligible contributions. Currently, all phytases used for feed supplementation and transgenic improvement of MGPA are derived from microbial enzymes belonging to the group of histidine acid phosphatases (HAP). Cereals contain HAP phytases, but the bulk of MGPA can be attributed to phytases belonging to a completely different group of phosphatases, the purple acid phosphatases (PAPhy). In recent years, increased MGPAs were achieved in cisgenic barley holding extra copies of barley PAPhy and in the wheat HIGHPHY mutant, where MGPA was increased to ~6200 FTU/kg. In the present study, the effect of replacing 33%, 66% and 100% of a standard wheat with HIGHPHY wheat was compared with a control diet with and without 500 FTU of supplemental phytase. Diets were compared by evaluating broiler performance, ileal Ca and P digestibility and tibia development, using nine replicate pens of four birds per diet over 3 weeks from hatch. There were no differences between treatments in any tibia or bird performance parameters, indicating the control diet did not contain sufficiently low levels of phosphorus to distinguish effect of phytase addition. However, in a comparison of the two wheats, the ileal Ca and P digestibility coefficients for the 100% HIGHPHY wheat diets are 22.9% and 35.6% higher, respectively, than for the control diet, indicating the wheat PAPhy is functional in the broiler digestive tract. Furthermore, 33% HIGHPHY replacement of conventional wheat, significantly improved Ca and P digestibility over the diet-supplemented exogenous phytase, probably due to the higher phytase activity in the HIGHPHY diet (1804 v. 1150 FTU). Full replacement by HIGHPHY gave 14.6% and 22.8% higher ileal digestibility coefficients for Ca and P, respectively, than for feed supplemented with exogenous HAP phytase at 500 FTU. This indicates that in planta wheat PAPhys has promising potential for improving P and mineral digestibility in animal feed.
Adult ventilator-associated event (VAE) definitions include ventilator-associated conditions (VAC) and subcategories for infection-related ventilator-associated complications (IVAC) and possible ventilator-associated pneumonia (PVAP). We explored these definitions for children.
Pediatric, cardiac, or neonatal intensive care units (ICUs) in 6 US hospitals
Patients ≤18 years old ventilated for ≥1 day
We identified patients with pediatric VAC based on previously proposed criteria. We applied adult temperature, white blood cell count, antibiotic, and culture criteria for IVAC and PVAP to these patients. We matched pediatric VAC patients with controls and evaluated associations with adverse outcomes using Cox proportional hazards models.
In total, 233 pediatric VACs (12,167 ventilation episodes) were identified. In the cardiac ICU (CICU), 62.5% of VACs met adult IVAC criteria; in the pediatric ICU (PICU), 54.2% of VACs met adult IVAC criteria; and in the neonatal ICU (NICU), 20.2% of VACs met adult IVAC criteria. Most patients had abnormal white blood cell counts and temperatures; we therefore recommend simplifying surveillance by focusing on “pediatric VAC with antimicrobial use” (pediatric AVAC). Pediatric AVAC with a positive respiratory diagnostic test (“pediatric PVAP”) occurred in 8.9% of VACs in the CICU, 13.3% of VACs in the PICU, and 4.3% of VACs in the NICU. Hospital mortality was increased, and hospital and ICU length of stay and duration of ventilation were prolonged among all pediatric VAE subsets compared with controls.
We propose pediatric AVAC for surveillance related to antimicrobial use, with pediatric PVAP as a subset of AVAC. Studies on generalizability and responsiveness of these metrics to quality improvement initiatives are needed, as are studies to determine whether lower pediatric VAE rates are associated with improvements in other outcomes.
This handlist is compiled from the notes of the late Canon E.H. Burton, deposited after his death in the Westminster Archives. No attempt has been made to undertake the formidable task of checking Canon Burton’s references or of bringing them up to date. in some cases the sources which he used have been printed since he compiled his notes, e.g. The Valladolid Diary (C.R.S. Vol. 30), and Kirk's Biographies, 1909, One of the most valuable features of the list is that it contains references to the Archives of the English Chapter, which have generally been difficult of access. in cases where biographical notices have already been published, which appear to include all the material gathered by Canon Burton, and which are easily available, a mere reference is supplied to the published article. Instances of this procedure in the present instalment are the notices of John Abbot, and V. John Adams.
Archaeological evidence suggests that the Chalcolithic period (5th–4th millennium BCE) in the southern Levant was a time of significant settlement expansion and increasing social complexity. Important technological and social developments during this era set the stage for the later rise of fortified sites and nascence of urbanization in the Early Bronze Age. Controversy surrounding the chronology of Chalcolithic settlement and the reconstruction of social trajectories has stimulated an interest in building a database of radiocarbon dates to measure the tempo of change and help resolve these issues. To facilitate social evolutionary research, this paper reviews and updates published 14C data for the southern Levantine Chalcolithic. The now-substantial database supports the generally accepted time frame for this archaeological period and allows synchronic comparisons across diverse geographic subregions in the southern Levant. In addition, it helps to temporally place the emergence of sophisticated technologies and the development of complex social institutions within the Chalcolithic period. However, radiometrically based attempts at pan-regional internal periodization of the Chalcolithic and fine-tuning of protohistoric events such as site establishment and abandonment are frustrated by the lack of precision in 14C dates, which limits their ability to resolve chronological sequence. Improved delineation of Chalcolithic social trajectories can be achieved most effectively by focussing research efforts on stratigraphic and typological investigations of deeply-stratified settlement sites such as Teleilat Ghassul and Shiqmim within their local contexts.
A new and unique radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) facility has been constructed at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The defining characteristic of the new system is its large-gap optical elements that provide a larger-than-standard beam acceptance. Such a system is ideally suited for high-throughput, high-precision measurements of 14C. Details and performance of the new system are presented.
Near-infrared (1-3μm) emission lines of molecular and ionized hydrogen are excellent tools for investigating the morphology, energetics and kinematics of planetary nebulae, especially those PNe which contain large amounts of dust and are thus obscured at shorter wavelengths. The southern planetary nebula NGC 3132 was imaged with UNSWIRF (University of New South Wales Infrared Fabry-Perot) and IRIS on the 3.9m AAT Images in the H2 v=1-0 S(1) and H2 v=2-1 S(1) lines at 2.12μm and 2.25μm, and in Hii Brγ at 2.16μm are presented.
In consequence of the decision made by the Fifth General Assembly of the I.A.U. I have been entrusted, from January 1936, with the direction of the Central Bureau for the International Service of Latitudes.
I am much indebted to Prof. Kimura, who preceded me as Director and to Prof. Kohlschütter, Director of the Geodetic Institute of Potsdam, for information and advice, which has been of great assistance to me; therefore I desire to acknowledge to them my deep gratitude.
We describe a versatile infrared camera/spectrograph, IRIS, designed and constructed at the Anglo-Australian Observatory for use on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. A variety of optical configurations can be selected under remote control to provide several direct image scales and a few low-resolution spectroscopic formats. Two cross-dispersed transmission echelles are of novel design, as is the use of a modified Bowen-Burch system to provide a fast f/ratio in the widest-field option. The drive electronics includes a choice of readout schemes for versatility, and continuous display when the array is not taking data, to facilitate field acquisition and focusing.
The linearity of the detector has been studied in detail. Although outwardly good, slight nonlinearities prevent removal of fixed-pattern noise from the data without application of a cubic linearising function.
Specific control and data-reduction software has been written. We describe also a scanning mode developed for spectroscopic imaging.
Several authors have contributed to this report: L. Blitz (Section V), W.B. Burton (Sections IIIB and IVB), J. Einasto (Section VII), B. Fuchs (Sections VIC and VID), W. Hermsen (Section VIF), G. Lynga (Sections IIIA and IVA), M. Mayor (Section II), M. Miyamoto (Sections VIB and VIE) and R. Wielen (Sections I, VIA, and editing). The layout of this report follows previous practice. The galactic center is included in Sections IV and V. The references are, as far as possible, coded by their numbers (VV.CCC.NNN) in the bibliography “Astronomy and Astrophysics Abstracts” (AAA). VV identifies the volume of AAA, while CCC.NNN gives the subject category and the serial number within that volume.
Our knowledge of the universe comes from recording the photon and particle fluxes incident on the Earth from space. We thus require sensitive measurement across the entire energy spectrum, using large telescopes with efficient instrumentation located on superb sites. Technological advances and engineering constraints are nearing the point where we are recording as many photons arriving at a site as is possible. Major advances in the future will come from improving the quality of the site. The ultimate site is, of course, beyond the Earth’s atmosphere, such as on the Moon, but economic limitations prevent our exploiting this avenue to the degree that the scientific community desires. Here we describe an alternative, which offers many of the advantages of space for a fraction of the cost: the Antarctic Plateau.
In late 2011 the New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries reported an increase in confirmed laboratory diagnoses of salmonellosis in dairy herds. To identify risk factors for herd-level outbreaks of salmonellosis we conducted a case-control study of New Zealand dairy herds in 2011–2012. In a multivariable analysis, use of continuous feed troughs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6·2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·0–20], use of pelletized magnesium supplements (aOR 10, 95% CI 3·3–33) and use of palm kernel meal as a supplementary feed (aOR 8·7, 95% CI 2·5–30) were positively associated with a herd-level outbreak of salmonellosis between 1 July 2011 and 31 January 2012. We conclude that supplementary feeds used on dairy farms (regardless of type) need to be stored and handled appropriately to reduce the likelihood of bacterial contamination, particularly from birds and rodents. Magnesium supplementation in the pelletized form played a role in triggering outbreaks of acute salmonellosis in New Zealand dairy herds in 2011–2012.
The resonance lines of Mgii occur at wavelengths (2802.7 Å, 2795.5 Å) just beyond the extinction limit of the Earth's atmosphere. At such wavelengths sophisticated optical techniques can now be employed and this fact, together with the high cosmic abundance of magnesium, makes these lines particularly important for study in UV Astronomy. In the case of the Sun, the lines consist of a broad absorption with a pronounced emission core.
Calculations based on Poisson-Boltzmann theory are used to investigate the equilibrium properties of an electrolyte containing TcO4− and SO42− ions near the surface of amorphous silica. The calculations show that the concentration of TcO4− is greater than SO42− at distances less than 1 nm from the surface due to the negative charge density caused by deprotonation of the amorphous silica silanol groups. At lower pH, the surface becomes protonated and the magnitude of this effect is reduced. These results have implications for the potential use of oxyanion-SAMMS for the environmental remediation of water contaminated with 99Tc.
The use of inert markers in broiler diets eliminates the need to quantitatively evaluate feed intake and excreta output to determine diet digestibility, and enables nutrient uptake at specific points along the gastrointestinal tract to be examined. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is commonly used for this purpose and measured using a UV-spectrophotometric assay. Two experiments were conducted to observe whether an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) assay is able to replace the UV-spectroscopy assay for rapid analysis of TiO2 in broiler feed and ileal digesta samples. In the first experiment, TiO2 was added at 5 g/kg to 19 broiler diets. Ross 308 male broilers (n=452) fed these diets were involved in a series of digestion studies to determine ileal digesta recovery of TiO2. In the second experiment, defined amounts of TiO2 were added to ileal digesta samples from Ross 308 male broilers (n=176) and TiO2 recoveries were determined. The feed and ileal samples from both experiments were analysed by both UV-spectroscopy and ICP-OES, and relatedness of the findings from the two assays was determined. Overall relatedness of the two assays was strong for determination of TiO2 concentration in both the broiler diets and ileal digesta samples (r=0.908 and r=0.884, respectively). Overall recovery of supplemented TiO2 was 97.62% by the UV-spectroscopy assay and 98.77% by the ICP-OES assay. The ICP-OES assay in this study was as accurate as spectrophotometric determination for the quantification of TiO2 content. The ICP-OES method can also be used to analyse several elements within one assay, with a single preparation step, and thus the measurement of TiO2 may be incorporated into the analysis of other minerals. Time and resources dedicated to determining diet digestibility in broilers could be minimised by using the ICP-OES assay to replace the UV-spectroscopy assay when measuring TiO2 concentration.
A study was conducted to evaluate a natural carbohydrate fraction Actigen™ (NCF), derived from mannanoligosaccharide, in feed on growth performance, intestinal morphology and goblet cell number and area of male broilers'. Dietary treatments included: 1) control diet (antibiotic and NCF free), 2) NCF at 200 g/t, 3) NCF at 400 g/t, and 4) NCF 800 g/t. Two hundred and forty birds were placed into 12 replicate pens per treatment (5 birds/pen), sixty birds per treatment. Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly up to day 42. At this time a 2.5cm section of jejunum and duodenum were excised post mortem for morphological analysis. Birds fed 200 g/t and 800 g/t NCF were significantly (P < 0.01) heavier from day 14 onwards than the control birds. Feed intake was significantly higher in birds fed 200 g/t NCF compared to those fed the control at 21 and 35 days (P < 0.05). Diets containing 200 g/t and 800 g/t of NCF significantly decreased broiler feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to the control in the first phase (1–14 days) (P < 0.01) and levels of NCF decreased FCR (P < 0.05) in the second phase (15–28 days). NCF had no significant effect on villus height, villus width, crypt depth or villus to crypt ratio in either duodenum or jejunum. NCF did not significantly affect goblet cell area or goblet cell number in the duodenum, however, in the jejunum, 800 g/t NCF significantly (P < 0.05) increased goblet cell area over the control. In conclusion, NCF showed a positive effect on broiler performance in the starter and grower phases, and increased goblet cell area in the jejunum, suggesting higher levels of mucin production. This indicated that the performance benefit of NCF could be age-dependent, with younger birds responding more than the older ones. There were no additional benefits to performance when feeding NCF for a longer period (after 28 d of age), however it is postulated that birds fed NCF would have greater defence to pathogenic challenge through increased storage capacity of mucin.