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The causes of the beaching and death of sea turtles have not been fully clarified and continue to be studied. Mild, moderate and severe lesions caused by spirorchiidiosis have been seen for decades in different organs and were recently defined as the cause of death of a loggerhead turtle. In the present study, eyes and optic nerves were analysed in green sea turtles with spirorchiidiosis and no other debilitating factors. Injuries to the optic nerve and choroid layer were described in 235 animals (90%) infected with spirorchiids. Turtles with ocular spirorchiidiosis are approximately three times more likely to be cachectic than turtles with spirorchiidiosis without ocular involvement.
In 2017, Italy experienced a large measles epidemic with 5408 cases and four deaths. As Subnational Reference Laboratory of the Measles and Rubella surveillance NETwork (MoRoNET), the EpiSoMI (Epidemiology and Molecular Surveillance of Infections) Laboratory (University of Milan) set up rapid and active surveillance for the complete characterisation of the Measles virus (Mv) responsible for the large measles outbreak in Milan and surrounding areas (Lombardy, Northern Italy). The aims of this study were to describe the genetic profile of circulating viruses and to track the pathway of measles transmission. Molecular analysis was performed by sequencing the highly variable 450 nucleotides region of the N gene (N-450) of Mv genome. Two-hundred and ninety-nine strains of Mv were analysed. The phylogenetic analysis showed five different variants, two not previously described in the studied area, belonging to D8 and B3 genotypes. Three events of continuous transmission of autochthonous variants (D8-Osaka, D8-London and B3-Milan variants) and two events of continuous transmission of imported variants (B3-Dublin and D8-Hulu Langat) tracked five different transmission pathways. These pathways outlined two epidemic peaks: the first in April and the second in July 2017. The correlation between Mv variant and the epidemiological data may enable us to identify the sources of virus importation and recognise long-lasting virus transmission pathways.
With the recent discovery of a dozen dusty star-forming galaxies and around 30 quasars at z > 5 that are hyper-luminous in the infrared (μ LIR > 1013 L⊙, where μ is a lensing magnification factor), the possibility has opened up for SPICA, the proposed ESA M5 mid-/far-infrared mission, to extend its spectroscopic studies toward the epoch of reionisation and beyond. In this paper, we examine the feasibility and scientific potential of such observations with SPICA’s far-infrared spectrometer SAFARI, which will probe a spectral range (35–230 μm) that will be unexplored by ALMA and JWST. Our simulations show that SAFARI is capable of delivering good-quality spectra for hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z = 5 − 10, allowing us to sample spectral features in the rest-frame mid-infrared and to investigate a host of key scientific issues, such as the relative importance of star formation versus AGN, the hardness of the radiation field, the level of chemical enrichment, and the properties of the molecular gas. From a broader perspective, SAFARI offers the potential to open up a new frontier in the study of the early Universe, providing access to uniquely powerful spectral features for probing first-generation objects, such as the key cooling lines of low-metallicity or metal-free forming galaxies (fine-structure and H2 lines) and emission features of solid compounds freshly synthesised by Population III supernovae. Ultimately, SAFARI’s ability to explore the high-redshift Universe will be determined by the availability of sufficiently bright targets (whether intrinsically luminous or gravitationally lensed). With its launch expected around 2030, SPICA is ideally positioned to take full advantage of upcoming wide-field surveys such as LSST, SKA, Euclid, and WFIRST, which are likely to provide extraordinary targets for SAFARI.
IR spectroscopy in the range 12–230 μm with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA’s large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z ~ 6.
Precise topography from European Remote-sensing Satellite radar altimetry and high density of airborne radio-echo sounding in the area surrounding Dome C, Antarctica, show a link between surface features and subglacial lakes. In this paper, we extend the study to fine structures by computing a curvature-based coefficient (cy) related to surface undulations. These coefficient variations reveal many surface undulations, and some elongated features of this parameter seem to link known subglacial lakes. A population of high values of this coefficient, assumed to correspond to transitions between sliding and non-sliding flow regime, strengthen the appearance of a network which would link most of the lakes in the area. The existence of such a network impacts on ice-flow dynamics and on subglacial-lake studies.
Improved knowledge of geometrical boundary conditions, such as bedrock geometry and surface topography, can contribute significantly to glaciological studies including ice-sheet-flow modelling. Precise thickness and altimetric data allow an estimation of ice-flow direction, the balance velocity and the basal shear stress. These parameters are calculated along a 1160 km profile in East Antarctica using a relationship between shear stress, basal temperature, the Glen flow exponent and a parameter related to strain rate. Strong variations of the flow-law parameters and basal conditions are found to play a major role in the ice-flow pattern. Sliding, anisotropy and longitudinal stress strongly perturb the validity of the law, but their signature can be identified.
The power strength of the radio-echo signal coming from reflecting sub-ice surfaces is used to determine the nature of the reflecting surface, i.e. rock, water or sea water. Electromagnetic analysis shows that the amplitude variations detected by radio-echo sounding are mainly due to the nature of the interface as well as the concave or convex shape of the reflectors. In this paper, some relevant profiles showing the power variations due to the different nature of the interface and the shape of the reflectors are presented. These results are important both for surface shape determination and for subglacial lake detection.
Data from radio-sounding measurements have been analysed to determine the ice thickness and the bottom morphology of Drygalski Ice Tongue, Antarctica. The morphology and the structure of the bottom surface has been studied through an electromagnetic interpretation. A function that includes the gain/loss due to the geometrical shape of the reflecting surfaces has been calculated. Such a function has been evaluated assuming some physical electromagnetic quantities (the temperature of the glacier, the complex dielectric permittivity of ice, sea ice and sea water). The ice-water interface shows both concave and convex faces toward the sounding system, producing a focusing or deocusing effect, detected as absolute (or relative) amplitude variation in the echo signal. It is shown that the calculated function follows quite well the observed bottom rippled surface of the glacier tongue estimated from the time-arrival measurements of the echo signal.
During the 1999–2000 Italian Expedition, an airborne radar survey was performed along 12 transects across Lake Vostok, Antarctica, and its western and eastern margins. Ice thickness, subglacial elevation and the precise location of lake boundaries were determined. Radar data confirm the geometry derived from previous surveys, but with some slight differences. We measured a length of up to 260 km, a maximum width of 81 km and an area of roughly 14 000 km2. Along the major axis, from north to south, the ice thickness varies from 3800 to 4250 m, with a decreasing gradient. From west to east the ice thickness is fairly constant, except for two narrow strips located on the western and eastern margins, where it increases with high thickening rate. Over the lake the surface elevation increases from 3476 m a.s.l. (south) to 3525 (north), with a decreasing gradient, while the lake surface elevation decreases from −315 to −750 m a.s.l., with a decreasing gradient (absolute value). The ice-surface and lake-ceiling slopes suggest that the lake is in a state of hydrostatic equilibrium.
The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological profile of HPV oropharyngeal infections in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. A total of 135 subjects were enrolled at the L. Sacco University Hospital (Milan, Italy) to evaluate their HPV oropharyngeal infection status at baseline and at a follow-up visit at least 12 months later. HPV DNA was detected from oropharyngeal swabs using an in-house nested PCR that amplifies a segment of the L1 gene. The PCR products were then sequenced and genotyped. A greater percentage of high-risk genotypes was identified compared to low-risk genotypes (13·7% vs. 6·9%, P < 0·05), and two uncommon alpha-HPV genotypes were detected, i.e. HPV-102 and HPV-114. HPV infection prevalence was 24·4% and the cumulative incidence was 24·1%. During the follow-up period, one case of HPV infection (HPV-33) persisted, while the overall rate of infection clearance was 58·3%. HPV oropharyngeal infection was widespread in the cohort examined, and most of the infections were transient and cleared within 12 months. These results may help to clarify the role of HPV in the oropharynx and may also improve our understanding of the need to implement preventive strategies in at-risk populations.
As part of a broad study of stellar winds in different galaxies, to establish observational constraints on the influence of metallicity on the mass loss process, we investigate the winds of planetary nebula (PN) nuclei in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Theoretically, the radiation pressure mechanism implies a strong dependence of the wind acceleration on the element abundances. Observationally, model predictions have been tested using Pop. I stars in the Magellanic Clouds (Puls et al. 1996, A&A, 305, 171) and massive stars in the nearby galaxies M31, M33 and NGC 6822 (Bianchi et al. 1996, AJ, 111, 2303; Bianchi et al. 1996, in prep.). We now extend this investigation to low luminosity, evolved objects.
Trois résolutions ont été adoptées par la 4e Assemblée générale de l’Union astronomique internationale, à Cambridge (Mass.) en 1932.
Elles se rapportaient à l’opération internationale des longitudes (réalisée en 1933) et avaient pour objet:
(1)L’émission d’un trait d’une durée de 10 secondes après tout envoi de signaux horaires.
(2)La mission confiée au Bureau international de l’Heure (B.I.H.) de centraliser, discuter et publier les résultats de l’opération.
(3)L’approbation du programme des opérations, exposé dans le Rapport présenté à Cambridge par le Président et le Secrétaire de la Commission.
Le Président est heureux de constater que les propositions de ce Rapport ont pu être réalisées dans une très large part. Il remercie tous les Observatoires et organismes participants de leur collaboration et les félicite vivement de l’activité qu’ils ont déployée pendant la campagne scientifique de 1933.
Sur la proposition du Comité exécutif, l’Assemblée générale du 13 juillet 1928, réunie à Leyde, adopta la résolution suivante:
“Le Comité exécutif espère que d’ici à la fin de la présente convention (31 décembre 1931) la direction du Bureau de l’Heure pourra être exercée par le Directeur de l’Observatoire de Paris, et qu’après cette date l’activité actuelle du Bureau pourra être conservée sans faire appel aux fonds limités de l’Union, peut-être avec la coopération d’observatoires et autres institutions.”
Depuis la dernière réunion, notre commission s’est transformée en une commission internationale mixte dépendant à la fois de l’Union astronomique et de l’Union géodésique et géophysique internationales.
On se rappelle que l’Assemblée générale, réunie à Leiden, a émis le vœu que le Président de l’U.A.I. s’entretienne avec le Président de l’Union de Géodésie et de Géophysique et le prie d’examiner s’il serait possible que celle-ci apporte quelque contribution aux dépenses du Bureau international de l’Heure. Comme suite à ce vœu, l’Assemblée générale de cette dernière Union, réunie à Lisboa en 1933, a adopté la résolution suivante:
“L’Union géodésique et géophysique internationale décide qu’une subvention régulière annuelle sera allouée par elle au Bureau international de l’Heure, dans les limites de ses crédits et des besoins du Bureau.
In consequence of the decision made by the Fifth General Assembly of the I.A.U. I have been entrusted, from January 1936, with the direction of the Central Bureau for the International Service of Latitudes.
I am much indebted to Prof. Kimura, who preceded me as Director and to Prof. Kohlschütter, Director of the Geodetic Institute of Potsdam, for information and advice, which has been of great assistance to me; therefore I desire to acknowledge to them my deep gratitude.
La centralisation au Bureau international de l’Heure des résultats d’observations de l’Opération internationale de 1933 a été très lente, puisque les dernières données attendues ont été reçues vers la fin de 1937.
Le nombre des stations ayant coopéré à l’Opération internationale et ayant transmis leurs observations à l’organisme centralisateur s’élève à soixante et onze. Ainsi qu’il a été expliqué à notre Commission mixte, lors du Congrès de l’Union géodésique et géophysique internationale tenu à Édimbourg en 1936, ces stations ont été réparties en trois groupes:
Le Ier comprenant vingt Observatoires, disposant chacun de plusieurs horloges de première classe (soit à poids sous pression et à température constantes, soit à quartz piézoélectrique);
Les premiers mots de ce Rapport seront un souvenir ému à la mémoire de notre regretté Président, le Général Ferrie, brutalement arraché, en pleine activité physique et intellectuelle, au respect et à l’affection de tous, le 16 février 1932. Il fut l’instigateur et l’animateur des travaux auxquels se consacre notre Commission. Nous ne saurions lui rendre de plus bel hommage—celui-là même qu’il eut souhaité sans doute—qu’en nous attachant à poursuivre, dans la voie qu’il avait tracée en 1926 et qu’il avait commencé de prolonger en vue des opérations de 1933, la mise au point d’une entreprise de haute portée scientifique et qui était au tout premier plan de ses préoccupations.
Neurocognitive and social cognitive impairments represent important treatment targets in schizophrenia, as they are significant predictors of functional outcome. Different rehabilitative interventions have recently been developed, addressing both cognitive and psychosocial domains. Although promising, results are still heterogeneous and predictors of treatment outcome are not yet identified. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of two newly developed social cognitive interventions, respectively based on the use of videotaped material and comic strips, combined with domain-specific Cognitive Remediation Therapy (CRT). We also analysed possible predictors of training outcome, including basal neurocognitive performance, the degree of cognitive improvement after CRT and psychopathological variables.
Seventy-five patients with schizophrenia treated with CRT, were randomly assigned to: social cognitive training (SCT) group, Theory of Mind Intervention (ToMI) group, and active control group (ACG).
ANOVAs showed that SCT and ToMI groups improved significantly in ToM measures, whereas the ACG did not. We reported no influences of neuropsychological measures and improvement after CRT on changes in ToM. Both paranoid and non-paranoid subjects improved significantly after ToMI and SCT, without differences between groups, despite the better performance in basal ToM found among paranoid patients. In the ACG only non-paranoid patients showed an improvement in non-verbal ToM.
Results showed that both ToMI and SCT are effective in improving ToM in schizophrenia with no influence of neuropsychological domains. Our data also suggest that paranoid symptoms may discriminate between different types of ToM difficulties in schizophrenia.