To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Long-term lithium-treatment has been associated with deficits in several cognitive domains in euthymic bipolar patients. At the same time, long-term lithium treatment is also associated with an increase in parathyroid levels, often without a concomitant increase in calcium levels. Such an isolated increase in parathyroid levels has been linked to depressive symptoms and cognitive deficits in otherwise healthy individuals.
To investigate whether increased parathyroid levels are associated with cognitive deficits in euthymic bipolar patients.
We plan to recruit 30 euthymic bipolar patients on lithium treatment for this study. Patients will take part in several neuropsychological tests, covering executive functioning, memory and attention. In parallel, blood levels of lithium, parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, creatinine, calcium and phosphate will be assessed, besides clinical chemistry and blood cell count. In addition, to account for potential confounders, a variety of clinical variables will be recorded, including established mood rating scales and demographic variables as well as further parameters relevant to the course of the illness.
As the study is still ongoing results are not available yet at this moment.
Results will be discussed in the context of previous studies examining the impact of lithium and parathyroid hormone on mood and cognition in healthy individuals and patients with bipolar disorder, respectively. Dependent on the outcome of this study, potential future studies, including intervention trials aiming at lowering increased PTH levels in bipolar patients on lithium will be outlined.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a serious risk factor for co-occurring psychiatric disorders and negative psychosocial consequences in adulthood. Given this background, there is great need for an effective treatment of adult ADHD patients.
Therefore, our research group has conducted a first controlled randomized multicenter study on the evaluation of disorder-tailored DBT-based group program in adult ADHD compared to a psychophar-macological treatment.
Between 2007 and 2010, in a four-arm-design 433 patients were randomized to a manualized dialectical behavioural therapy (DBT) based group program plus methylphenidate or placebo or clinical management plus methylphenidate or placebo with weekly sessions in the first twelve weeks and monthly sessions thereafter. Therapists are graduated psychologists or physicians. Treatment integrity is established by independent supervision. Primary endpoint (ADHD symptoms measured by the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale) is rated by interviewers blind to the treatment allocation (Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN54096201). The trial is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Research and Education (01GV0606) and is part of the German network for the treatment of ADHD in children and adults (ADHD-NET). In the lecture the first data of our interim analysis are presented (baseline data, results of treatment compliance and adherence).
Chronic depression accounts for roughly a third of all mood disorders. It is a particularly disabling disorder, which is associated with greater comorbidity and suicidality, more significant impairments in functioning, and increased health care utilization than acute major depressive episodes. In the past, chronic depression was often considered as treatment-resistant since traditional pharmacological and psychological treatment approaches show at most modest success. In addition, relatively few psychotherapy studies have focused on chronic (mostly dysthymia) forms of depression. However, in chronic Major Depression a specific form of psychotherapy, the Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP), proved to be equally effective than medication; the combination of CBASP and medication revealed significant superiority over both monotherapies.
CBASP-developed by James McCullough-is the only psychotherapeutic intervention specifically designed for chronic depression. The approach integrates behavioral, cognitive, psychodynamic, and interpersonal strategies. It focuses on problems resulting from an inhibition of maturation in early childhood often caused by early traumatization by using the therapeutic relationship in a disciplined personal way. In addition, other interpersonal strategies are applied to overcome preoperational thinking. By means of a specific behavioral technique, the Situation Analysis, patients learn to focus on the consequences of their behavior and to use efficient social problem-solving. The techniques of CBASP will be demonstrated.
Results of two pilot studies will be presented
First, a randomized pilot outpatient study comparing CBASP with the interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) in early onset chronically depressives was conducted showing significant superiority of CBASP against IPT. Second, a first open pilot study in the inpatient setting investigated a new modified multidisciplinary CBASP inpatient program. The data of the first patients suggest that the three-month CBASP inpatient program is a feasible and effective treatment for severely chronically depressed patients with severly to extreme traumatization.
The Cognitive Behavioral Analysis of Psychotherapy (CBASP) by James McCullough is the only psychotherapeutic intervention specifically designed for chronic forms of depression. CBASP integrates behavioural, cognitive, interpersonal, and psychodynamic theories and strategies.
The approach focuses on problems resulting from maltreatment and inhibition of maturation in early childhood by using the therapeutic relationship in a personal disciplined way. In addition, other interpersonal strategies such as the Significant Other History, the proactive Transference Hypothesis, and the Interpersonal Discrimination Exercise are used to overcome preoperational thinking. By means of another specific technique, the Situation Analysis, patients learn to focus on the negative consequences of their usual behaviour and to use efficient social problem-solving strategies.
In a large study involving over 600 patients with chronic Major Depression, CBASP proved to be effective. The combination of an antidepressant and CBASP was the most beneficial treatment condition. Particularly effective was CBASP for the subgroup of chronically depressives with an early childhood trauma.
In the workshop the theoretical basis will be taught, the specific techniques will be shown by live and video demonstrations, and they will be practised.
To compare neuropsychological functions of individuals at risk (IR) for psychosis and patients with a first episode of psychosis (FE) with healthy control subjects (HC). And to determine cognitive factors which have the potential to discriminate IR with (IRtrans) and without (IRnon-trans) transition to psychosis.
N = 60 prodromal IR and N = 51 healthy control subjects were assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Besides general intelligence the test battery covered two functional domains (executive and attentional functions) and working memory. Within a follow up period of at least 30 month N = 19 IR transited to psychosis and N = 30 IR still have been followed up.
For each patient group (FE and IR), cognitive profiles were constructed by means of z-values adjusted for demographic and medication influence. The HC mean performance level was used as baseline of each group profile. A further profile was constructed by differential values considering IRtrans versus IRnon-trans. Comparisons were carried out by MANOVA and post- hoc t-tests.
In all functional domains FE and IR performed below HC except for specific sustained attention measures. There were no significant differences between FE and IR.
Executive functions and working memory measures were more compromised in IRtrans as compared to IRnon-trans.
Neuropsychological deficiencies precede psychotic breakdown. This indicates that neuropsychological assessments of affected domains may support early detection of psychosis.
Affective disorders are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, which, at least partly, appears to be independent of psychopharmacological treatments used to manage these disorders. Reduced heart rate variability (SDNN) and a low Omega-3 Index have been shown to be associated with increased risk for death after myocardial infarction. Therefore, we set out to investigate heart rate variability and the Omega-3 Index in euthymic patients with bipolar disorders.
We assessed heart rate variability (SDNN) and the Omega-3 Index in 90 euthymic, mostly medicated patients with bipolar disorders (Bipolar-I, Bipolar-II) on stable psychotropic medication, free of significant medical comorbidity and in 62 healthy controls. Heart rate variability was measured from electrocardiography under a standardized 30 minutes resting state condition. Age, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption and caffeine consumption as potential confounders were also assessed.
Heart rate variability (SDNN) was significantly lower in patients with bipolar disorders compared to healthy controls (35.4 msec versus 60.7 msec; P < 0.0001), whereas the Omega-3 Index did not differ significantly between the groups (5.2% versus 5.3%). In a linear regression model, only group membership (patients with bipolar disorders versus healthy controls) and age significantly predicted heart rate variability (SDNN).
Heart rate variability (SDNN) may provide a useful tool to study the impact of interventions aimed at reducing the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in euthymic patients with bipolar disorders. The difference in SDNN between cases and controls cannot be explained by a difference in the Omega-3 Index.
Les AVP sont le principal pourvoyeur d’ESPT (Kupchik et al., 2007), dont la prévalence fluctue de 6 à 45 % entre les études (Heron-Delaney et al., 2013). En l’absence de repérage clinique, l’ESPT peut se chroniciser (Kessler et al., 1995). Les outils actuels permettent son diagnostic (Jackson et al., 2011), mais pas de dépister précocement les sujets à risque de développer un ESPT post-AVP en aigu (8 semaines) comme en chronique (6 mois) ou en tardif (1 an). Nous présentons une étude longitudinale réalisée sur 274 patients répartis sur 6 centres de traumatologie ayant pour objectif principal de valider un outil infirmier de dépistage précoce d’ESPT après un AVP (DEPITAC). Dix questions ont été soumises à tout patient hospitalisé dans les 15 jours après un AVP, ainsi qu’une PDI et un MINI DSM-IV. La PCL-S (cut-off à 44) a permis le diagnostic à 8 semaines, 6 mois et 1 an. L’analyse statistique a été réalisée avec le logiciel SAS Institute 9.4. Le score total DEPITAC était significativement associé au diagnostic d’ESPT à 1 an (OR : 1,43 ; IC95 % : 1,14–1,79) avec un pouvoir discriminant de 0,64 (IC95 % : 0,56–0,72). DEPITAC était corrélé à l’échelle PDI (p < 0,0001) avec un faible coefficient de corrélation (r = 0,32) montrant une faible redondance. Seules 3 questions après analyses bivariées s’avèrent significatives : « présence d’autres blessés ou décédés lors de l’AVP », « présence d’une dissociation post-AVP » et « s’être vu mourir lors de l’AVP » avec un pouvoir discriminant de 0,65 (IC95 % : 0,57–0,73). Aucun effet centre n’a été mis en évidence (p = 0,90). Nos résultats semblent montrer qu’à l’aide de seulement 3 questions de dépistage, les équipes infirmières pourraient repérer les patients à risque de développer un ESPT aigu ou tardif, leur permettant ainsi d’alerter précocement les équipes psychiatriques de liaison ou de pschotraumatologie.
Conservation of animal genetic resources requires regular monitoring and interventions to maintain population size and manage genetic variability. This study uses genealogical information to evaluate the impact of conservation measures in Europe, using (i) data from the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS) and (ii) a posteriori assessment of the impact of various conservation measures on the genetic variability of 17 at-risk breeds with a wide range of interventions. Analysis of data from DAD-IS showed that 68% of national breed populations reported to receive financial support showed increasing demographic trends, v. 51% for those that did not. The majority of the 17 at-risk breeds have increased their numbers of registered animals over the last 20 years, but the changes in genetic variability per breed have not always matched the trend in population size. These differences in trends observed in the different metrics might be explained by the tensions between interventions to maintain genetic variability, and development initiatives which lead to intensification of selection.
Despite over a century of intensive research, no single biological marker has successfully translated into daily clinical practice. A key challenge in psychiatric research is that traditional diagnostic categories represent phenomenological constructs that do not necessarily circumscribe a biological homogenous entity, but encompass a whole range of disorders presenting with similar phenotypes. The clinical staging model shifts our focus to search for markers relevant to particular stages of mental disorders and provides a useful framework to differentiate overlapping and heterogeneous syndromes. The identification of such “stage” dependant markers may be more meaningful and of greater prognostic and therapeutic value than our quest for categorical disease markers. In this chapter, bioactive and inflammatory markers in emerging psychotic disorders are discussed. Their specific role in brain development, psychiatric disorder onset and management are reviewed. Implications for future research are also provided.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The objective of this project is to determine whether HRV, collected peri-operatively, is predictive of cognitive decline among older adults who undergo elective surgery/anesthesia. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This project is a part of the ongoing INTUIT/PRIME study, which is collecting pre- and post-operative cognitive testing, fMRI imaging, CSF samples, and EEG recordings from 200 older adults (age ≥ 60) undergoing elective non-cardiac/non-neurologic surgery scheduled to last > 2 hours at Duke University Medical Center and Duke Regional Hospital. This project utilizes data from the first 60 INTUIT participants who contributed continuous heart rate data before and during surgery. Participants undergo cognitive testing prior to surgery (baseline) and at 6 weeks after surgery. Our primary dependent variable is the change in the composite score from baseline to 6-weeks. Delirium is assessed in the hospital with the twice daily 3D-CAM tool, so we will report the proportion of individuals with 6-week cognitive decline who exhibited delirium in the days following surgery. Participants’ echocardiogram (ECG) recordings are extracted pre- and intraoperatively from B650/B850 patient monitors with VSCapture software. HRV is defined as the variability between successive R-spikes or inter-beat-intervals on ECG. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We anticipate that lower intraoperative HRV is associated with worse cognitive decline at 6 weeks after surgery. As secondary objectives, we will determine whether pre-operative HRV or change in HRV (from pre-operative to intra-operative measures) are predictive of cognitive decline after surgery. We expect that in-hospital delirium will be detected in a higher proportion of those with 6-week cognitive decline, compared to those with stable or improved cognition at 6 weeks. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: HRV may address the present need for pre- and intra-operative cognitive risk stratification in the elderly. Physiological indices like HRV have the potential to dramatically change our understanding of CI in older adults undergoing surgery, as they offer an accessible, cost-effective, and non-invasive means whereby clinicians, particularly those unfamiliar with the nuances of geriatric and CI/dementia-related care, can monitor patients and refer those at high-risk of CI after surgery for early intervention.
In daily clinical practice, the smooth, timely and comprehensive transfer of information between care settings is important and reflects a cornerstone of high-quality patient care. The integration of nutritional information in the medical information transfer is currently not included in an evidence-based approach. It was, therefore, the aim of this study to develop a nutritional documentation tool (NDoc) on the basis of evidence and test it for its usability in daily clinical practice. Based on the results of a literature review, the authors collected core content using a modified Delphi survey from experts across Europe and included the information collected in a structured, NDoc. The subsequently developed tool included thirty items and was tested for its usability on a daily basis among primary care physicians and clinical physicians. The new NDoc can be introduced for use in any computer-based hospital information system regionally and adapted for worldwide use.
Epistemic justifications for democracy have been offered in terms of two different forms of information aggregation and decision-making. The Condorcet Jury Theorem is appealed to as a justification in terms of votes, and the Hong–Page ‘diversity trumps ability’ result is appealed to as a justification in terms of deliberation in the form of collaborative search. Both results, however, are models of full and direct participation across a population. In this paper, we contrast how these results hold up within the familiar structure of a representative hierarchy. We first consider extant analytic work that shows that representation inevitably weakens the voting results of the Condorcet Jury Theorem. We then go on to show that collaborative search, as modeled by Hong and Page, holds its own within hierarchical representation. In a variation on the dynamics of group search, representation even shows a slight edge over direct participation. This contrast illustrates how models of information aggregation vary when put into a representative structure. While some of the epistemic merits of democracy are lost when voting is done hierarchically, modeling results show that representation can preserve and even slightly amplify the epistemic virtues of collaborative search.
As a reaction to both the global and European financial crises, and as a response to the fiscal crisis in the Euro Area in particular, the political leaders of the European Union initiated the idea of a “European Banking Union” (hereinafter the EBU) on 29 June 2012. The EBU consists of three distinctive pillars.
The Single Supervisory Mechanism (hereinafter the SSM) is the first pillar of the EBU. The supervisory framework for the Euro Area banking sector has been effective since November 2014. As of that date, the European Central Bank (hereinafter the ECB) has been in charge of supervising the most significant credit institutions in the Euro Area, comprising a total of 85% of the total balance sheet assets of Eurozone banks. The mechanism is characterised by a division of tasks, an exchange of information and close cooperation between the ECB and the National Competent Authorities (hereinafter the NCAs) who remain the competent supervisors for the other, and hence “less significant”, credit institutions.
The Single Resolution Mechanism (hereinafter the SRM) is the second pillar of the EBU. The SRM Regulation entered into force on 19 August 2014, and is directly applicable in all Member States from 1 January 2016 onward. Like the framework under the SSM, it sets out a mechanism for the resolution of unviable credit institutions, characterised by the key relationship between a central decision maker created at a Euro Area level, i.e. the Single Resolution Board (hereinafter the SRB), and the national authorities who still have a vital role to play. Furthermore, the creation of a Single Resolution Fund (hereinafter the SRF) is to be discussed in the context of the SRM. Both the institutional set-up and the financing arrangements within the SRM are the main topics of this contribution.
As both the SSM and SRM comprise “mechanisms”, there is of course a great deal of similarities between both structures, given that they operate within the same jurisdictional and institutional parameters and rely upon an extensive centralisation of executive powers. The mechanisms thus have both supranational and intergovernmental features. However, there is also a great deal of differences between the two mechanisms. The SRB is an EU agency and not an EU treaty institution, like the ECB.
It is known that the poloidal field is at its maximum during solar minima, and that the behaviour during this time acts as a strong predictor of the strength of the following solar cycle. This relationship relies on the action of differential rotation (the Omega effect) on the poloidal field, which generates the toroidal flux observed in sunspots and active regions. We measure the helicity flux into both the northern and southern hemispheres using a model that takes account of the omega effect, which we find offers a strong quantification of the above relationship. We find that said helicity flux offers a strong prediction of solar activity up to 5 years in advance of the next solar cycle.
Optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measured on a head computed tomography (CT) has been suggested as a potential prognostic factor for poor neurological outcome after cardiac arrest. We performed a single centre retrospective cohort analysis to further investigate this relationship.
All patients >18 years of age admitted to St. Paul’s Hospital in Vancouver, Canada who survived a cardiac arrest and had a CT scan of the head within 48 hours were included in the analysis.
A total of 72 patients met inclusion criteria for the study; 54 (75.0%) of the patients had a poor neurological outcome, whereas 18 (25.0%) patients were discharged from the hospital with a good outcome. A CT head was obtained for patients in the good outcome group in a mean time of 9.3 hours (SD 10.0) compared to 10.2 hours (SD 11.2) for the poor outcome group (p=0.75). There was no difference in average ONSD observed between the two outcome groups (6.66 mm SD 0.78 v. 6.60 mm SD 0.82, p=0.77). Multiple logistic regression failed to show any association between ONSD and neurological outcome when adjusted for all other covariates (OR 1.32 95% CI 0.40-4.34, p=0.65). Setting an ONSD threshold of >8 mm (OR 2.32, 95% CI 0.14-39.40, p=0.55) or >7 mm (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.03-2.77, p=0.28) also failed to show any association on neurological outcome.
There was no observed difference in ONSD between those with a good neurological outcome and those with a poor outcome. ONSD was not an independent predictor of poor neurological outcome.
Background: There are currently no national standards for clinical electromyography (EMG) training for residents in neurology and physiatry in Canada. The purpose of this study was to obtain demographic and qualitative data pertaining to EMG residency training in Canada, with the goal of facilitating discourse that could lead to national standards for EMG training. Methods: An online survey was distributed to senior neurology and physiatry residents (post-graduate years 3-5), at seven tertiary Canadian centres. The study authors, who are trainees and consultants with a broad range of EMG expertise (junior and senior resident, clinical neuromuscular fellows, senior physiatrist and neuromuscular neurologists), developed pertinent demographic and qualitative questions. Results: Thirty-eight residents completed the survey (23 neurology, 15 physiatry). There was inter-program variation in quantity of the training experience, content of the curriculum, access to expertise (including technologists) and goals for future training and practice. Similarly, differences were identified between the training experiences of neurology and physiatry residents. Conclusions: Inter-program variability in EMG training was identified. Additionally, differences were identified between neurology and physiatry resident training. This data provides evidence of training discrepancies across the country and can be used to establish national training standards for EMG in Canada.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is moderately heritable, however genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for MDD, as well as for related continuous outcomes, have not shown consistent results. Attempts to elucidate the genetic basis of MDD may be hindered by heterogeneity in diagnosis. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale provides a widely used tool for measuring depressive symptoms clustered in four different domains which can be combined together into a total score but also can be analysed as separate symptom domains.
We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS of the CES-D symptom clusters. We recruited 12 cohorts with the 20- or 10-item CES-D scale (32 528 persons).
One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs713224, located near the brain-expressed melatonin receptor (MTNR1A) gene, was associated with the somatic complaints domain of depression symptoms, with borderline genome-wide significance (pdiscovery = 3.82 × 10−8). The SNP was analysed in an additional five cohorts comprising the replication sample (6813 persons). However, the association was not consistent among the replication sample (pdiscovery+replication = 1.10 × 10−6) with evidence of heterogeneity.
Despite the effort to harmonize the phenotypes across cohorts and participants, our study is still underpowered to detect consistent association for depression, even by means of symptom classification. On the contrary, the SNP-based heritability and co-heritability estimation results suggest that a very minor part of the variation could be captured by GWAS, explaining the reason of sparse findings.
Fluridone has been used to successfully manage Eurasian watermilfoil since the late 1980s. However, recent documentation of hybrid watermilfoils and the resulting potential for reduced herbicide sensitivity necessitate the need for an assay to determine individual population response to fluridone. A known fluridone-resistant hybrid watermilfoil population from Townline Lake in Michigan was compared to 11 Eurasian and hybrid watermilfoil populations in laboratory experiments to develop a method for determining response to fluridone. Apical shoot tips were exposed to increasing concentrations of fluridone (0 to 48 μg L−1) for 3, 5, and 7 d. Chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) was evaluated using a pulse-amplitude modulated fluorometer at each interval along with pigment analysis of chlorophyll and β-carotene at the 7-d interval. Fv/Fm and pigment analysis yielded the same results. A fluridone concentration of 12 μg L−1 and an analysis interval of 7 d were found to be optimal in determining invasive watermilfoil response to fluridone. Use of such small-scale assays can provide resource managers a rapid tool to cost-effectively evaluate invasive watermilfoil response to fluridone.