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To test the effect of a behavioural economics intervention in two food pantries on the nutritional quality of foods available at the pantries and the foods selected by adults visiting food pantries.
An intervention (SuperShelf) was implemented in two food pantries (Sites A and B), with two other pantries (Sites C and D) serving as a control for pantry outcomes. The intervention aimed to increase the amount and variety of healthy foods (supply), as well as the appeal of healthy foods (demand) using behavioural economics strategies. Assessments included baseline and 4-month follow-up client surveys, client cart inventories, pantry inventories and environmental assessments. A fidelity score (range 0–100) was assigned to each intervention pantry to measure the degree of implementation. A Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) score (range 0–100) was generated for each client cart and pantry.
Four Minnesota food pantries, USA.
Clients visiting intervention pantries before (n 71) and after (n 70) the intervention.
Fidelity scores differed by intervention site (Site A=82, Site B=51). At Site A, in adjusted models, client cart HEI-2010 scores increased on average by 11·8 points (P<0·0001), whereas there was no change at Site B. HEI-2010 pantry environment scores increased in intervention pantries (Site A=8 points, Site B=19 points) and decreased slightly in control pantries (Site C=−4 points, Site D=−3 points).
When implemented as intended, SuperShelf has the potential to improve the nutritional quality of foods available to and selected by pantry clients.
Published studies have shown that methane yield (g CH4/kg dry matter) from sheep is positively correlated with the size (volume and surface area) of the reticulo-rumen (RR) and the weight of its contents. However, the relationship between CH4 yield and RR shape has not been investigated. In this work, shape analysis has been performed on a data set of computerised tomography (CT) scans of the RR from sheep having high and low CH4 yields (n=20 and n=17, respectively). The three-dimensional geometries of the RRs were reconstructed from segmented scan data and split into three anatomical regions. An iterative fitting technique combining radial basis functions and principal component (PC) fitting was used to create a set of consistent landmarks which were then used as variables in a PC analysis to identify shape variation within the data. Significant size differences were detected for regions corresponding to the dorsal and ventral compartments between sheep with high and low CH4 yields. When the analysis was repeated after scaling the geometries to remove the effect of size, there was no significant shape variation correlating with CH4 yield. The results have demonstrated the feasibility of CT-based computational shape determination for studying the morphological characteristics of the RR and indicate that size, but not shape correlates with CH4 yield in sheep.
One view of major Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events is that these (proton-dominated) fluxes are accelerated in heliospheric shock sources created by Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs), and then travel mainly along interplanetary magnetic field lines connecting the shock(s) to the observer(s). This places a particular emphasis on the role of the heliospheric conditions during the event, requiring a realistic description of the latter to interpret and/or model SEP events. The well-known ENLIL heliospheric simulation with cone model generated ICME shocks is used together with the SEPMOD particle event modeling scheme to demonstrate the value of applying these concepts at multiple inner heliosphere sites.
We determine the age of 7 stars in the Ursa Major moving group using a novel method that models the fundamental parameters of rapidly rotating A-stars based on interferometric observations and literature photometry and compares these parameters (namely, radius, luminosity, and rotation velocity) with evolution models that account for rotation. We find these stars to be coeval, thus providing an age estimate for the moving group and validating this technique. With this technique validated, we determine the age of the rapidly rotating, directly imaged planet host star, κ Andromedae.
We study the flow and leakage of gravity currents injected into an unsaturated (dry), vertically confined porous layer containing a localized outlet or leakage point in its lower boundary. The leakage is driven by the combination of the gravitational hydrostatic pressure head of the current above the outlet and the pressure build-up from driving fluid downstream of the leakage point. Model solutions illustrate transitions towards one of three long-term regimes of flow, depending on the value of a dimensionless parameter
, which, when positive, represents the ratio of the hydrostatic head above the outlet for which gravity-driven leakage balances the input flux, to the depth of the medium. If
, the input flux is insufficient to accumulate any fluid above the outlet and fluid migrates directly through the leakage pathway. If
, some fluid propagates downstream of the outlet but retains a free surface above it. The leakage rate subsequently approaches the input flux asymptotically but much more gradually than if
, the current fills the entire depth of the medium above the outlet. Confinement then fixes gravity-driven leakage at a constant rate but introduces a new force driving leakage in the form of the pressure build-up associated with mobilizing fluid downstream of the outlet. This causes the leakage rate to approach the injection rate faster than would occur in the absence of the confining boundary. This conclusion is in complete contrast to fluid-saturated media, where confinement can potentially reduce long-term leakage by orders of magnitude. Data from a new series of laboratory experiments confirm these predictions.
Many studies have demonstrated short-term behavioural responses by whales and dolphins in the presence of vessels, but the population-level implications of such changes are poorly understood (Lusseau, 2003, 2004; Bejder et al., 2006a; Lusseau & Bejder, 2007). One means for developing such an understanding is to use a modelling framework such as the Population Consequences of Acoustic Disturbance (PCAD) model. PCAD identifies four levels at which data can be collected, and allows for estimates of modelling parameters at one level to be based on measured data at another level (National Research Council, 2005).
The first level contains short-term behavioural responses, such as those that have been the typical focus of studies on effects of whale-watching. Effects vary within and between species, and include changes in respiration patterns, surface active behaviours, swimming velocity, vocal behaviour, activity state, inter-individual spacing, wake riding, approach and avoidance, and displacement from habitat. Collisions may result in injury or death (Wells & Scott, 1997; Laist et al., 2001). More detailed reviews of vessel effects can be found in Lien (2001) and Ritter (2003).
The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey aims to characterise the physical and chemical evolution of high-mass star-forming clumps. Exploiting the unique broad frequency range and on-the-fly mapping capabilities of the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m single-dish telescope1, MALT90 has obtained 3′ × 3′ maps towards ~2 000 dense molecular clumps identified in the ATLASGAL 870 μm Galactic plane survey. The clumps were selected to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range in their evolutionary states (from prestellar, to protostellar, and on to
regions and photodissociation regions). Because MALT90 mapped 16 lines simultaneously with excellent spatial (38 arcsec) and spectral (0.11 km s−1) resolution, the data reveal a wealth of information about the clumps’ morphologies, chemistry, and kinematics. In this paper we outline the survey strategy, observing mode, data reduction procedure, and highlight some early science results. All MALT90 raw and processed data products are available to the community. With its unprecedented large sample of clumps, MALT90 is the largest survey of its type ever conducted and an excellent resource for identifying interesting candidates for high-resolution studies with ALMA.
Syndromic surveillance is vital for monitoring public health during mass gatherings. The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games represents a major challenge to health protection services and community surveillance. In response to this challenge the Health Protection Agency has developed a new syndromic surveillance system that monitors daily general practitioner out-of-hours and unscheduled care attendances. This new national system will fill a gap identified in the existing general practice-based syndromic surveillance systems by providing surveillance capability of general practice activity during evenings/nights, over weekends and public holidays. The system will complement and supplement the existing tele-health phone line, general practitioner and emergency department syndromic surveillance systems. This new national system will contribute to improving public health reassurance, especially to meet the challenges of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.
This article describes a number of velocity-based moving mesh numerical methods for multidimensional nonlinear time-dependent partial differential equations (PDEs). It consists of a short historical review followed by a detailed description of a recently developed multidimensional moving mesh finite element method based on conservation. Finite element algorithms are derived for both mass-conserving and non mass-conserving problems, and results shown for a number of multidimensional nonlinear test problems, including the second order porous medium equation and the fourth order thin film equation as well as a two-phase problem. Further applications and extensions are referenced.
Defects in hemoglobin synthesis and erythroid nuclear maturation both give rise to disorders of erythrocyte production. Defects of hemoglobin synthesis can result from impaired heme synthesis, as seen in iron deficiency and sideroblastic anemia, or from impaired globin chain synthesis, which occurs in the thalassemia syndromes. Defects in erythroid nuclear maturation are seen in cobalamin (vitamin B12) and folate deficiency and also in the rare hereditary abnormalities of cobalamin or folate metabolism, and result in defective erythrocyte production. Abnormal nuclear maturation is also present in other metabolic defects associated with megaloblastic anemia, such as Lesch–Nyhan syndrome, orotic aciduria, and thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia. In the anemia of chronic disorder, iron regulation is maladjusted so that iron is “locked away” and unavailable for erythropoiesis. Markedly ineffective erythropoiesis is seen where there are defects of nuclear maturation, in sideroblastic anemia, and in the thalassemia syndromes; iron deficiency and the anemia of chronic disorder are associated with decreased erythropoiesis. Of the nutritional deficiencies causing anemia, the commonest is iron deficiency. This is so for both children and adults in all parts of the world. The deficiency may be caused by insufficient iron in the diet, lack of absorption of iron, or increased losses primarily due to bleeding. Deficiency of vitamin B12 is rare in children; in neonates it is usually secondary to occult vitamin B12 deficiency in the mother, but when diagnosed in infancy or childhood is more often due to an inborn error of metabolism.
We have used the new broadband capabilities of the Mopra telescope
to map the distribution of 26 different molecular transitions in an
approximately 1 degree square region of the southern Galactic plane
(the G333/RCW106 giant molecular cloud complex). The aim is to
addresss observationally some of the key questions about the
dynamical processes surrounding massive star formation (e.g. massive
stellar winds and large-scale galactic flows) and their relative
importance in regulating the star formation process. These dynamical
processes help drive the turbulent motions, which are ubiquitous in
giant molecular clouds (GMCs). The multi-molecular line nature of
this survey is what distinguishes it from similar surveys and is
crucial for gaining a clear picture of the energetics and dynamics
of the gas. Investigating and understanding the chemistry of this
region is a necessary part of the project if the molecular line
observations are to be interpreted physically.
Human herpesviruses 1, 2, and 3 (herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV)) have been classified as alphaherpesviruses based originally upon their biological properties, and subsequently on the sequences of their respective genomes (Minson et al., 2000; Pellett and Roizman, in press). All of these viruses maintain latent infections in sensory ganglia, and can productively infect a variety of human cells, including the living cells of mucous membranes and skin. These epithelial sites also provide exit points for the virus to infect other individuals.
The structure of the genomes of the alphaherpesviruses that infect humans are quite similar at first glance (Fig. 5.1). All have two unique segments that are flanked by repeats of different lengths. The unique segments are designated short (S) and long (L) and the repeats designated as internal (IR) or terminal (TR). Members of the genus simplexvirus (HSV-1 and HSV-2) exist as four roughly equimolar isomers, each isomer differing in the relative orientations of the long and short components. The orientation of one of the HSV isomers has been designated prototypical, and could therefore be designated TRL-UL-IRL-IRS-US-TRS. VZV also produces 4 genomic isomers, but those in which the long component is inverted are significantly reduced in frequency, to about 5% of total genomes. It is tempting to speculate that this is a consequence of the shorter repeats flanking the VZV long component (88.5 bp) as compared to the repeats flanking US in human alphaherpesviruses (6000–7400 bp) and UL in HSV-1 and HSV-2 (around 9,000 bp).
We report the results of a blind search for 22 GHz water masers in two regions, covering approximately half a square degree, within the G 333.2–0.6 giant molecular cloud. The complete search of the two regions was carried out with the 26 m Mount Pleasant radio telescope and resulted in the detection of nine water masers, five of which are new detections. Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations of these detections have allowed us to obtain positions with arcsecond accuracy, allowing meaningful comparison with infrared and molecular data for the region. We find that for the regions surveyed there are more water masers than either 6.7 GHz methanol, or main-line OH masers. The water masers are concentrated towards the central axis of the star formation region, in contrast to the 6.7 GHz methanol masers which tend to be located near the periphery. The colours of the GLIMPSE point sources associated with the water masers are slightly less red than those associated with methanol masers. Statistical investigation of the properties of the 13CO and 1.2 mm dust clumps with and without associated water masers shows that the water masers are associated with the more massive, denser and brighter 13CO and 1.2 mm dust clumps. We present statistical models that can predict those 13CO and 1.2 mm dust clumps likely to have associated water masers.
Rapidly-evolving red supergiants (RSG) lose half or more of their mass before ending their lives as supernovae. Masers allow us to study the mass loss from 4 nearby RSG in AU-scale detail using MERLIN and EVN/global VLBI. The water maser clouds are over-dense and over-magnetised with respect to the surrounding wind. In most cases, the brighter an individual maser component is the smaller its apparent (beamed) FWHM appears, as predicted for approximately spherical clouds. Individual water maser features have a typical half-life of 5-10 yr, but comparison with single dish monitoring suggests that the water vapour clouds themselves survive many decades (the water maser shell crossing time), within which the local masers wink on and off. OH mainline masers are found in the tenuous surrounding gas, overlapping the water maser shell, surrounded by OH 1612-MHz masers at a greater distance from the star.
Brindley et al. (1951) reported the earliest efforts to obtain international collaboration on nomenclature and classification of clay minerals, initiated at the International Soil Congress in Amsterdam in 1950. Since then, national clay groups were formed, and they proposed various changes in nomenclature at group meetings of the International Clay Conferences. Most of the national clay groups have representation on the Nomenclature Committee of the Association Internationale pour l'Etude des Argiles (AIPEA, International Association for the Study of Clays), which was established in 1966. The precursor committee to the AIPEA Nomenclature Committee was the Nomenclature Subcommittee of the Comité International pour l'Etude des Argiles (OPEA, International Committee for the Study of Clays).
We are studying the molecular clouds in the region around G333.6-0.2 in a number of 3-mm transitions from different molecular species, to probe, among other things, the turbulent properties. The observations are being made by on-the-fly mapping with the 22-m diameter single-dish Mopra radio telescope. See Bains et al. (2006) and Cunningham et al. (2006 in these proceedings) for more details. During 2004 and 2005 we obtained 13 CO (1 – 0), C18O, CS (2 – 1) and C34S data. Using the different molecular tracers gives complementary information about the gas density structure, due to the different critical densities, and different isotopomers allows correction for optical depth effects.