To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Agronomists have increasingly conducted experiments on-farm, in an attempt to increase the wider applicability (external validity) of their experimental findings and their relevance for agricultural development. This review assesses the way in which on-farm experimental studies address the scope or generalisability of their findings when based on a limited number of farms. A central question is how on-farm studies define the environment or research population in which the on-farm trial findings are valid, or are valuable for. Such an assessment is, of course, conditional on the (internal) validity of the experimental findings. We therefore first analyse how authors of on-farm experimental studies describe the factors that may shape experimental outcomes. As agronomic experiments often use ‘yield’ as dependent variable to assess treatment effects, we developed a procedure to score studies on their descriptions of yield-determining factors. Although experimental validity principally rests upon the reproducibility of the experiment and its findings, we found that on the basis of the information provided in published on-farm experimental studies, it is often difficult or impossible to reproduce the experimental design. Nutrient management, weed management and crop information are best described, whereas land preparation, field history and management of pests and water are rarely described. Further, on-farm experimental studies often compare treatments to a ‘farmer practice’ reference or control treatment which is assumed to be widely and uniformly practiced and known to the reader. The wider applicability or external validity is often poorly addressed in the reviewed studies. Most do not explicitly define the research population and/or environment in which (they expect) the experimental findings to work. Academic textbooks on agronomic experimentation are remarkably silent on both the internal and external validity of on-farm experimentation. We therefore argue for more systematic investigations and descriptions of the research population and settings to which on-farm experimental studies seek to generalise their findings.
Quetiapine immediate release (quetiapine IR) improves PANSS total, positive, negative and general psychopathology scores in schizophrenia. This study (D1444C00132) evaluated the efficacy of once-daily extended release quetiapine fumarate (quetiapine XR) in patients with acute schizophrenia.
This was a 6-week, double-blind, randomised study (n=588) comparing quetiapine XR (400, 600 or 800 mg/day) and quetiapine IR (400 mg/day) with placebo. Efficacy was assessed using ANCOVA analyses of the change from baseline to study endpoint (Day 42) for: PANSS total score; positive, negative and general psychopathology subscale scores; and aggression and depression cluster scores (modified ITT population, LOCF). Changes in individual PANSS item scores were assessed post hoc.
At Day 42, there were statistically significant reductions (ie two-sided p-value <0.05) versus placebo with all doses of quetiapine XR for the change in PANSS total, positive, general psychopathology and aggression cluster scores. Changes in negative and depression cluster scores were statistically significant versus placebo for quetiapine XR 600 mg/day and 800 mg/day. There was statistically significant separation from placebo with quetiapine XR 600 mg/day and 800 mg/day for the change in 6/7 PANSS positive items, 5/7 negative items, and 12/16 general psychopathology items. For those items with no statistically significant separation from placebo, baseline scores were generally low.
Once-daily quetiapine XR is effective across a broad range of symptoms in acute schizophrenia, including positive and negative symptoms, as well as symptoms of general psychopathology, aggression and depression.
To evaluate efficacy and tolerability of quetiapine sustained release (SR) in a 6-week study (D1444C00132).
588 patients with acute schizophrenia (PANSS total ≥70; CGI-S ≥4) were randomised to fixed-dose quetiapine SR 400, 600 or 800 mg/day (once-daily), quetiapine immediate release (IR) 400 mg/day (200 mg twice-daily; 5-day dose-escalation schedule), or placebo. Quetiapine SR doses: 400, 600 mg reached by Day 2; 800 mg by Day 3. Primary endpoint: change from baseline to Day 42 in PANSS total score (LOCF; ANCOVA). Other assessments: PANSS response rate (% patients with ≥30% reduction in total score from baseline); CGI-I response rate (% patients with rating ≤3); CGI-S; AEs.
446 patients (76%) completed the study (similar across groups). LS mean change from baseline in PANSS total score at Day 42 showed significant improvement versus placebo (-18.8): -24.8 (p=0.03), -30.9 (p<0.001), and -31.3 (p<0.001), quetiapine SR 400, 600, and 800 mg, respectively; -26.6 (p=0.004), quetiapine IR. Statistical separation from placebo at Day 42 for: change from baseline in CGI-S (quetiapine SR 600 and 800 mg; IR); PANSS and CGI-I response rates (all active treatments). Most common AEs with quetiapine: somnolence and dizziness. There were no unexpected AEs with quetiapine SR. Incidence of EPS-related AEs was similar to placebo. Two quetiapine SR and two IR patients discontinued due to AEs in Week 1.
Once-daily quetiapine SR (400-800 mg) was effective versus placebo in patients with acute schizophrenia. Rapid dose escalation was well tolerated, with a therapeutically effective dose reached by Day 2.
This special issue brings together a selection of papers that not merely present agronomic research findings, but critically review orientations, methodologies and research practices in agronomy. The focus is on agronomic research as it conducted as component of rural development efforts in the global South or, in short, development-oriented agronomy. Aiming to contribute to development challenges like food security, human welfare and wellbeing, and environmental sustainability, a focus on development-oriented agronomy implies a step beyond a narrow understanding of agronomy as the science of crop production and soil management. Doing development-oriented agronomy forefronts the juggling with productivity enhancing, environmental and social developmental goals entailed when doing agronomy. What is more, development-oriented agronomy generally takes place within a complex environment of (inter)national research and development policy organisations, development donor-funded projects, governmental, NGO and private sector agencies and global professional networks and (public–private) partnerships. Consequently, development-oriented agronomy is a field where debate and contestations over goals and direction, research methodologies and findings of agronomic research are first likely to emerge and become apparent.
As the IAU heads towards its second century, many changes have simultaneously transformed Astronomy and the human condition world-wide. Amid the amazing recent discoveries of exoplanets, primeval galaxies, and gravitational radiation, the human condition on Earth has become blazingly interconnected, yet beset with ever-increasing problems of over-population, pollution, and never-ending wars. Fossil-fueled global climate change has begun to yield perilous consequences. And the displacement of people from war-torn nations has reached levels not seen since World War II.
Literature suggests an association between loneliness and mortality for both males and females. Yet, the linkage of loneliness to mortality is not thoroughly examined, and need to be replicated with a long follow-up time. This study assessed the association between loneliness and mortality, including associations to gender, in 1363 adult swedes.
This community-based prospective cohort study from the Swedish Lundby Study included 1363 individuals of whom 296 individuals (21.7%) were identified as lonely with use of semi-structured interviews in 1997. The cohort was followed until 2011 and survival analyses were used to estimate the relative risk of death.
Death occurred with an incidence rate of 2.63 per 100 person-years and 2.09 per 100 person-years for lonely and non-lonely individuals, respectively. In crude analysis, loneliness was associated with a significant increased mortality risk of 27% compared with non-lonely individuals [hazard ratio (HR) 1.27; 95% CI 1.01–1.60]. Unadjusted, lonely females had a significant increased risk (HR 1.76; 95% CI 1.31–2.34) and adjusted insignificant increased mortality risk of 27% (HR 1.27; 95% CI 0.92–1.74), compared with non-lonely females. Lonely males were found to have an adjusted significant decreased risk of mortality (HR 0.50; 95% CI 0.32–0.80), compared with non-lonely males.
Findings suggest an association between loneliness and increased risk of mortality and that gender differences may exist, which have not been previously reported. If replicated, our results indicate that loneliness may have differential physical implications in some subgroups. Future studies are needed to further investigate the influence of gender on the relationship.
We reanalyzed data from a previously published randomized component study that aimed to test the incremental effect of systematic exposure in an internet-delivered cognitive behavioral treatment (ICBT) for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
Three hundred and nine individuals with IBS were randomly assigned to either the full treatment protocol (experimental condition) or the same treatment protocol without systematic exposure (control). Participants were assessed weekly for IBS symptoms over the active treatment phase. We used a complier average causal effect (CACE) analysis, in the growth mixture modeling framework, to (1) examine the specific effect of exposure among those who received the intervention (i.e. compliers), and (2) explore the associations of pre-treatment patient characteristics with compliance status and outcome changes.
Fifty-five per cent of those assigned to the experimental condition were classified as compliers. The CACE analysis that took into account compliance status demonstrated that the magnitude of the incremental effect of systematic exposure on IBS symptoms was larger than the effect observed in an intention-to-treat analysis that ignored compliance status (d = 0.81 v. d = 0.44). Patients with university education showed more improvement during the exposure phase of the treatment. Pre-treatment patient characteristics did not predict compliance status.
The effect of systematic exposure on IBS symptoms is of substantial magnitude among those individuals who actually receive the intervention (CACE). Studying the subsample of individuals who discontinue treatment prematurely and tailoring interventions to improve compliance may increase overall improvement rates in ICBT for IBS.
Zircon ion probe (secondary-ion mass spectrometry or SIMS) data from a set of intrusive rocks emplaced in the vicinity of major ore bodies, as well as from large igneous intrusions in the Gällivare area, gave the following results: (1) the Dundret ultramafic–mafic layered complex (1883±5 Ma), the Aitik granite (1883±5 Ma), the Nautanen diorite (1870±12 Ma), the Vassaravaara ultramafic–mafic layered complex (1798±4 Ma), the Aitik dolerite (1813±9 Ma), the Bergmästergruvan and Sikträsk syenites (1795±4 Ma and 1801±3 Ma, respectively) and the Naalojärvi granite (1782±5 Ma). These data broadly fall within the ranges 1.89–1.87 Ga (early Svecofennian) and 1.80–1.78 Ga (late Svecofennian), but geochronologically allow further subdivision into pulses at 1885–1880, 1875–1870, 1800 and 1780 Ma. During these events, large layered ultramafic–mafic and felsic plutonic rocks were generated with distinct overlap in time suggesting coeval felsic–mafic magmatism. Results also indicate the presence of inherited c. 1.87 Ga zircon crystals in the plutonic rocks at 1.78 Ga, supporting reworking of the previous crust. These data indicate the importance of mantle-derived mafic underplating in the process of crustal magma generation in the region. The c. 1.88 Ga event that generated ultramafic–mafic layered complexes is tentatively suggested to have played an important role in the formation of the Aitik Cu–Au porphyry system. The later event at c. 1.80 Ga, generating voluminous mafic–felsic units, is suggested to be coupled to the regional iron-oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) overprint.
Visual processing problems may be one underlying factor for cognitive impairments related to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We examined associations between ASD-traits (Autism-Spectrum Quotient) and visual processing performance (Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure Test; Block Design task of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III) in young adults (mean age=25.0, s.d.=2.1 years) born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) (n=101) or at term (n=104). A higher level of ASD-traits was associated with slower global visual processing speed among the preterm VLBW, but not among the term-born group (P<0.04 for interaction). Our findings suggest that the associations between ASD-traits and visual processing may be restricted to individuals born preterm, and related specifically to global, not local visual processing. Our findings point to cumulative social and neurocognitive problems in those born preterm at VLBW.
Adaptation to the consequences of climate change has developed into a growing field of concern for the insurance business. However, climate-related risk is not entirely a new field in insurance. Historically, a large number of insurance organisational choices and strategies have been used to mitigate the financial impact of extreme events and uncertainties associated with climate change. Taking the case of forests in Sweden, this article reviews the ways in which climate-related risks such as storm/wind and fire risks have been assured. The study shows that climate-related risks have generally increased over time and that major hazard events have been decisive for strategy and organisation choices. Twentieth-century developments show that corporate insurance coverage increased due to higher levels of anticipated risk, while self-insurance and public insurance were reduced. However, in more recent times the expansion of corporate insurance has stagnated. Increased premiums and tighter terms following historically extreme weather events have led government and forest owners to assume more climate risks.
The incidence of childhood respiratory infections in Greenland is among the highest globally. We performed a population-based study of 352 Greenlandic children aged 0–6 years aiming to describe rates and risk factors for carriage of four key bacteria associated with respiratory infections, their antimicrobial susceptibility and inter-bacterial associations. Nasopharyngeal swabs were tested for Streptococcus pneumoniae grouped by serotypes included (VT) or not included (NVT) in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, non-typable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), Staphylococcus aureus and Moraxella catarrhalis. S. pneumoniae was detected from age 2 weeks with a peak carriage rate of 60% in 2-year-olds. Young age and having siblings attending a daycare institution were associated with pneumococcal carriage. Overall co-colonization with ⩾2 of the studied bacteria was 52%. NTHi showed a positive association with NVT pneumococci and M. catarrhalis, respectively, M. catarrhalis was positively associated with S. pneumoniae, particular VT pneumococci, whereas S. aureus were negatively associated with NTHi and M. catarrhalis. Nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage was present unusually early in life and with frequent co-colonization. Domestic crowding increased odds of carriage. Due to important bacterial associations we suggest future surveillance of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine's impact on carriage in Greenland to also include other pathogens.
Results of adulthood mental health of those born late-preterm (34 + 0–36 + 6 weeks + days of gestation) are mixed and based on national registers. We examined if late-preterm birth was associated with a higher risk for common mental disorders in young adulthood when using a diagnostic interview, and if this risk decreased as gestational age increased.
A total of 800 young adults (mean = 25.3, s.d. = 0.62 years), born 1985–1986, participated in a follow-up of the Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study. Common mental disorders (mood, anxiety and substance use disorders) during the past 12 months were defined using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (Munich version). Gestational age was extracted from hospital birth records and categorized into early-preterm (<34 + 0, n = 37), late-preterm (34 + 0–36 + 6, n = 106), term (37 + 0–41 + 6, n = 617) and post-term (⩾42 + 0, n = 40).
Those born late-preterm and at term were at a similar risk for any common mental disorder [odds ratio (OR) 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67–1.84], for mood (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.54–2.25), anxiety (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.40–2.50) and substance use (OR 1.31, 95% CI 0.74–2.32) disorders, and co-morbidity of these disorders (p = 0.38). While the mental disorder risk decreased significantly as gestational age increased, the trend was driven by a higher risk in those born early-preterm.
Using a cohort born during the advanced neonatal and early childhood care, we found that not all individuals born preterm are at risk for common mental disorders in young adulthood – those born late-preterm are not, while those born early-preterm are at a higher risk. Available resources for prevention and intervention should be targeted towards the preterm group born the earliest.
On-farm demonstration-trials are a common strategy to introduce new technologies to farmers, while simultaneously evaluating these technologies’ performance under farmer conditions. The current study focuses on conservation agriculture (CA) technology adoption dynamics among a small group of farmers who can be considered increasingly knowledgeable, as they have hosted CA demonstration-trials for at least 7 years. Management and performance of farmers’ fields were compared with the CA demonstration-trials implemented on the same farm, focusing on yield gaps (YGs) between the two and the uptake of CA or some of its principles. Comparisons were made between demonstration-trials and farmers’ fields in three distinct land classification areas: Madziwa Communal Area (est. 1910s), Chavakadzi (est. 1980s) and Hereford (est. 2000s) Resettlement Areas. It was found that closing knowledge gaps on CA did not close YGs and that CA adoption was partial. In the Communal Area, CA principles have barely been taken up, but farmer yields were often as good as on the demonstration-trials. In the Resettlement Areas, farmers did take up reduced tillage (CA principle 1) and practised rotations (CA principle 3), but not residue retention (CA principle 2). Rather than partial CA adoption, lower fertilization rates explained the recorded YGs in the Resettlement Areas. In the three areas, farmers’ interest in CA-based increasing of yields was limited, as circumstances drove them to embark on extensification rather than a land use intensification pathway.
Randomized trials with antidepressants are often run under double blind placebo-controlled conditions, whereas those with psychotherapies are mostly unblinded. This can introduce bias in favor of psychotherapy when the treatments are directly compared. In this meta-analysis, we examine this potential source of bias.
We searched Pubmed, PsycInfo, Embase and the Cochrane database (1966 to January 2014) by combining terms indicative of psychological treatment and depression, and limited to randomized trials. We included 35 trials (with 3721 patients) in which psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for adult depression were directly compared with each other. We calculated effect sizes for each study indicating the difference between psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy at post-test. Then, we examined the difference between studies with a placebo condition and those without in moderator analyses.
We did not find a significant difference between the studies with and those without a placebo condition. The studies in which a placebo condition was included indicated no significant difference between psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy (g = −0.07; NNT = 25). Studies in which no placebo condition was included (and patients and clinicians in both conditions were not blinded), resulted in a small, but significant difference between psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in favor of pharmacotherapy (g = −0.13; NNT = 14).
Studies comparing psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in which both groups of patients (and therapists) are not blinded (no placebo condition is included) result in a very small, but significantly higher effect for pharmacotherapy.
It is well known that web-based interventions can be effective treatments for depression. However, dropout rates in web-based interventions are typically high, especially in self-guided web-based interventions. Rigorous empirical evidence regarding factors influencing dropout in self-guided web-based interventions is lacking due to small study sample sizes. In this paper we examined predictors of dropout in an individual patient data meta-analysis to gain a better understanding of who may benefit from these interventions.
A comprehensive literature search for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of psychotherapy for adults with depression from 2006 to January 2013 was conducted. Next, we approached authors to collect the primary data of the selected studies. Predictors of dropout, such as socio-demographic, clinical, and intervention characteristics were examined.
Data from 2705 participants across ten RCTs of self-guided web-based interventions for depression were analysed. The multivariate analysis indicated that male gender [relative risk (RR) 1.08], lower educational level (primary education, RR 1.26) and co-morbid anxiety symptoms (RR 1.18) significantly increased the risk of dropping out, while for every additional 4 years of age, the risk of dropping out significantly decreased (RR 0.94).
Dropout can be predicted by several variables and is not randomly distributed. This knowledge may inform tailoring of online self-help interventions to prevent dropout in identified groups at risk.
Two alternative chemical etchings (aqueous solution of bromine and bromine methanol solution) have been here tested to replace the KCN etching step in Cu-rich CuInSe2 based solar cells fabrication process. This new oxidative etch aims also at smoothing and thinning the as-grown films. This directly affects the interface between the absorber and the CdS buffer, interface which causes problems for Cu-rich solar cells. We present here the effect of these two alternative etchings on both the absorber surface and the solar cells parameters: whereas the bromine methanol etching destroys the solar cell, the aqueous solution of bromine leads to an improvement of the device through reduced interface and tunneling enhanced recombination.
In this work, we report on development of one-dimensional reaction-diffusion simulator needed to understand the kinetics of Cu-related metastabilities observed in CdTe PV devices. Evolution of intrinsic and Cu-related defects in CdTe solar cells has been studied in time-space domain self-consistently with free carrier transport. Resulting device performance was simulated as a function of stress time, thus showing pronounced effect that the evolution of associated acceptor and donor states can cause on device characteristics. Although 1D simulation has intrinsic limitations when applied to poly-crystalline films, the results presented confirm the validity and the potential of the approach presented in better understanding of the performance and metastabilities of CdTe photovoltaic devices.
The goal of this research is to synthesize novel linear and hyperbranched polythiophene derivatives containing diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) as linking groups, and to investigate thermal, optical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties of those derivatives. Polymers with high regioregularity were synthesized via the Universal Grignard metathesis polymerization. Those linear or hyperbranched polythiophenes containing DPP bridging moieties showed higher molecular weights and better thermal stability compared with normal P3HT. The UV-vis absorption spectra of the DPP-containing polymers are similar to that of P3HT in film state, while they show distinct attenuation in fluorescent emission. Finally, all polymers were blended with PC61BM and used as active layers for fabrication of inverted solar devices. The devices based on those DPP-containing polythiophenes revealed the open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 0.55–0.58 V, the short-circuit current (JSC) of 8.62–16.21 mA/cm2, the fill factor (FF) of 36–41%, and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.73–3.74%.
In current transparent Si based photovoltaic (PV) module fabrication, green or infrared laser is the most common used band frequency to wipe off the silicon and back contact layer in perpendicular direction of cells. However, this method would result in more power loss than calculation value due to the side effects during the process such as constructional damage of module and shunt effect. A new method is presented here which focus on wiping off more silicon layer by employing green pulsed laser(532 nm wavelength) along the parallel direction of Pattern2, and it shows higher efficiency and more attractive appearance.