The ability of haemocytes, from the haemolymph of the gastropod mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis, to recognize and eliminate the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida was shown using an in vitro bacterial clearance assay. The assay employs a dye which is reduced by A. salmonicida in direct proportion to the number of viable bacteria resulting in a colour change which can be determined spectrophotometrically. Addition of cytochalasin B resulted in a marked decrease in bacterial clearance, implicating both intracellular and extracellular cytotoxicity of haemocytes. A comparison of haemocytes from uninfected snails and snails infected with the avian schistosome parasite Trichobilharzia ocellata showed that both juveniles and adults of L. stagnalis were susceptible to infection with T. ocellata. After exposure to the trematode for 1·5 h the haemocytes from these infected snails had an enhanced clearance capacity, whilst cells obtained from snails with 24–96 h infections showed decreased clearance of the bacteria, indicating suppression by the parasite. Haemocytes, as well as plasma, which was tested on haemocytes from uninfected snails, were used and hence a distinction was made between cell and humoralassociated effects. The results show that both cellular and humoral components of immunity were activated, then suppressed, following exposure to the parasite. Infection with T. ocellata seems to have a modulating effect on the bactericidal activity of the internal defence system of the snail host, L. stagnalis.