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Roads affect wildlife in a variety of negative ways. Road ecology studies have mostly concentrated on areas in the northern hemisphere despite the potentially greater impact of roads on biodiversity in tropical habitats. Here, we examine 4 years (January 2016–December 2019) of opportunistic observations of mammalian roadkill along a road intersecting Jozani-Chwaka Bay National Park, Unguja, Zanzibar. In particular, we assess the impact of collisions on the population of an endemic primate, the Endangered Zanzibar red colobus Piliocolobus kirkii. Primates accounted for the majority of roadkill in this dataset. Monthly rainfall was not associated with roadkill frequency for mammals generally, nor for the Zanzibar red colobus. No single age–sex class of colobus was found dead more often than expected given their occurrence in the local population. The overall effect of roadkill on colobus populations in habitats fragmented by roads is unknown given the lack of accurate, long-term life history data for this species. Our findings suggest that mortality from collisions with vehicles in some groups of colobus is within the range of mortality rates other primates experience under natural predation. Unlike natural predators, however, vehicles do not kill selectively, so their impact on populations may differ. Although a comparison with historical accounts suggests that the installation of speedbumps along the road near the Park's entrance has led to a significant decrease in colobus roadkill, further actions to mitigate the impact of the road could bring substantial conservation benefits.
The epidemiology of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) has been extensively studied in hospitals, but data on community transmission are scarce. We investigated ESBL-PE cocarriage and acquisition in households using a systematic literature review.
We conducted a systematic literature search to retrieve cross-sectional or cohort studies published between 1990 and 2018 evaluating cocarriage proportions and/or acquisition rates of ESBL-PE among household members, without language restriction. We excluded studies focusing on animal-to-human transmission or conducted in nonhousehold settings. The main outcomes were ESBL-PE cocarriage proportions and acquisition rates, stratified according to phenotypic or genotypic assessment of strain relatedness. Cocarriage proportions of clonally related ESBL-PE were transformed using the double-arcsine method and were pooled using a random-effects model. Potential biases were assessed manually.
We included 13 studies. Among 863 household members of ESBL-PE positive index cases, prevalence of ESBL-PE cocarriage ranged from 8% to 37%. Overall, 12% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8%–16%) of subjects had a clonally related strain. Those proportions were higher for Klebsiella pneumoniae (20%–25%) than for Escherichia coli (10%–20%). Acquisition rates of clonally related ESBL-PE among 180 initially ESBL-PE–free household members of a previously identified carrier ranged between 1.56 and 2.03 events per 1,000 person weeks of follow-up. We identified multiple sources of bias and high heterogeneity (I2, 70%) between studies.
ESBL-PE household cocarriage is frequent, suggesting intrafamilial acquisition. Further research is needed to evaluate the risk and control of ESBL-PE household transmission.
As technology becomes more powerful, intelligent, and autonomous, its usage also creates unintended consequences and ethical challenges for a vast array of stakeholders. The ethical implications of technology on society, for example, range from job losses (such as potential loss of truck driver jobs due to automation) to lying and deception about a product that may occur within a technology firm or on user-generated content platforms. The challenges around ethical technology design are so multifaceted that there is an essential need for each stakeholder to accept responsibility. Even policymakers who are charged with providing the appropriate regulatory framework and legislation about technologies have an obligation to learn about the pros and cons of proposed options.
Some of the significant features of our era include the design of large-scale systems; advances in medicine, manufacturing, and artificial intelligence (AI); the role of social media in influencing behavior and toppling governments; and the surge of online transactions that are replacing human face-to-face interactions. Most of these features have resulted from advances in technology. While spanning a variety of disciplines, these features also have two important aspects in common: the necessity for sound decision-making about the technology that is evolving, and the need to understand the ethical implications of these decisions to all stakeholders.
This chapter presents an interview with Vint Cerf, one of the fathers of the Internet. The chapter discusses his personal views on ethics, data and privacy, net neutrality, public policy, self-driving cars, genetic codes, and reflections on the future.
The present paper summarizes prevalence, epidemiology and clinical disease of natural Toxoplasma gondii infections in humans and animals from Egypt. The current situation of toxoplasmosis in Egypt is confusing. There is no central laboratory or group of researchers actively investigating toxoplasmosis in humans or animals, and no reports on the national level are available. Based on various serological tests and convenience samples, T. gondii infections appear highly prevalent in humans and animals from Egypt. Living circumstances in Egypt favour the transmission of T. gondii. Up to 95% of domestic cats, the key host of T. gondii, are infected with T. gondii; they are abundant in rural and suburban areas, spreading T. gondii oocysts. Many women have been tested in maternity clinics, most with no definitive diagnosis. Toxoplasma gondii DNA and IgM antibodies have been found in blood samples of blood donors. Clinical toxoplasmosis in humans from Egypt needs further investigations using definitive procedures. Reports on congenital toxoplasmosis are conflicting and some reports are alarming. Although there are many serological surveys for T. gondii in animals, data on clinical infections are lacking. Here, we critically review the status of toxoplasmosis in Egypt, which should be useful to biologist, public health workers, veterinarians and physicians.
Many of the significant developments of our era have resulted from advances in technology, including the design of large-scale systems; advances in medicine, manufacturing, and artificial intelligence; the role of social media in influencing behaviour and toppling governments; and the surge of online transactions that are replacing human face-to-face interactions. These advances have given rise to new kinds of ethical concerns around the uses (and misuses) of technology. This collection of essays by prominent academics and technology leaders covers important ethical questions arising in modern industry, offering guidance on how to approach these dilemmas. Chapters discuss what we can learn from the ethical lapses of #MeToo, Volkswagen, and Cambridge Analytica, and highlight the common need across all applications for sound decision-making and understanding the implications for stakeholders. Technologists and general readers with no formal ethics training and specialists exploring technological applications to the field of ethics will benefit from this overview.
We have been investigating populations of cataclysmic variables (CVs) in a set of more than 300 globular cluster (GC) models evolved with themoccacode.[-120pt] One of the main questions we have intended to answer is whether most CVs in GCs are dynamically formed or not. Contrary to what has been argued for a long time, we found that dynamical destruction of primordial CV progenitors is much stronger in GCs than dynamical formation of CVs. In particular, we found that, on average, the detectable CV population is predominantly composed of CVs formed via a typical common envelope phase (≳70 per cent). However, core-collapsed models tend to have higher fractions of bright CVs than non-core-collapsed ones, which suggests then that the formation of CVs is indeed slightly favoured through strong dynamical interactions in core-collapsed GCs, due to the high stellar densities in their cores.