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We study the propagation of uncertainty from a class of priors introduced by Arias-Nicolás et al. [(2016) Bayesian Analysis, 11(4), 1107–1136] to the premiums (both the collective and the Bayesian), for a wide family of premium principles (specifically, those that preserve the likelihood ratio order). The class under study reflects the prior uncertainty using distortion functions and fulfills some desirable requirements: elicitation is easy, the prior uncertainty can be measured by different metrics, and the range of quantities of interest is easily obtained from the extremal members of the class. We illustrate the methodology with several examples based on different claim counts models.
Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is synthesized through a micellar dispersion that allows incorporation of biomolecules into this conductive polymer layer. A PEDOT:κ-carrageenan (κC) system was obtained by electrodeposition and it was compared with a standard PEDOT:sodium dodecyl sulfate electrode coat. The electrochemical behavior and the oxidation level after 1000 cycles were studied through cyclic voltammetry and μRaman spectroscopy. The oxidation ratio in the PEDOT increased while electrochemical activity decreased in both cases. Moreover, the PEDOT:κC system allowed the immobilization of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme, which retained its activity. The unique combination of properties is a key feature in the bioelectronics field.
Cognitive models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) implicate threat-related attentional biases in the etiology and phenomenology of the disorder. However, extant attentional research using reaction time (RT)-based paradigms and measures has yielded mixed results. Eye-tracking methodology has emerged in recent years to overcome several inherent drawbacks of RT-based tasks, striving to better delineate attentional processes.
A systematic review of experimental studies examining threat-related attention biases in PTSD, using eye-tracking methodology and group-comparison designs, was conducted conforming to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Studies were selected following a systematic search for publications between 1980 and December 2017 in PsycINFO, MEDLINE and the National Center for PTSD Research's Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress (PILOTS) database. Additional records were identified by employing the Similar Articles feature in PubMed, and the Cited Reference Search in ISI Web of Science. Reference sections of review articles, book chapters and studies selected for inclusion were searched for further studies. Ongoing studies were also sought through Clinicaltrials.gov.
A total of 11 studies (n = 456 participants in total) were included in the final review. Results indicated little support for enhanced threat detection, hypervigilance and attentional avoidance. However, consistent evidence emerged for sustained attention on threat (i.e. attention maintenance) in PTSD.
This review is the first to systematically evaluate extant findings in PTSD emanating from eye-tracking studies employing group-comparison designs. Results suggest that sustained attention on threat might serve as a potential target for therapeutic intervention.
An ostracode fauna is described from lacustrine sediments of the Hettangian, Lower Jurassic, Whitmore Point Member of the Moenave Formation. The Moenave is well known for its rich, Late Triassic?–Early Jurassic fossil record, which includes fossil fishes, stromatolites, ostracodes, spinicaudatans, and a diverse ichnofauna of invertebrates and vertebrates. Four ostracode species, all belonging to the suborder Darwinulocopina, were recovered from these sediments: Suchonellina globosa, S. stricta, Whipplella? sp. 1, and W.? sp. 2. The diversity and composition of the Whitmore Point Member ostracode fauna agree with previous interpretations about Lake Dixie and nearby paleoenvironments as shallow lakes inhabited by darwinulocopine species that survived the effects of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province and the subsequent end-Triassic extinction and quickly recolonized these areas, thanks to asexual reproduction by parthenogenesis. The Lake Dixie region, in its geographical isolation, could represent the last episode of darwinulocopine dominance in nonmarine environments before the Late Jurassic diversification of the cypridocopine/cytherocopine modern ostracodes.
A number of publications have discussed approaches to training the scientific workforce in comparative effectiveness research (CER) and patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR). To meet this need, funders have offered resources for developing educational materials and establishing training programs. To extend these efforts into specific researcher communities, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality developed an R25 Funding Opportunity Announcement that called for basic, advanced, and experiential training for a specific researcher community in collaboration with associated program partners. This paper describes the strategies developed by the 5 subsequently funded programs, their specific researcher communities and program partners, and the challenges associated with developing in-person and online programs. We focus on lessons learned that can be translated into developing training programs nationwide and on training for the special populations of interest. We also discuss the creation of a sustainable network for training and the conduct of comparative effectiveness research/patient-centered outcomes research in targeted communities.
Our understanding of the complex relationship between schizophrenia symptomatology and etiological factors can be improved by studying brain-based correlates of schizophrenia. Research showed that impairments in value processing and executive functioning, which have been associated with prefrontal brain areas [particularly the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC)], are linked to negative symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that MOFC thickness is associated with negative symptom severity.
This study included 1985 individuals with schizophrenia from 17 research groups around the world contributing to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. Cortical thickness values were obtained from T1-weighted structural brain scans using FreeSurfer. A meta-analysis across sites was conducted over effect sizes from a model predicting cortical thickness by negative symptom score (harmonized Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms or Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores).
Meta-analytical results showed that left, but not right, MOFC thickness was significantly associated with negative symptom severity (βstd = −0.075; p = 0.019) after accounting for age, gender, and site. This effect remained significant (p = 0.036) in a model including overall illness severity. Covarying for duration of illness, age of onset, antipsychotic medication or handedness weakened the association of negative symptoms with left MOFC thickness. As part of a secondary analysis including 10 other prefrontal regions further associations in the left lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and pars opercularis emerged.
Using an unusually large cohort and a meta-analytical approach, our findings point towards a link between prefrontal thinning and negative symptom severity in schizophrenia. This finding provides further insight into the relationship between structural brain abnormalities and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
Studies aimed to assess up to what extent farming and transport previous to slaughtering might affect physiology and meat quality in young goat kids are needed, with the ultimate purpose of promoting practices that minimize stress in these animals. In this regard the effects of on-farm management and transport duration on some physiological responses and meat quality parameters in goat kids were assessed. Two farms representing ‘high’ and ‘low’ welfare-friendly management practices were selected. In total, 32 suckling kids were withdrawn from each farm, transported by road for 2 or 6 h, and then slaughtered. Blood samples were collected both on-farm and in the slaughterhouse, and biochemistry, cell counts and haematocrit were determined. After slaughtering, carcass quality parameters were measured. Longissimus dorsi muscle was dissected and pH, colour parameters, water holding capacity and shear force were measured throughout 8-day ageing period. Results indicate that, regardless its duration, transport caused significant effects on some blood parameters suggesting stress in live animals, like glucose, cortisol or creatine kinase. Despite the marked stress status in animals, this condition was not decisively reflected on L. dorsi quality parameters, but some effects were observed regarding fat cover in carcasses and colour parameters. The results suggest that postmortem changes throughout ageing were more decisive in terms of meat quality than stressful management either on-farm or during transport.
A new generation of solar instruments provides improved spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution, thus facilitating a better understanding of dynamic processes on the Sun. High-resolution observations often reveal multiple-component spectral line profiles, e.g., in the near-infrared He i 10830 Å triplet, which provides information about the chromospheric velocity and magnetic fine structure. We observed an emerging flux region, including two small pores and an arch filament system, on 2015 April 17 with the ‘very fast spectroscopic mode’ of the GREGOR Infrared Spectrograph (GRIS) situated at the 1.5-meter GREGOR solar telescope at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. We discuss this method of obtaining fast (one per minute) spectral scans of the solar surface and its potential to follow dynamic processes on the Sun. We demonstrate the performance of the ‘very fast spectroscopic mode’ by tracking chromospheric high-velocity features in the arch filament system.
In this work we propose a preliminary seismic investigation of δ Scuti stars in the Pleiades cluster, focusing on potential diagnostics of convection and core-overshooting. Taking into account the effect of fast rotation in the modelling, we compare observed frequencies for 4 δ Scuti stars with radial linear instability predictions. A satisfying agreement is reached between the predicted ranges of unstable modes and those derived from observations for “low-mass” stars (∼ 1.55M⊙). However, a strong disagreement is found for “high-mass” stars (∼ 1.77M⊙), whatever the mixing length (α) value. These results are compared with previous ones obtained for Praesepe.
Some results of the photometry multi-site observations of two δ Scuti stars, V624 Tau and HD 23194, are presented. The observations were carried out in the framework of a STEPHI network in 1999. We collected 343 hours of useful data and detected seven frequencies in V624 Tau and two frequencies in HD 23194.
To support tropical maize (Zea mays L.) breeding efforts, the current work aimed to assess harvest index (HI) in modern hybrids and determine the effect of different planting densities on grain yield and HI under well-fertilized (HN) and nitrogen (N) deficient conditions. Harvest index and grain yield of 34 hybrids on average reached 0·42 and 7·06 t/ha (five environments), indicating a large potential for improvement in HI relative to temperate hybrids. Ear weight (r = 0·88), HI (r = 0·78) and shoot dry weight (r = 0·68) were strongly associated with grain yield. In the second experiment, seven hybrids were evaluated at planting densities of 5, 7, 9 and 11 plants/m2 under HN (six environments) and N deficient (LN) conditions (four environments) to assess the effect of planting density on grain yield and HI. Grain yield increased by 40·4 and 21·8% under HN and LN conditions when planting density was increased relative to the lowest planting density. Harvest index increased from 0·42 at 5 plants/m2 to 0·45 at 11 plants/m2 under HN conditions and decreased from 0·44 at 5 plants/m2 to 0·42 at 9 plants/m2 under LN conditions. Harvest index was maximized at planting densities of 8·33 plants/m2 and 5·30 plants/m2 under HN and LN conditions, respectively, while grain yield was maximized at 9·93 plants/m2 and 7·89/m2. Optimal planting density maximizing both HI and grain yield were higher than planting densities currently used in tropical germplasm. It can be concluded that productivity in tropical maize could be increased both under intensive (+40·4%) and lower-input management (+21·8%) by increasing planting densities above those currently used in smallholder agriculture in Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa, in environments targeted by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center.
The aim of this study was to investigate the BW and immune status of lambs reared under natural conditions or under artificial conditions fed two different colostrum amounts. In this study, 60 lambs were randomly divided into groups according to treatment. Twenty lambs remained with their dams (natural rearing (NR) group). Forty lambs were removed from their dams at birth. Lambs were bottle-fed with a pool of sheep colostrum, receiving either 4 g of IgG/kg of BW at birth (C4 group) or 8 g of IgG/kg of BW at birth (C8 group). The total colostrum amount was equally divided into three meals at 2, 14 and 24 h after birth. After this period, lambs were bottle-fed a commercial milk replacer. Blood plasma sample analysis and BW recordings were carried out before feeding at birth and then at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 20 days after birth. Another blood sample analysis and BW recording was carried out when animals reached 10 kg of BW. During weaning (30 days), sampling was carried out every 5 days. Blood plasma was used to determine the concentrations of IgG and IgM and the complement system activity – total and alternative pathways. The NR group showed greater BW than the C4 and C8 groups during milk feeding period, whereas the C4 and C8 groups had greater BW than the NR group at the end of weaning period. The C8 and NR groups had greater plasma IgG and IgM concentrations than the C4 group during milk feeding period. In addition, C4 and C8 groups showed similar IgG concentrations and greater IgM concentrations than the NR group at the end of the weaning period. Complement system activity was greater in the NR group than in the C4 and C8 groups during the first 3 days after birth. In conclusion, lambs fed amounts of colostrum equivalent to 8 g of IgG/kg of BW showed similar immune variables compared to lambs reared under natural conditions, obtaining a greater BW at the end of the weaning period. Nevertheless, this study shows that not only the colostrum amount but also the management during the milk feeding and weaning period, such as stress produced by dam separation, milk quality and suckling frequency, can affect the final immune status of lambs.
Bovine babesiosis caused by the tick-transmitted haemoprotozoans Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina and Babesia divergens commonly results in substantial cattle morbidity and mortality in vast world areas. Although existing live vaccines confer protection, they have considerable disadvantages. Therefore, particularly in countries where large numbers of cattle are at risk, important research is directed towards improved vaccination strategies. Here a comprehensive overview of currently used live vaccines and of the status quo of experimental vaccine trials is presented. In addition, pertinent research fields potentially contributing to the development of novel non-live and/or live vaccines are discussed, including parasite antigens involved in host cell invasion and in pathogen-tick interactions, as well as the protective immunity against infection. The mining of available parasite genomes is continuously enlarging the array of potential vaccine candidates and, additionally, the recent development of a transfection tool for Babesia can significantly contribute to vaccine design. However, the complication and high cost of vaccination trials hinder Babesia vaccine research, and have so far seriously limited the systematic examination of antigen candidates and prevented an in-depth testing of formulations using different immunomodulators and antigen delivery systems.
The importance of small ruminants to the dairy industry has increased in recent years, especially in developing countries, where it has a high economic and social impact. Interestingly and despite the fact that the mammary gland is the specialised milk production organ, very few authors studied the modifications occurring in the mammary gland through the lactation period in production animals, particularly in the small ruminants, sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra hircus). Nevertheless, understanding the different mammary gland patterns throughout lactation is essential to improve dairy production. In addition, associating these patterns with different milking frequencies, lactation number or different diets is also of high importance, directly affecting the dairy industry. The mammary gland is commonly composed of parenchyma and stroma, which includes the ductal system, with individual proportions of each changing during the different periods and yields in a lactation cycle. Indeed, during late gestation, as well as during early to mid-lactation, mammary gland expansion occurs, with an increase in the number of epithelial cells and lumen area, which leads to increment of the parenchyma tissue, as well as a reduction of stroma, corresponding macroscopically to the increase in mammary gland volume. Throughout late lactation, the mammary gland volume decreases owing to the regression of the secretory structure. In general, common mammary gland patterns have been shown for both goats and sheep throughout the several lactation stages, although the number of studies is limited. The main objective of this manuscript is to review the colostrogenesis and lactogenesis processes as well as to highlight the mammary gland morphological patterns underlying milk production during the lactation cycle for small ruminants, and to describe potential differences between goats and sheep, hence contributing to a better description of mammary gland development during lactation for these two poorly studied species.
Three 10-mm-long miniscrews commonly employed in orthodontic treatment were compared in four different situations involving diverse thicknesses of cortical bone. The finite element method (FEM) was used in the study, in which a force of 250 g was applied in two directions: perpendicular and parallel to the bone surface. As the parameter under study was the thickness of cortical bone, simulations were performed in four different bone loss situations: 2.5, 2, 1.5 and 1 mm. Our aim was also to quantify the stresses and displacements generated when applying a force of 250 g perpendicular and parallel to the bone surface under the same skeletal conditions. The results reveal similar performance in the three analysed samples, with increased stresses and displacements in the surrounding bone in relation to similar variations in the thickness of cortical bone.
In vitro and in vivo experiments were designed to evaluate the effectiveness of laboratory-made di-d-fructose dianhydride (DFA)-enriched caramels. The DFA-enriched caramels were obtained from d-fructose (FC), d-fructose and sucrose (FSC), or d-fructose and β-cyclodextrin (FCDC). In the in vitro experiment, raftilose and all caramels increased (P<0.05) l-lactate concentration and decreased (P<0.05) pH. Total short-chain fatty acid concentration was higher (P<0.05) than controls in tubes containing raftilose, FSC, FCDC and commercial sucrose caramel (CSC). Raftilose, and all caramels tested except FSC and FC (1%), increased (P<0.01) lactobacilli log10 number of copies compared with the non-additive control. FSC, FCDC and CSC increased (P<0.01) the bifidobacteria number of copies as compared with controls. All additives, except FCDC, decreased (P<0.01) Clostridium coccoides/Eubacterium rectale log number of copies. Compared with controls, raftilose, FC and CSC led to lower (P<0.01) Escherichia–Shigella and enterobacteria. For the in vivo experiment, a total of 144 male 1-day-old broiler chickens of the Cobb strain were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments for 21 days. Dietary treatments were control (commercial diet with no additive), inulin (20 g inulin/kg diet) and FC (20 g FC/kg diet). Final BW of birds fed FC diet was higher (P<0.01) than controls or inulin-fed birds, although feed: gain values were not different. Feed intake of chickens fed FC was higher (P<0.01) than that of inulin-fed birds but not statistically different from controls. Crop pH values were lower (P<0.01) in birds fed FC diet as compared with control diet, with inulin-fed chickens showing values not different from control- or FC-fed birds. Lower (P<0.05) lactobacilli number of copies was determined in the crop, ileum and caeca of birds fed the inulin diet compared with the control diet. Inulin supplementation also resulted in lower (P<0.05) C. coccoides/E. rectale, bacteroides and total bacteria in caecal contents. Addition of FC to broiler diets gave place to lower (P<0.05) enterobacteria and Escherichia–Shigella in crop and caecal contents compared with controls. The bacteroides number of copies increased (P<0.05) as compared with controls in the ileum, but decreased (P<0.05) in the caeca of chickens fed the FC diet. Energy, ADF, NDF and non-starch polysaccharides faecal digestibilities were greater (P<0.05) than controls in chickens fed diets containing inulin or FC. Fat digestibility was higher (P<0.05) in FC-fed birds compared with controls or inulin-fed chickens. In conclusion, DFA-enriched caramels tested here, particularly FC, may represent a type of new additives useful in poultry production.
The ferroic phase transition in LaEr(MoO4)3 has been analyzed for the first time. It has been confirmed that this compound undergoes a phase transition from a tetragonal system (paraelectric-paraelastic phase), with space group P-421m [β-Gd2(MoO4)3 averaged phase] to an orthorhombic system (ferroelectric-ferroelastic phase), with space group Pba2 [β'-Gd2(MoO4)3 phase] in a reversible process. This phenomenon, together with the observed demixing at high temperature has been studied using different techniques. LaEr(MoO4)3 samples have been obtained by the conventional solid-state synthesis. The thermal dependence of the crystal structure was studied by powder X-ray and neutron diffraction, following a new refining procedure in which the symmetry modes of atomic displacements from the paraelectric-paraelastic structure were analyzed. Dielectric spectroscopy measurements have confirmed the structural results, showing a very smooth phase transition. Finally, calculations within the framework of Density Functional Theory show a behavior of the lattice parameters similar to that observed in our experiments.
This work estimate the growth kinetics of Fe2B coatings created on surface nodular cast iron ASTM A-536 class 80-56-06. The Fe2B coatings were formed by power packaging boriding process, considering three temperatures and exposure times different treatment. The hard coatings were evaluated through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The model of diffusion employs the mass balance equation at the (Fe2B/substrate) interface to evaluate the boron diffusion coefficient in the Fe2B coating DFe2B, an expression of the parabolic growth constant, the instantaneous velocity of the Fe2B/substrate interface, and the weight gain in the boriding sample were establish as a function of the parameter ε(T) and η(T), dependents of boriding process in function of the temperature related and the time of boriding t0 (T), respectively in the Fe2B coating. Model validation was extended considering the treatment of 1273 and 1123 K for 10 h respectively, obtaining a good correlation with experimental data.
Dual language children enter school with varying levels of proficiencies in their first and second language. This study of Latino children of immigrants (N = 163) analyzes their dual language profiles at kindergarten and second grade, derived from the direct assessment of Spanish and English proficiencies (Woodcock Language Proficiency Batteries—Revised). Children were grouped based on the similarity of language profiles (competent profiles, such as dual proficient, Spanish proficient, and English proficient; and low-performing profiles, including borderline proficient and limited proficient). At kindergarten, the majority of children (63%) demonstrated a low-performing profile; by second grade, however, the majority of children (64%) had competent profiles. Change and stability of language profiles over time of individual children were then analyzed. Of concern, are children who continued to demonstrate a low-performing, high-risk profile. Factors in the linguistic environments at school and home, as well as other family and child factors associated with dual language profiles and change/stability over time were examined, with a particular focus on the persistently low-performing profile groups.