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Using A-configuration of the BIMA-array with 0″.4 angular resolution maps were obtained of the 107 GHz methanol line in W3(OH). The 107 GHz masers have their counterparts in another methanol transition at 6.7 GHz. The strongest maser spots are unresolved with the BIMA-array and are less than , which corresponds to the lower limit of the brightness temperature 5×105 K. A model of Class II methanol masers emitted in the extended atmosphere of icy planets orbiting around the O-star which excites H ɪɪ region is proposed.
Using a sequential in vitro/in vivo approach, we tested the ability of botanical extracts to influence biomarkers associated with bone resorption and bone formation. Pomegranate fruit and grape seed extracts were found to exhibit anti-resorptive activity by inhibiting receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) expression in MG-63 cells and to reduce IL-1β-stimulated calvarial 45Ca loss. A combination of pomegranate fruit and grape seed extracts were shown to be effective at inhibiting bone loss in ovariectomised rats as demonstrated by standard histomorphometry, biomechanical and bone mineral density measurements. Quercetin and licorice extract exhibited bone formation activity as measured by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) promoter activation, increased expression of BMP-2 mRNA and protein levels, and promotion of bone growth in cultured mouse calvariae. A combination of quercetin and licorice extract demonstrated a potential for increasing bone mineral density in an intact female rat model as compared with controls. The results from this sequential in vitro/in vivo research model yielded botanical extract formulas that demonstrate significant potential benefits for bone health.
Studies investigating structural brain abnormalities in depression have typically employed a categorical rather than dimensional approach to depression [i.e. comparing subjects with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-defined major depressive disorder (MDD) v. healthy controls]. The National Institute of Mental Health, through their Research Domain Criteria initiative, has encouraged a dimensional approach to the study of psychopathology as opposed to an over-reliance on categorical (e.g. DSM-based) diagnostic approaches. Moreover, subthreshold levels of depressive symptoms (i.e. severity levels below DSM criteria) have been found to be associated with a range of negative outcomes, yet have been relatively neglected in neuroimaging research.
To examine the extent to which depressive symptoms – even at subclinical levels – are linearly related to gray matter volume reductions in theoretically important brain regions, we employed whole-brain voxel-based morphometry in a sample of 54 participants.
The severity of mild depressive symptoms, even in a subclinical population, was associated with reduced gray matter volume in the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, thalamus, superior temporal gyrus/temporal pole and superior frontal gyrus. A conjunction analysis revealed concordance across two separate measures of depression.
Reduced gray matter volume in theoretically important brain regions can be observed even in a sample that does not meet DSM criteria for MDD, but who nevertheless report relatively elevated levels of depressive symptoms. Overall, these findings highlight the need for additional research using dimensional conceptual and analytic approaches, as well as further investigation of subclinical populations.
While we have prepared and structurally characterized over forty solids in the octahedral-tetrahedral framework molybdenum phosphate (MoPO) system, including molecules, 1-D polymers and 3-D materials, this paper will focus on the two dimensional layered MoPO's. Both covalently and H bonded layers will be discussed. Compounds covered include Na3[Mo2O4(HPO4)(PO4)]·2H2O, (Et2NH2)2[Mo4O8(PO4)4/2], Cs2Mo4P6O26, (4-phenylpyridie)2[Mo4O8(PO4)4/2], (cation)[Mo2O2(PO4)2(H2PO4)], with several different types of organic and inorganic cations, and (4-phenylpiperidine)4[Na2.5Mo6O15(H1.4PO4)4]·4H2O. These materials might provide a platform for the preparation of new types of pillared and intercalated inorganic solids.
Local breeds and minor species are hardy and able to thrive in harsh conditions. Their adaptive traits and unique characteristics (coloured wool or hides, extra-fine fibre, meat or milk with special tastes) offer opportunities for the marketing of speciality products and sustainable food production in marginal areas. This study discusses eight initiatives from Africa, Asia and Latin America that help communities to produce and market various products for niche markets: milk and dairy products from dromedaries; cashmere, wool and handicrafts from goats, sheep and Bactrian camels; and meat, meat products and handicrafts from goats and sheep. The main strategies were to seek new markets for existing or entirely new products (rather than trying to exploit existing markets). Most initiatives had some form of branding or labelling, and two had protected their products with geographical indications. Such marketing initiatives can be started with limited capital inputs but are skill and knowledge intensive. They require strong commitment to overcome seasonal fluctuations in production, the lack of infrastructure and services, and difficulties in institution building. But when well planned and carefully managed, they can help conserve breeds as well as provide a livelihood for people involved in the value chain, allowing actors earlier in the value chain – livestock keepers and small-scale processors – to capture a greater share of the value of the end product than they would by trying to serve a mass market.
We present 5–20 μm Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy toward stars behind dark molecular clouds. We present preliminary results from the Serpens dark cloud to show the variation between environments within a cloud. We are surveying 3 clouds with varying levels of star formation activity. Serpens has the highest level of activity from our 3 clouds. We show that location as well extinction can cause variations in ice composition. We also find that some lines of sight contain organic molecules such as methane and methanol, and the first detection of acetylene ice in the interstellar medium. We believe the high extinction lines of sight have been enriched by star formation activity near those lines of sight.
The eastern spotted skunk (Spilogale putorius) was once common throughout the midwestern and southeastern United States, with consistent annual range-wide harvests of [Gt ]100 000 animals. In the 1940s, however, populations seemingly crashed and the species is currently listed by various state agencies as endangered, threatened, or ‘of concern’ across much of its range. We examined long-term harvest records from 10 states to better understand the 20th century population dynamics of eastern spotted skunks, to discern whether the putative decline was biologically real or an artifact of altered harvest pressures and to identify the timing of the decline. Analyses reveal unequivocally that the species was indeed once common in the Great Plains. Beginning in about 1940, harvests dramatically declined, although the onset of declines differed between states. By the early 1950s total harvests in all states were <10% of pre-crash harvest. Thereafter, rates of decline slowed, but nevertheless continued, such that by the 1980s harvests were <1% of those during pre-decline years. Analyses show that these declines are real and not an artifact of harvest effort. Although the causes of the decline remain unclear, the analyses suggest a need for immediate attention to address the long-term persistence of this species.