To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Survivors of childhood brain tumors experience neurological sequelae that disrupt everyday adaptive functioning (AF) skills. The Neurological Predictor Scale (NPS), a cumulative measure of tumor treatments and sequelae, predicts cognitive outcomes, but findings on its relation to informant-reported executive dysfunction (ED) and AF are mixed. Given known effects of frontal-subcortical system disruptions on AF, this study assessed the NPS’ relationship with AF as mediated by frontal systems dysfunction, measured by the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe).
75 participants (Mage = 23.5, SDage = 4.5) were young adult survivors of childhood brain tumors at least 5 years past diagnosis. FrSBe and Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R), a measure of AF, were administered to informants. Parallel multiple mediator models included Apathy and ED as mediators, and age at diagnosis and time between diagnosis and assessment as covariates.
More complex treatment and sequelae were correlated with poorer functioning. Mediation models were significant for all subscales: Motor Skills (MS), p = .0001; Social Communication (SC), p = .002; Personal Living (PL), p = .004; Community Living (CL), p = .007. The indirect effect of ED on SC and CL was significant; the indirect effect of Apathy was not significant for any subscales.
More complex tumor treatment and sequelae were associated with poorer long-term AF via increased ED. Cognitive rehabilitation programs may focus on the role of executive function and initiation that contribute to AF, particularly SC and CL skills, to help survivors achieve comparable levels of independence in everyday function as their peers.
The thickness of glaciers in High-Mountain Asia (HMA) is critical in determining when the ice reserve will be lost as these glaciers thin but is remarkably poorly known because very few measurements have been made. Through a series of ground-based and airborne field tests, we have adapted a low-frequency ice-penetrating radar developed originally for Antarctic over-snow surveys, for deployment as a helicopter-borne system to increase the number of measurements. The manoeuvrability provided by helicopters and the ability of our system to detect glacier beds through thick, dirty, temperate ice makes it well suited to increase greatly the sample of measurements available for calibrating ice thickness models on the regional and global scale. The Bedmap Himalayas radar-survey system can reduce the uncertainty in present-day ice volumes and therefore in projections of when HMA's river catchments will lose this hydrological buffer against drought.
Although there is growing interest in mental health problems in university students there is limited understanding of the scope of need and determinants to inform intervention efforts.
To longitudinally examine the extent and persistence of mental health symptoms and the importance of psychosocial and lifestyle factors for student mental health and academic outcomes.
Undergraduates at a Canadian university were invited to complete electronic surveys at entry and completion of their first year. The baseline survey measured important distal and proximal risk factors and the follow-up assessed mental health and well-being. Surveys were linked to academic grades. Multivariable models of risk factors and mental health and academic outcomes were fit and adjusted for confounders.
In 1530 students surveyed at entry to university 28% and 33% screened positive for clinically significant depressive and anxiety symptoms respectively, which increased to 36% and 39% at the completion of first year. Over the academic year, 14% of students reported suicidal thoughts and 1.6% suicide attempts. Moreover, there was persistence and overlap in these mental health outcomes. Modifiable psychosocial and lifestyle factors at entry were associated with positive screens for mental health outcomes at completion of first year, while anxiety and depressive symptoms were associated with lower grades and university well-being.
Clinically significant mental health symptoms are common and persistent among first-year university students and have a negative impact on academic performance and well-being. A comprehensive mental health strategy that includes a whole university approach to prevention and targeted early-intervention measures and associated research is justified.
Les troubles dépressifs concernent près de deux fois plus de femmes que d’hommes . Cette prévalence pourrait être due à une sensibilité accrue des femmes aux émotions négatives . Peu d’études d’imagerie cérébrale ont comparé l’activité cérébrale des hommes et des femmes lors de la présentation de stimuli émotionnels.
Objectif et hypothèse
Notre objectif était d’étudier les activations cérébrales des hommes et des femmes lors d’une tâche émotionnelle. Nous avons émis l’hypothèse que le pattern d’activations cérébrales diffère selon le sexe des individus et la valence des stimuli.
Nous avons mené une étude en imagerie par résonance magnétique fonctionnelle (IRMf) chez 30 participants sains (15 hommes et 15 femmes). Des stimuli à valence positive, négative et neutre étaient présentés aux sujets. Les participants ont évalué subjectivement la valence et l’intensité des stimuli.
Nous observons une activité plus importante chez les femmes que chez les hommes dans plusieurs régions clés du traitement des émotions lors de la présentation de stimuli négatifs. Aucune différence significative entre les hommes et les femmes n’a été relevée concernant l’évaluation subjective des stimuli en termes de valence et d’intensité.
Les résultats suggèrent qu’il existe bien une différence de patterns d’activation entre les hommes et les femmes lors de la perception des émotions négatives, qui irait dans le sens d’une sensibilité accrue chez les femmes. Celle-ci pourrait expliquer leur plus grande vulnérabilité aux troubles dépressifs. Il pourrait être intéressant de répliquer cette étude chez des patients qui souffrent de troubles de l’humeur.
La stimulation magnétique transcrânienne répétitive (SMTr) appliquée sur le cortex préfrontal dorso-latéral (CPFDL) a prouvé son efficacité dans le traitement de la dépression résistante . En plus d’une amélioration sur la symptomatologie, des études rapportent des effets positifs sur le fonctionnement cognitif , dont la mémoire de travail. Cependant, cet effet ne semble pas être retrouvé chez des sujets sains  lors d’une tâche de N-back sans leurre. L’objectif de notre étude est donc d’évaluer l’impact de la SMTr sur le CPFDL, région plus sensible à une tâche de N-back avec leurre .
Une étude randomisée en double insu a été menée chez 30 participants sains. Une stimulation de type iTBS (intermittent theta burst stimulation) a été effectuée pendant 5 jours à raison de 2 séances/jour appliquée au niveau du CPFDL gauche ciblé par neuro-navigation sur les coordonnées MNI (X, Y, Z = –50,30,36). Nous avons observé l’impact de la SMTr sur le comportement des participants durant la tâche de N-back. Pour cela, les participants ont effectué cette tâche, composée de blocs de 0-back, 3-back et 3-back contenant des leurres, lors de deux sessions d’IRMf (une avant et une après la semaine de stimulation active ou placebo). La performance, le temps de réaction ainsi que les données d’imageries ont été recueillis.
Les 2 groupes ne montrent pas de différence au niveau de l’âge ou du genre. Au niveau comportemental, les premières analyses sur la performance ainsi que sur le temps de réaction ne montrent pas d’effet d’interaction Groupe (actif/placebo) * Temps (avant/après SMTr). Au niveau des données de neuro-imagerie, une analyse d’interaction Groupe * Temps en prenant en compte la condition leurre nous permettra de mieux comprendre l’impact de la SMTr sur la mémoire de travail impliquant le CPFDL.
Determining best practices for managing free farrowing systems is crucial for uptake. Cross-fostering, the exchange of piglets between litters, is routinely performed amongst crate-housed sows. However, cross-fostering can increase fighting amongst the litter and may be more challenging within free farrowing systems as sows have more freedom to respond to cross-fostered piglets. This study compared the effect of either cross-fostering (FOS), or a control of sham-fostering (CON), of four focal piglets per litter on Day 6 postpartum in crates (CRATE) and free farrowing pens (PEN). The post-treatment behavioural responses of sows were recorded (Day 6 = 60 min; Day 7 = 300 min; n = 48), as were the average daily gain (ADG; g/day), total weight gain (TWG; kg) and body lesion scores of focal piglets and their littermates throughout lactation (Day 6, Day 8, Day 11 and Day 26; n = 539) and the post-weaning period (Day 29, Day 32 and Day 60; n = 108). On Day 6, though post-reunion latency to nursing did not differ, latency to successful nursing was longer amongst FOS than CON litters (P < 0.001), more so amongst CRATE FOS than PEN FOS (P < 0.01). On Day 7, PEN FOS sows had fewer successful nursing bouts (P < 0.05) and exhibited decreased lateral (P < 0.01) and increased ventral lying frequencies (P < 0.01) compared to all other housing and treatment combinations. Focal piglet ADG was lower for FOS than CON in the CRATE during Day 6 to Day 8 (P < 0.01) and lower in the PEN during Day 6 to Day 8 (P < 0.001), Day 8 to Day 11 (P < 0.01) and Day 11 to Day 26 (P < 0.05). The TWG of pre-weaned focal piglets (Day 6 to Day 26) was higher amongst CON than FOS litters (P = 0.01). Post-weaning, piglet ADG was higher for PEN than CRATE during Day 26 to Day 29 (P < 0.01) and higher for FOS than CON during Day 26 to Day 29 (P < 0.05), Day 29 to Day 32 (P < 0.001) and Day 32 to Day 60 (P < 0.01); thus, TWG was higher for FOS than CON during the weaner (P = 0.001) and the combined lactation and weaner periods (P = 0.09). In conclusion, sow behaviour was disrupted by cross-fostering in the crates and pens and continued to be disturbed on the following day amongst penned sows. FOS piglets exhibited reduced ADG after cross-fostering, which extended throughout lactation in the pens. However, the increased post-weaning weight gain of FOS piglets meant that their TWG was higher than CON piglets, irrespective of the farrowing system used.
Cardiovascular risk prediction tools are important for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, however, which algorithms are appropriate for people with severe mental illness (SMI) is unclear.
To determine the cost-effectiveness using the net monetary benefit (NMB) approach of two bespoke SMI-specific risk algorithms compared to standard risk algorithms for primary CVD prevention in those with SMI, from an NHS perspective.
A microsimulation model was populated with 1000 individuals with SMI from The Health Improvement Network Database, aged 30–74 years without CVD. Four cardiovascular risk algorithms were assessed; (1) general population lipid, (2) general population BMI, (3) SMI-specific lipid and (4) SMI-specific BMI, compared against no algorithm. At baseline, each cardiovascular risk algorithm was applied and those high-risk (> 10%) were assumed to be prescribed statin therapy, others received usual care. Individuals entered the model in a ‘healthy’ free of CVD health state and with each year could retain their current health state, have cardiovascular events (non-fatal/fatal) or die from other causes according to transition probabilities.
The SMI-specific BMI and general population lipid algorithms had the highest NMB of the four algorithms resulting in 12 additional QALYs and a cost saving of approximately £37,000 (US$ 58,000) per 1000 patients with SMI over 10 years.
The general population lipid and SMI-specific BMI algorithms performed equally well. The ease and acceptability of use of a SMI-specific BMI algorithm (blood tests not required) makes it an attractive algorithm to implement in clinical settings.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
B vitamins involved in one-carbon metabolism have been implicated in the development of inflammation- and angiogenesis-related chronic diseases, such as colorectal cancer (CRC). Yet, the role of one-carbon metabolism in inflammation and angiogenesis among CRC patients remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of components of one-carbon metabolism with inflammation and angiogenesis biomarkers among newly diagnosed CRC patients (n 238) in the prospective ColoCare Study, Heidelberg. We cross-sectionally analysed associations between twelve B vitamins and one-carbon metabolites and ten inflammation and angiogenesis biomarkers from pre-surgery serum samples using multivariable linear regression models. We further explored associations among novel biomarkers in these pathways with Spearman partial correlation analyses. We hypothesised that pyridoxal-5’-phosphate (PLP) is inversely associated with inflammatory biomarkers. We observed that PLP was inversely associated with C-reactive protein (CRP) (r –0·33, Plinear < 0·0001), serum amyloid A (SAA) (r –0·23, Plinear = 0·003), IL-6 (r –0·39, Plinear < 0·0001), IL-8 (r –0·20, Plinear = 0·02) and TNFα (r –0·12, Plinear = 0·045). Similar findings were observed for 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate and CRP (r –0·14), SAA (r –0·14) and TNFα (r –0·15) among CRC patients. Folate catabolite acetyl-para-aminobenzoylglutamic acid (pABG) was positively correlated with IL-6 (r 0·27, Plinear < 0·0001), and pABG was positively correlated with IL-8 (r 0·21, Plinear < 0·0001), indicating higher folate utilisation during inflammation. Our data support the hypothesis of inverse associations between PLP and inflammatory biomarkers among CRC patients. A better understanding of the role and inter-relation of PLP and other one-carbon metabolites with inflammatory processes among colorectal carcinogenesis and prognosis could identify targets for future dietary guidance for CRC patients.
Nearly half of care home residents with advanced dementia have clinically significant agitation. Little is known about costs associated with these symptoms toward the end of life. We calculated monetary costs associated with agitation from UK National Health Service, personal social services, and societal perspectives.
Prospective cohort study.
Thirteen nursing homes in London and the southeast of England.
Seventy-nine people with advanced dementia (Functional Assessment Staging Tool grade 6e and above) residing in nursing homes, and thirty-five of their informal carers.
Data collected at study entry and monthly for up to 9 months, extrapolated for expression per annum. Agitation was assessed using the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI). Health and social care costs of residing in care homes, and costs of contacts with health and social care services were calculated from national unit costs; for a societal perspective, costs of providing informal care were estimated using the resource utilization in dementia (RUD)-Lite scale.
After adjustment, health and social care costs, and costs of providing informal care varied significantly by level of agitation as death approached, from £23,000 over a 1-year period with no agitation symptoms (CMAI agitation score 0–10) to £45,000 at the most severe level (CMAI agitation score >100). On average, agitation accounted for 30% of health and social care costs. Informal care costs were substantial, constituting 29% of total costs.
With the increasing prevalence of dementia, costs of care will impact on healthcare and social services systems, as well as informal carers. Agitation is a key driver of these costs in people with advanced dementia presenting complex challenges for symptom management, service planners, and providers.
Decades of research have highlighted the significance of parenting in children's development, yet few studies have focused specifically on the development of parental monitoring strategies in diverse families living in at-risk neighborhoods. The current study investigated the development of active (i.e., parental discussions and curfew rules) and passive (i.e., child communication with parents) parental monitoring strategies across different developmental periods (middle childhood and adolescence; Grades 4–5 and 7–11) as well as individual (child, parent), family, and contextual antecedents (measured in kindergarten) of this parenting behavior. Using an ecological approach, this study evaluated longitudinal data from 753 participants in the Fast Track Project, a multisite study directed at the development and prevention of conduct problems in at-risk children. Latent trajectory modeling results identified little to no mean growth in these monitoring strategies over time, suggesting that families living in at-risk environments may engage in consistent levels of monitoring strategies to ensure children's safety and well-being. Findings also identified several kindergarten antecedents of the growth factors of these parental monitoring strategies including (a) early child conduct problems; (b) parental warmth/involvement, satisfaction, and efficacy; and (c) parent–child relationship quality. These predictive effects largely highlighted the important role of early parenting behaviors on later levels of and growth in parental monitoring strategies. These findings have important implications for potential prevention and intervention targets to promote the development of parental monitoring strategies among families living in more at-risk contexts.
The majority of New Zealand dairy goat farmers utilise cultivated green-fed fodder dominated by perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.), but evidence from other ruminant species suggests that milk production may be improved when using a more diverse array of species within the green fodder. The aim of this experiment was to determine whether feeding lactating dairy goats a mixed-species green fodder (MF, consisting of perennial ryegrass, timothy (Phleum pratense L.), prairie grass (Bromus willdenowii Kunth), white clover, red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), lucerne (Medicago sativa L.), chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) improves dietary intake, milk yield and composition compared with a standard ryegrass and white clover green fodder (SF). Thirty-six mid-lactation goats were housed indoors in pairs and split into two groups (A and B). The trial was split into three periods – firstly a uniformity period of 6 days, in which all goats were fed a combination of both green fodder types, followed by two treatment periods (P1 and P2) of 12 days, respectively. For P1, group A was fed MF and group B was fed SF, and then the group diets were switched for P2. Goats fed MF had 13% greater dry matter intake and 7% greater milk yield than goats fed SF. In addition, the milk protein and fat concentration of goats fed MF were 4% greater than for those fed SF, whereas there was no effect on milk lactose concentration. There was no treatment effect on the levels of protein, glucose, urea or non-esterified fatty acids in the blood of the goats. An effect of green fodder type on milk fat profile was demonstrated, with proportions of pentadecylic acid (C15:0), cis-vaccenic acid (C18:1 c11), linoleic acid (C18:2 n6) and α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n3) being increased in response to MF consumption. In contrast, iso-C15 and iso-C17 proportions were lesser. In summary, this study demonstrated that goats fed MF increased green fodder intake and milk production compared with goats fed SF. The green fodder type affected the fatty acid profile of goat’s milk, with MF increasing the levels of beneficial polyunsaturated omega fatty acids (linoleic and α-linolenic acids).
Objective: Radiation therapy (RT) improves rates of survival of patients with childhood brain tumors but increases deficits in cognition and independent living skills. Previous literature has studied difficulties in basic cognitive processes, but few explore impairment in higher-order skills such as adaptive functioning. Some studies identify females as at risk for cognitive deficits due to RT, but few investigate sex differences in adaptive functioning. It was hypothesized that females would exhibit poorer long-term independent living skills and core cognitive skills relative to males following RT. Methods: Forty-five adult survivors of posterior fossa childhood brain tumors (24 females) completed the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI-II), Wechsler Memory Scale, Third Edition (WMS-III) Digit Span Forward (DSF) and Backward (DSB), and Oral Symbol Digit Modalities Test (OSDMT). Informants completed the Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R). Results: DSF and OSDMT were positively correlated with all five SIB-R domains, full-scale IQ (FSIQ) was positively correlated with four SIB-R domains, and DSB was positively correlated with three SIB-R domains. There was an interaction between sex and RT for OSDMT and community living skills with trend level interactions for personal living skills and broad independent living skills, where females without RT had higher scores than females with RT. Conclusions: Female survivors were more affected by RT than males across the community living skills domain of adaptive functioning as well as processing speed. Processing speed deficits may have a cascading impact on daily living skills. Future studies should investigate how clinical and biological factors may contribute to personalized treatment plans between sexes. (JINS, 2019, 25, 729–739)
Growth, which is intrinsically linked to environmental conditions including temperature and food availability are highly variable both temporally and spatially. Estimates of growth rates of the Southern Ocean euphausiid Thysanoessa macrura are currently restricted to limited studies which rely upon repeated sampling and length-frequency analysis to quantify growth rates. The instantaneous growth method (IGR) was used to measure the growth rate of T. macrura successfully in the southern Kerulen Plateau region during summer, providing the first IGR parameters for the Southern Ocean euphausiid species. Results of the four-day IGR incubation indicate a period of low somatic growth for adult T. macrura. Males had a longer intermoult period (IMP) (62 days) than females (42 days), but the sexes exhibited similar daily growth rates of 0.011 mm day−1 and 0.012 mm day−1 respectively. Juveniles exhibited the fastest growth, with an IMP of 13 days and daily growth rate of 0.055 mm day−1 indicating a prolonged growth season, similar to the Antarctic krill E. superba. Consequently, we highlight the usability of the IGR method and strongly encourage its use in developing a comprehensive understanding of spatial and seasonal growth patterns of T. macrura.
In this work, a poly-Si0.35Ge0.65 microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)- based actuator was designed and fabricated using a CMOS compatible standard process to specifically strain a bi-layered (2L) MoS2 flake and measure its electrical properties. Experimental results of the MEMS-TMDC device show an increase of conductivity up to three orders of magnitude by means of vertical actuation using the substrate as the body terminal. A force balance model of the MEMS-TMDC was used to determine the amount of strain induced in the MoS2 flake. Strains as high as 3.3% is reported using the model fitted to the experimental data.