To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Britain’s military leadership had every reason to pursue measures to ‘enhance the value of the land forces of the Empire, as a whole, without prohibitive expenditure’ in 1921. The recent war had shown that pre-1914 actions taken to standardize the armies of the British Empire and make them ready for expansion had paid off handsomely. From the most meagre military establishments, the dominions generated the rough equivalent of twelve well-equipped and capable divisions for expeditionary operations, while India assembled thirteen divisions for operations beyond the subcontinent. And Britain might need their help again. Even with the war over and former enemies disarmed or in the process of disarming, the British Army had more commitments and liabilities than had been the case before 1914, any number of which ‘may synchronize or spread until a situation develops, straining the resources of this country very greatly’.
Analysis of human remains and a copper band found in the center of a Late Archaic (ca. 5000–3000 cal BP) shell ring demonstrate an exchange network between the Great Lakes and the coastal southeast United States. Similarities in mortuary practices suggest that the movement of objects between these two regions was more direct and unmediated than archaeologists previously assumed based on “down-the-line” models of exchange. These findings challenge prevalent notions that view preagricultural Native American communities as relatively isolated from one another and suggest instead that wide social networks spanned much of North America thousands of years before the advent of domestication.
Single institutional review board (IRB) review of multisite research increased in frequency over a decade ago with a proliferation of master IRB reliance agreements supporting statewide and regional consortia and disease- and population-specific networks. Although successful, the increasing number of agreements presented significant challenges and illuminated potential benefits of a single, nationwide agreement. Anticipated changes in federal regulations highlighted the need to systematize and simplify IRB reliance. To address these challenges, the NIH National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences funded a project to establish a national IRB reliance network that would support national adoption of single IRB (sIRB) review. The Streamlined, Multisite, Accelerated Resources for Trials (SMART) IRB Platform launched in July 2016 to facilitate dissemination, adoption, and implementation of a collaboratively developed master IRB reliance agreement and supportive tools and resources. More than 580 institutions have joined SMART IRB’s Master Common Reciprocal Institutional Review Board Authorization Agreement and begun using the SMART IRB platform to support sIRB arrangements. Here, we describe the tenets of the agreement and operational benefits and challenges of its use. SMART IRB’s early success affirms the utility of collaborative, flexible, and centralized approaches to supporting sIRB review while highlighting the need for further national harmonization.
We consider an M/M/1 queue with a removable server that dynamically chooses its service rate from a set of finitely many rates. If the server is off, the system must warm up for a random, exponentially distributed amount of time, before it can begin processing jobs. We show under the average cost criterion, that work conserving policies are optimal. We then demonstrate the optimal policy can be characterized by a threshold for turning on the server and the optimal service rate increases monotonically with the number in system. Finally, we present some numerical experiments to provide insights into the practicality of having both a removable server and service rate control.
The micro-organisms which inhabit the human gut (i.e. the intestinal microbiota) influence numerous human biochemical pathways and physiological functions. The present review focuses on two questions, ‘Are intestinal microbiota effects measurable and meaningful?’ and ‘What research methods and variables are influenced by intestinal microbiota effects?’. These questions are considered with respect to doubly labelled water measurements of energy expenditure, heat balance calculations and models, measurements of RMR via indirect calorimetry, and diet-induced energy expenditure. Several lines of evidence suggest that the intestinal microbiota introduces measurement variability and measurement errors which have been overlooked in research studies involving nutrition, bioenergetics, physiology and temperature regulation. Therefore, we recommend that present conceptual models and research techniques be updated via future experiments, to account for the metabolic processes and regulatory influences of the intestinal microbiota.
Determining infectious cross-transmission events in healthcare settings involves manual surveillance of case clusters by infection control personnel, followed by strain typing of clinical/environmental isolates suspected in said clusters. Recent advances in genomic sequencing and cloud computing now allow for the rapid molecular typing of infecting isolates.
To facilitate rapid recognition of transmission clusters, we aimed to assess infection control surveillance using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of microbial pathogens to identify cross-transmission events for epidemiologic review.
Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were obtained prospectively at an academic medical center, from September 1, 2016, to September 30, 2017. Isolate genomes were sequenced, followed by single-nucleotide variant analysis; a cloud-computing platform was used for whole-genome sequence analysis and cluster identification.
Most strains of the 4 studied pathogens were unrelated, and 34 potential transmission clusters were present. The characteristics of the potential clusters were complex and likely not identifiable by traditional surveillance alone. Notably, only 1 cluster had been suspected by routine manual surveillance.
Our work supports the assertion that integration of genomic and clinical epidemiologic data can augment infection control surveillance for both the identification of cross-transmission events and the inclusion of missed and exclusion of misidentified outbreaks (ie, false alarms). The integration of clinical data is essential to prioritize suspect clusters for investigation, and for existing infections, a timely review of both the clinical and WGS results can hold promise to reduce HAIs. A richer understanding of cross-transmission events within healthcare settings will require the expansion of current surveillance approaches.
Investigations into the existence of life in other parts of the cosmos find strong parallels with studies of the origin and evolution of life on our own planet. In this way, astrobiology and paleobiology are married by their common interest in disentangling the interconnections between life and the surrounding environment. In this way, a cross-point of both sciences is paleometry, which involves a myriad of imaging and geochemical techniques, usually non-destructive, applied to the investigation of the fossil record. In the last decades, paleometry has benefited from an unprecedented technological improvement, thus solving old questions and raising new ones. This advance has been paralleled by conceptual approaches and discoveries fuelled by technological evolution in astrobiological research. In this context, we present some new data and review recent advances on the employment of paleometry to investigations on paleobiology and astrobiology in Brazil in areas such biosignatures in Ediacaran microbial mats, biogenicity tests on enigmatic Ediacaran structures, research on Ediacaran metazoan biomineralization, fossil preservation in Cretaceous insects and fish, and finally the experimental study on the decay of fish to test the effect of distinct types of sediment on soft-tissue preservation, as well as the effects of early diagenesis on fish bone preservation.
Reactions in Ni/Al nanolaminates exhibit high combustion temperatures and wave speeds that are customizable through changes to nanostructure. Nanolaminates fabricated via vapor deposition exhibit columnar grains with average diameters on the order of the individual layer thickness; yet, their role on nanolaminate combustion has not been previously investigated. The current work uses molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the effect of grain size on reaction rates and combustion temperatures in Ni/Al nanolaminates. Decreasing grain size is shown to increase reaction rates as well as increase peak temperatures consistent with the excess enthalpy of smaller grain sizes. Additionally, grain boundaries provide heterogenous nucleation sites for the diffusion-restricting B2–NiAl phase. Focusing on Ni diffusion into liquid Al, an effective diffusion coefficient is computed as a function of grain size, which may be used in thermodynamic models for this stage of the reaction.
Double-crop soybean after winter wheat is a component of many cropping systems across eastern and central Kansas. Until recently, control of Palmer amaranth and common waterhemp has been both easy and economical with the use of sequential applications of glyphosate in glyphosate-resistant soybean. Many populations of Palmer amaranth and common waterhemp have become resistant to glyphosate. During 2015 and 2016, a total of five field experiments were conducted near Manhattan, Hutchinson, and Ottawa, KS, to assess various non-glyphosate herbicide programs at three different application timings for the control of Palmer amaranth and waterhemp in double-crop soybean after winter wheat. Spring-POST treatments of pyroxasulfone (119 g ai ha–1) and pendimethalin (1065 g ai ha–1) were applied to winter wheat to evaluate residual control of Palmer amaranth and waterhemp. Less than 40% control of Palmer amaranth and waterhemp was observed in both treatments 2 wk after planting (WAP) double-crop soybean. Preharvest treatments of 2,4-D (561 g ae ha–1) and flumioxazin (107 g ai ha–1) were also applied to the winter wheat to assess control of emerged Palmer amaranth and waterhemp. 2,4-D resulted in highly variable Palmer amaranth and waterhemp control, whereas flumioxazin resulted in control similar to PRE treatments that contained paraquat (841 g ai ha–1) plus residual herbicide(s). Excellent control of both species was observed 2 WAP with a PRE paraquat application; however, reduced control of Palmer amaranth and waterhemp was noted 8 WAP due to subsequent emergence. Results indicate that Palmer amaranth and waterhemp control was 85% or greater 8 WAP for PRE treatments that included a combination of paraquat plus residual herbicide(s). PRE treatments that did not include both paraquat and residual herbicide(s) did not provide acceptable control.
Breakthrough Listen is a 10-yr initiative to search for signatures of technologies created by extraterrestrial civilisations at radio and optical wavelengths. Here, we detail the digital data recording system deployed for Breakthrough Listen observations at the 64-m aperture CSIRO Parkes Telescope in New South Wales, Australia. The recording system currently implements two modes: a dual-polarisation, 1.125-GHz bandwidth mode for single-beam observations, and a 26-input, 308-MHz bandwidth mode for the 21-cm multibeam receiver. The system is also designed to support a 3-GHz single-beam mode for the forthcoming Parkes ultra-wideband feed. In this paper, we present details of the system architecture, provide an overview of hardware and software, and present initial performance results.