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Weed control in corn has traditionally relied on atrazine as a foundational tool to control problematic weeds. However, the recent discovery of atrazine in aquifers and other water sources increases the likelihood of more strict restrictions on its use. Therefore, field-based research trials to find atrazine alternatives were conducted in 2017 and 2018 in Fayetteville, Arkansas, by testing the tolerance of corn to PRE and POST applications of different photosystem II (PSII) inhibitors alone or in combination with mesotrione or S-metolachlor. All experiments were designed as a two-factor factorial, randomized complete block with the two factors being 1) PSII-inhibiting herbicide and 2) the herbicide added to create the mixture. The PSII-inhibiting herbicides were prometryn, ametryn, simazine, fluometuron, metribuzin, linuron, diuron, atrazine, and propazine. The second factor consisted of either no additional herbicide, S-metolachlor, or mesotrione. Treatments were applied immediately following planting in the PRE experiments and at 30-cm tall corn for the POST experiments. For the PRE study, low levels of injury (<15%) were observed at 14 and 28 days after application (DAA) and corn height was negatively affected by the PSII-inhibiting herbicide applied. PRE-applied fluometuron- and ametryn-containing treatments consistently caused injury to corn, often exceeding 5%. Due to low levels of injury caused by all treatments, crop density and yield did not differ from the nontreated. For the POST study, crop injury, relative height, and relative yield were all impacted by PSII-inhibiting herbicide and herbicide added. Ametryn-, diuron-, linuron-, propazine-, and prometryn-containing treatments caused ≥25% injury to corn in at least one site-year. All PSII-inhibiting herbicides, except metribuzin and simazine when applied alone, caused yield loss in corn when compared to atrazine alone. Diuron-, linuron-, metribuzin-, and simazine-containing treatments applied PRE and metribuzin- and simazine-containing treatments applied POST should be further investigated as atrazine replacements.
Practitioners have few personality inventory options when assessing Spanish-speakers, despite professional guidelines that encourage them to administer measures that are validated with their populations of interest. To build on research in this area, we examined the internal consistency and convergent validity of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) and the Personality Assessment Inventory European-Spanish (PAIE-S) version among bilingual Latin American Spanish-speakers (final n = 53). For the PAI, 72.72% of scales and 35.48% of subscales had alphas above .70. For the PAIE-S, 50.00% of scales and 25.81% of scales met this alpha. Participants tended to score lowest on the PAI Alcohol Problems scale (T = 47.19) and the PAIE-S Warmth scale (T = 45.49). On average, participants scored highest on the PAI’s Paranoia-Hypervigilance scale (T = 61.15) and the PAIE-S’s Paranoia scale (T = 57.64). We identified 10 scales and subscales on which participants were significantly more likely (p < .00094) to score higher on one measure than the other. Participants more often scored higher on the PAI than the PAIE-S. All parallel scales and subscales converged at p < .00094 with the exception of the Antisocial Features-Egocentricity scale. Taken together, findings suggest taking caution when administering these measures to Latin American bilingual Spanish-speakers.
Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and viral hepatitis is associated with high morbidity and mortality in the absence of clinical management, making identification of these cases crucial. We examined characteristics of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfections by using surveillance data from 15 US states and two cities. Each jurisdiction used an automated deterministic matching method to link surveillance data for persons with reported acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, to persons reported with HIV infection. Of the 504 398 persons living with diagnosed HIV infection at the end of 2014, 2.0% were coinfected with HBV and 6.7% were coinfected with HCV. Of the 269 884 persons ever reported with HBV, 5.2% were reported with HIV. Of the 1 093 050 persons ever reported with HCV, 4.3% were reported with HIV. A greater proportion of persons coinfected with HIV and HBV were males and blacks/African Americans, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Persons who inject drugs represented a greater proportion of those coinfected with HIV and HCV, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Matching HIV and viral hepatitis surveillance data highlights epidemiological characteristics of persons coinfected and can be used to routinely monitor health status and guide state and national public health interventions.
Mild behavioral impairment (MBI) describes later life acquired, sustained neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in cognitively normal individuals or those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), as an at-risk state for incident cognitive decline and dementia. We developed an operational definition of MBI and tested whether the presence of MBI was related to caregiver burden in patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) or MCI assessed at a memory clinic.
MBI was assessed in 282 consecutive memory clinic patients with SCD (n = 119) or MCI (n = 163) in accordance with the International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment – Alzheimer's Association (ISTAART–AA) research diagnostic criteria. We operationalized a definition of MBI using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q). Caregiver burden was assessed using the Zarit caregiver burden scale. Generalized linear regression was used to model the effect of MBI domains on caregiver burden.
While MBI was more prevalent in MCI (85.3%) than in SCD (76.5%), this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.06). Prevalence estimates across MBI domains were affective dysregulation (77.8%); impulse control (64.4%); decreased motivation (51.7%); social inappropriateness (27.8%); and abnormal perception or thought content (8.7%). Affective dysregulation (p = 0.03) and decreased motivation (p=0.01) were more prevalent in MCI than SCD patients. Caregiver burden was 3.35 times higher when MBI was present after controlling for age, education, sex, and MCI (p < 0.0001).
MBI was common in memory clinic patients without dementia and was associated with greater caregiver burden. These data show that MBI is a common and clinically relevant syndrome.
Surface spectral-albedo data collected over snow-covered first-year and multi-year sea ice under diffuse sky conditions during the springtime transition are examined. Of specific interest is the relationship between changes in the visible and near-infrared albedo of sea ice and concurrent changes in the geophysical characteristics of the ice volume. With the onset of melt conditions, visible and near-infrared sea-ice albedo decreased due to physical changes within the snow and ice volumes. Visible albedo was found to be sensitive to changes occurring throughout the sea-ice volume, while the near-infrared albedo appeared most influenced by near-surface conditions.
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common healthcare-associated infection and is associated with considerable morbidity. Recurrent CDI is a key contributing factor to this morbidity. Despite an estimated 83,000 recurrences annually in the United States, there are few accurate estimates of costs associated with recurrent CDI.
We performed this study (1) to identify the health consequences of recurrent CDI including need for repeat hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and surgery; (2) to determine costs associated with recurrent CDI and identify determinants of such costs; and (3) to compare the outcomes and costs of recurrent CDI to those who develop reinfection.
We identified all patients with confirmed recurrent CDI between January to December 2013 at a single referral center. Healthcare burden associated with recurrence including diagnostic testing, pharmacologic treatment, and inpatient and outpatient healthcare visits were identified in the 12 months following the first recurrence. Total healthcare costs were calculated, and the predictors of high healthcare utilization were identified.
Our study population included 98 patients with recurrent CDI. The median interval between the initial infection and recurrence was 37 days. The mean age of the cohort was 67 years, two-thirds were women (62%), and the mean Charlson index was 8.6. During the year following the first recurrence of CDI, each patient underwent a mean of 4.4 stool C. difficile toxin tests and received a mean of 2.5 prescriptions for oral vancomycin (range, 0–6). Most patients (84%) with recurrence had a CDI-related hospitalization, and 6% underwent colectomy. The mean total CDI-associated cost was $34,104 per patient, with hospitalization costs accounting for 68%, surgery 20%, and drug treatment 8% of this cost, respectively. Extrapolating to the United States overall, we estimate an annual cost of $2.8 billion related to recurrent CDI.
Recurrent CDI is associated with considerable morbidity and cost.
We assessed the evidence for variations in the marine radiocarbon reservoir effect (MRE) at coastal, archaeological Iron Age sites in north and west Scotland by comparing AMS measurements of paired marine and terrestrial materials (4 pairs per context). ΔR values were calculated from measurements on material from 3 sites using 6 sets of samples, all of which were deposited around 2000 BP. The weighted mean of the ΔR determinations was −79 ± 17 14C yr, which indicates a consistent, reduced offset between atmospheric and surface ocean 14C specific activity for these sites during this period, relative to the present day (ΔR = ∼0 14C yr). We discuss the significance of this revised ΔR correction by using the example of wheelhouse chronologies at Hornish Point and their development in relation to brochs. In addition, we assess the importance of using the concepts of MRE correction and ΔR variations when constructing chronologies using 14C measurements made on materials that contain marine-derived carbon.
The herbicide fluridone is a soil-residual herbicide that should provide effective control of several problematic agronomic weeds, but because of herbicide persistence, injury to rotational crops is possible. In this experiment, multiple rates of fluridone were applied PRE to cotton at four irrigated locations across Arkansas to determine the risk of fluridone persisting and injuring subsequently planted wheat, corn, soybean, rice, grain sorghum, and sunflower. The multiple rates of fluridone were compared with fluometuron and evaluated for percentage of crop injury, crop density, and potential yield loss for each crop at the end of the subsequent growing season. Regardless of the location, wheat exhibited the greatest injury with 13 to 26% at Fayetteville (silt loam), 8 to 15% at Pine Tree (silt loam), 2 to 7% at Keiser (silty clay), and 3 to 8% at Rohwer (silty clay). Along with high levels of injury to wheat, fluridone at 900 g ai ha−1 caused loss of wheat stands to 29 plants m−1 row compared with fluometuron, which had stands of 49 plants m−1 row. Although injury occurred in wheat at all locations, no rate of fluridone reduced wheat yields compared with fluometuron. Injury to grain sorghum ranged from 5 to 10% from all rates of fluridone at Pine Tree. Fluridone at 900 g ha−1 (11 plants m−1 row) also reduced grain sorghum stands at Pine Tree over that of fluometuron (19 plants m−1 row). A decrease in grain sorghum yield was also observed from fluridone at 448, 673, and 900 g ha−1 compared with fluometuron at Pine Tree. At Keiser, rice exhibited significant levels of injury (1 to 13%) from fluridone 393 d after treatment. In conclusion, injury to a wheat rotational crop is more likely following an application of fluridone in cotton than is injury to other rotational crops, but yield reductions are not expected for most rotational crops when fluridone is applied to cotton at an anticipated labeled rate of 224 g ha−1.
The efficacy of three sources of vitamins A and D supplements was tested in an experiment with fattening pigs involving the following four treatments :
(1) Control—basal meal.
(2) As control, but at one week of age the pigs had been given a single intramuscular injection of a commercial preparation, supplying 500,000 i.u. of vitamin A and 100,000 i.u. of vitamin D3.
(3) Basal meal + 1 % cod-liver oil (containing 500 i.u./g. of vitamin A and 68 i.u./g. of vitamin 3), supplying 2,270 i.u. of vitamin A and 309 i.u. of vitamin D3 per lb. of diet.
(4) Basal meal + synthetic vitamins A and D concentrate (containing 50,000 i.u./g. of vitamin A and 5,000 i.u./g. of vitamin D3), added to supply 2,250 i.u. of vitamin A and 300 i.u. of vitamin D3 per lb. of diet.
The basal meal which was the standard fattening diet used at Shinfield consisted of: fine miller’s offal 50, barley meal 30, flaked maize 10, white fish meal 10, all parts by weight. It should be noted that the diet contained a precursor of vitamin A, and it was calculated that this would provide about one-third of the recommended allowance of vitamin A for fattening pigs.
To develop an algorithm using administrative codes, laboratory data, and medication data to identify recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and to examine the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and performance of this algorithm.
We identified all patients with 2 or more International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes for CDI (008.45) from January 1 through December 31, 2013. Information on number of diagnosis codes, stool toxin assays (enzyme immunoassay or polymerase chain reaction), and unique prescriptions for metronidazole and vancomycin was identified. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of recurrent CDI and a predictive model was developed.
A total of 591 patients with at least 2 ICD-9 codes for CDI were included (median age, 66 years). The derivation cohort consisted of 157 patients among whom 43 (27%) had recurrent CDI. Presence of 3 or more ICD-9 codes for CDI (odds ratio, 2.49), 2 or more stool tests (odds ratio, 2.88), and 2 or more prescriptions for vancomycin (odds ratio, 5.87) were independently associated with confirmed recurrent CDI. A classifier incorporating 2 or more prescriptions for vancomycin and either 2 or more stool tests or 3 or more ICD-9-CM codes had a positive predictive value of 41% and negative predictive value of 90%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for this combined classifier was modest (0.69).
Identification of recurrent episodes of CDI in administrative data poses challenges. Accurate assessment of burden requires individual case review to confirm diagnosis.
In 1999, Bill T. Jones, in collaboration with digital artists Paul Kaiser and Shelley Eshkar, presented an installation at the intersection of dance, drawing, and digital imaging. Ghostcatching featured Jones's previously improvised movements recorded using motion capture technology. In 2010, Kaiser, Eshkar, and Marc Downie of the OpenEndedGroup revised Ghostcatching into a new piece titled After Ghostcatching, composed of unused sequences of Jones's movement and sound captured for Ghostcatching. This essay focuses on the extended relation between Ghostcatching and After Ghostcatching to track a shift from so-called identity politics to a discourse of post-racialism over a ten-year period in U.S. history. A consideration of various media—motion capture technology, digital art and imaging, and improvised, virtual dance—as well as formal analysis of each piece, highlight the political effects and visual implications of each work in a racially mediated world. In this article, I question the status of Jones's raced, sexed, and gendered body within neoliberal fantasies of post-racialism. In spite of the persistence of visible markers such as skin color that are mobilized to construct racial subjects, with the development of digital imaging and new visual technologies, to what degree is race actually visual? That is, how are race and the racialized body in motion subject to and determined by specific media, i.e., photography and digital art, improvised dance and choreographic form? This analysis of Ghostcatching and After Ghostcatching reveals how each piece tests the boundaries of choreographic form and digital imaging technologies as well as the category of race as inherently visual—a test that posits race as technology itself in visual, haptic, and spatial terms.
Frailty is common in older age, and is associated with important adverse health outcomes, including increased risk of disability and long-term care admission.
This study aims to evaluate whether home-based exercise interventions improve outcomes for frail older people.
We searched systematically for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster RCTs, with literature searching to February 2010.
All trials that evaluated home-based exercise interventions for frail older people were eligible. Primary outcomes were mobility, quality of life and daily living activities. Secondary outcomes included long-term care admission and hospitalization.
Six RCTs involving 987 participants met the inclusion criteria. Four trials were considered of high quality. One high-quality trial reported improved disability in those with moderate but not severe frailty. Meta-analysis of long-term care admission rates identified a trend towards reduced risk. Inconsistent effects on other primary and secondary outcomes were reported in the other studies.
There is preliminary evidence that home-based exercise interventions may improve disability in older people with moderate, but not severe, frailty. There is considerable uncertainty regarding effects on important outcomes including quality of life and long-term care admission. Home-based exercises are a potentially simple, safe and widely applicable intervention to prevent dependency decline for frail older people.
The host range of a mixture of Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) nucleopolyhedroviruses (CfMNPV and CfDefNPV) was investigated using a per os bioassay of larvae of 29 species of Lepidoptera and adult males of Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Using a whole-genomic DNA probe, positive results were obtained in 8 of 10 Tortricidae: Archips cerasivorana (Fitch), Choristoneura fractivittana (Clemens), C. fumiferana, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman, Choristoneura pinus pinus Freeman, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), Clepsis persicana (Fitch), and Cydia pomonella (L.); one Crambidae: Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner); one arctiine Erebidae: Estigmene acrea (Drury); and two Noctuidae: Oligia illocata (Walker) and Pyrrhia exprimens (Walker). Mortality rates were highest among C. fumiferana, C. occidentalis, C. pinus pinus, A. cerasivorana, and C. pomonella. Sequenced polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons from infected individuals from several species confirmed that the primer sets amplified the target viruses. CfMNPV was consistently found in virus-fed C. fumiferana; whereas, CfDefNPV was present only occasionally. The presence of CfMNPV and CfDefNPV in A. cerasivorana was confirmed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Significant treatment-mortality rates were induced in the noctuids P. exprimens and Acronicta impleta Walker; PCR determined that both viruses were present in treated P. exprimens but only CfMNPV was present in A. impleta. No virus was detected in M. rotundata.
If useful electronic devices are to be fabricated from thin films of the high critical temperature oxide superconductors, such as yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO), then films must be formed on substrates with dielectric properties which permit device operation at high frequencies, such as sapphire. It is, however, difficult to form high quality YBCO on sapphire because of reaction with the substrate and because epitaxy is not readily achieved.
We report the deposition of epitaxial thin films of magnesium oxide, by UHV reactive d.c. magnetron sputtering, on variously orientated substrates of sapphire, and the characterisation of the MgO/sapphire system by x-ray and TEM techniques.
Onto such films of MgO on sapphire we have deposited films of YBCO which were strongly textured with the c-axis perpendicular to the plane of the substrate and which were superconducting without the need for a high temperature post deposition anneal.
We report on the epitaxial growth of superconducting molybdenum films on sapphire substrates. These films are to be etched into arrays of isolated cylinders, each 1–5μm in diameter. When placed in a magnetic field and biased at 0.95 Tc(H), the flux movement associated with their bolometric response to the energy deposited when radiation is absorbed will provide the basis of a gamma-ray detector.
The films were prepared by UHV sputter deposition at temperatures between 650° and 840°C. Besides standard XRD analysis the films were examined by TEM. An epitaxy orientation relationship with sapphire was found similar to that observed for niobium. Electrical conductivity measurements were made as a function of temperature down to Tc, the superconducting transition temperature, which ranged from below 0.35K to above 0.8K for films with a high room temperature resistance ratio (e.g. 300 in a 0.9pjn thick film). Results from a range of films will be presented and their Tc’s discussed.