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Investigation into the family burden (FB) of schizophrenic patients has recently risen sharply. Nevertheless, to date there has been little consensus as to what factors influence the FB. The purpose of this study is to acquire a greater insight into the variables that influence the FB.
The FB was measured with the interview for the family burden (Kluiter H, Kramer JJAM, Wiersma D, et al. Interview voor de belasting van de familie 1997 [Interview for the burden on the family]. Department Sociale Psychiatrie. Groningen: Rijksuniversiteit). One hundred and fifty family members (parents/partners) of schizophrenic patients participated in the study.
The results of our study show (1) that family members experience burden both on a practical and an emotional level, (2) a highly significant correlation between the amount of symptomatic behaviour of the patient and FB, (3) that parents had taken on more tasks, had contributed more financially and had experienced a tenser atmosphere at home than partners did and (4) that family members of patients who have been treated for less than 1 year worry more about the other members of their family than family members of patients who have been receiving treatment for more than 1 year.
Family members of schizophrenic patients experience burden on a practical, financial and emotional level and the extent of the burden is closely linked to the amount of symptomatic behaviour of the patient.
It is unclear what session frequency is most effective in cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for depression.
Compare the effects of once weekly and twice weekly sessions of CBT and IPT for depression.
We conducted a multicentre randomised trial from November 2014 through December 2017. We recruited 200 adults with depression across nine specialised mental health centres in the Netherlands. This study used a 2 × 2 factorial design, randomising patients to once or twice weekly sessions of CBT or IPT over 16–24 weeks, up to a maximum of 20 sessions. Main outcome measures were depression severity, measured with the Beck Depression Inventory-II at baseline, before session 1, and 2 weeks, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 months after start of the intervention. Intention-to-treat analyses were conducted.
Compared with patients who received weekly sessions, patients who received twice weekly sessions showed a statistically significant decrease in depressive symptoms (estimated mean difference between weekly and twice weekly sessions at month 6: 3.85 points, difference in effect size d = 0.55), lower attrition rates (n = 16 compared with n = 32) and an increased rate of response (hazard ratio 1.48, 95% CI 1.00–2.18).
In clinical practice settings, delivery of twice weekly sessions of CBT and IPT for depression is a way to improve depression treatment outcomes.
Improvements in colorectal cancer (CRC) detection and treatment have led to greater numbers of CRC survivors, for whom there is limited evidence on which to provide dietary guidelines to improve survival outcomes. Higher intake of red and processed meat and lower intake of fibre are associated with greater risk of developing CRC, but there is limited evidence regarding associations with survival after CRC diagnosis. Among 3789 CRC cases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, pre-diagnostic consumption of red meat, processed meat, poultry and dietary fibre was examined in relation to CRC-specific mortality (n 1008) and all-cause mortality (n 1262) using multivariable Cox regression models, adjusted for CRC risk factors. Pre-diagnostic red meat, processed meat or fibre intakes (defined as quartiles and continuous grams per day) were not associated with CRC-specific or all-cause mortality among CRC survivors; however, a marginal trend across quartiles of processed meat in relation to CRC mortality was detected (P 0·053). Pre-diagnostic poultry intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality among women (hazard ratio (HR)/20 g/d 0·92; 95 % CI 0·84, 1·00), but not among men (HR 1·00; 95 % CI 0·91, 1·09) (Pfor heterogeneity=0·10). Pre-diagnostic intake of red meat or fibre is not associated with CRC survival in the EPIC cohort. There is suggestive evidence of an association between poultry intake and all-cause mortality among female CRC survivors and between processed meat intake and CRC-specific mortality; however, further research using post-diagnostic dietary data is required to confirm this relationship.
We aimed to investigate the association between multiple measures of socio-economic position (SEP) and diet quality, using a diet quality index representing current national dietary guidelines, in the Australian adult population.
Cross-sectional study. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the association between indicators of SEP (educational attainment, level of income and area-level disadvantage) and diet quality (measured using the Dietary Guideline Index (DGI)) in the total sample and stratified by sex and age (≤55 years and >55 years).
A large randomly selected sample of the Australian adult population.
Australian adults (n 9296; aged ≥25 years) from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study.
A higher level of educational attainment and income and a lower level of area-level disadvantage were significantly associated with a higher DGI score, across the gradient of SEP. The association between indicators of SEP and DGI score was consistently stronger among those aged ≤55 years compared with their older counterparts. The most disadvantaged group had a DGI score between 2 and 5 units lower (depending on the marker of SEP) compared with the group with the least disadvantage.
A higher level of SEP was consistently associated with a higher level of diet quality for all indicators of SEP examined. In order to reduce socio-economic inequalities in diet quality, healthy eating initiatives need to act across the gradient of socio-economic disadvantage with a proportionate focus on those with greater socio-economic disadvantage.
Altered dopaminergic neurotransmission in the mesocorticolimbic (MCL) system may mediate psychotic symptoms. In addition, pharmacological dopaminergic manipulation may coincide with altered functional connectivity (fc) ‘in rest’. We set out to test whether MCL-fc is conditional on (familial risk for) psychotic disorder and/or interactions with environmental exposures.
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained from 63 patients with psychotic disorder, 73 non-psychotic siblings of patients with psychotic disorder and 59 healthy controls. With the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) as seed region, fc within the MCL system was estimated. Regression analyses adjusting for a priori hypothesized confounders were used to assess group differences in MCL connectivity as well as gene (group) × environmental exposure interactions (G × E) (i.e. to cannabis, developmental trauma and urbanicity).
Compared with controls, patients and siblings had decreased fc between the right NAcc seed and the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as well as the left middle cingulate cortex (MCC). Siblings showed decreased connectivity between the NAcc seed and lentiform nucleus compared with patients and controls. In addition, patients had decreased left NAcc connectivity compared with siblings in the left middle frontal gyrus. There was no evidence for a significant interaction between group and the three environmental exposures in the model of MCL-fc.
Reduced NAcc–OFC/MCC connectivity was seen in patients and siblings, suggesting that altered OFC connectivity and MCC connectivity are vulnerability markers for psychotic disorder. Differential exposure to environmental risk factors did not make an impact on the association between familial risk and MCL connectivity.
Mid-infrared (MIR) quasar spectra exhibit a suite of emission features including high ionization coronal lines from the narrow line region (NLR) illuminated by the ionizing continuum, and hot dust features from grains, as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) features from star formation in the host galaxy. Few features are detected in most spectra because of typically low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) data. By generating spectral composites in three different luminosity bins from over 180 Spitzer Ifnfrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations, we boost the S/N and reveal important features in the complex spectra. We detect high-ionization, forbidden emission lines in all templates, PAH features in all but the most luminous objects, and broad silicate and graphite features in emission whose strength increases relative to the continuum with luminosity. We find that the intrinsic quasar spectrum for all luminosity templates is consistent, and the differences in the spectra can be explained by host galaxy contamination in the lower luminosity templates. We also posit that star formation may be active in most quasar host galaxies, but the spectral features of star formation are only detectable if the quasar is faint.
Up to 10% of the total power output of star-forming galaxies is emitted in the infrared emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6 and 11.2 μm. Here, I will review the spectral characteristics of these IR emission bands, their dependence on the local environment, the implications for the physical and chemical characteristics of the carriers, and their applicability as a diagnostic tool.
Establishing the stability of cosmic fullerenes and fullerenic aggregates is extremely relevant for a variety of reasons. For instance, the emission features of C60 and C70 fall in the same spectral region as the Un-identified InfraRed (UIR) bands, which they could contribute to. To be able to contribute to the UIR emission, however, fullerenes must be able to survive long enough against the destruction mechanisms operating in the interstellar medium. In this study we focus on the effects of collisional processing, i.e., the bombardment by energetic ions and electrons. A recent experimental/theoretical study has shown that ion collisions with C60 clusters result in the dissociation of the cluster with the simultaneous formation of covalent fullerene dimers, which could play a role as DIBs carriers. We present here our first results about the collisional processing of C60 molecules and clusters by H, He and C ions in interstellar shocks. We have adapted the models that have previously been developed to successfully treat the collisional processing of PAHs in space. The nature of the interaction and the similarities between PAHs and fullerenes make this approach appropriate. In addition, our study shows that the formation of covalent dimers following ion collisions with C60 clusters is compatible with the astrophysical conditions under consideration.
Whether there are differences between countries in the validity of self-reported diet in relation to BMI, as evaluated using recovery biomarkers, is not well understood. We aimed to evaluate BMI-related reporting errors on 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR) and on dietary questionnaires (DQ) using biomarkers for protein and K intake and whether the BMI effect differs between six European countries. Between 1995 and 1999, 1086 men and women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition completed a single 24-HDR, a DQ and one 24 h urine collection. In regression analysis, controlling for age, sex, education and country, each unit (1 kg/m2) increase in BMI predicted an approximately 1·7 and 1·3 % increase in protein under-reporting on 24-HDR and DQ, respectively (both P < 0·0001). Exclusion of individuals who probably misreported energy intake attenuated BMI-related bias on both instruments. The BMI effect on protein under-reporting did not differ for men and women and neither between countries on both instruments as tested by interaction (all P>0·15). In women, but not in men, the DQ yielded higher mean intakes of protein that were closer to the biomarker-based measurements across BMI groups when compared with 24-HDR. Results for K were similar to those of protein, although BMI-related under-reporting of K was of a smaller magnitude, suggesting differential misreporting of foods. Under-reporting of protein and K appears to be predicted by BMI, but this effect may be driven by ‘low-energy reporters’. The BMI effect on under-reporting seems to be the same across countries.
We recently identified several emission bands in the Spitzer-IRS spectrum of the unusual planetary nebula Tc 1 with the infrared active vibrational modes of the neutral fullerene species C60 and C70. Since then, the fullerene bands have been detected in a variety of sources representing circumstellar and interstellar environments. Abundance estimates suggest that C60 represents ~0.1%–1.5% of the available carbon in those sources. The observed relative band intensities in various sources are not fully compatible with single-photon heating and fluorescent cooling, and are better reproduced by a thermal distribution at least in some sources. The observational data suggests that fullerenes form in the circumstellar environments of evolved stars, and survive in the interstellar medium. Precisely how they form is still a matter of debate.
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread across the Universe and influence
many stages of the Galactic lifecycle. The presence of PAHs has been well established and
the rich mid-IR PAH spectrum is now commonly used as a probe into (inter)stellar
environments. The NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database has been key to test and refine
the “PAH hypothesis”. This database is a large coherent set (>600 spectra) of
laboratory measured and DFT computed infrared spectra of PAHs from
C10H8 to C130H28 and has been made available
on the web at (http://www.astrochem.org/pahdb). With a new spectral window opening up; the
far-IR, the study of PAH far-IR spectra and the quest for identifying a
unique member of the interstellar PAH family has begun. To guide this research, the far-IR
(>20 μm) spectra of different sets of PAHs are investigated
using the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. These sets explore the influence of
size, shape, charge and composition on the far-IR PAH spectrum. The far-IR is also the
domain of the so-called “drumhead” modes and other molecular vibrations involving low
order bending vibrations of the carbon skeleton as a whole. As with drums, these are
molecule and shape specific and promise to be a key diagnostic for specific PAHs. Here,
the sensitivity of these “drumhead” modes to size and shape is assessed by comparing the
frequencies of the lowest drumhead modes of a family of circular shaped (the coronene
“family”) and rhombus shaped (the pyrene “family”) PAH molecules. From this study, some
consequences for an observing strategy are drawn.
The infrared (IR) spectra of many galactic and extragalactic objects are dominated by
emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6 and 11.2 μm, generally attributed
to the IR fluorescence of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon molecules (PAHs). These PAH
bands have been found in a wide variety of environments throughout theUniverse and contain
up to 10% of the total power output of star-forming galaxies.
Ground-based telescopes, the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and the Spitzer Space
Telescope revealed a plethora of weaker PAH bands and provided extensive evidence for
significant variability in the PAH spectrum from source to source and spatially within
sources. Here we review the spectral characteristics of astronomical PAHs, their
dependence on the local physical conditions and the implications for the physical and
chemical characteristics of the carriers.
The development of steel refining operations at ArcelorMittal
FCWE for the production of ULS steels is reported. Several plants with different equipments produce grades with S <30 ppm, thus permitting to identify the most efficient process, from hot metal desulfurization to secondary metallurgy. For sites producing steels with S <30 ppm, four secondary metallurgy routes coexist in ArcelorMittal FCWE. The Vacuum Tank Degasser makes it possible to reach very low S and N contents simultaneously. To face the increase of the share of Ultra Low Sulfur products, it is necessary to further enhance the kinetics of desulfurization by steel - slag stirring at the atmospheric pressure.
Previous work suggests that daily life stress-sensitivity may be an intermediary phenotype associated with both genetic risk for depression and developmental stress exposures. In the current analysis we hypothesized that genetic risk for depression and three environmental exposures over the course of development [prenatal stress, childhood adversity and adult negative life events (NLEs)] combine synergistically to produce the phenotype of stress-sensitivity.
Twin pairs (n=279) participated in a momentary assessment study using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), collecting appraisals of stress and negative affect (NA) in the flow of daily life. Prospective data on birthweight and gestational age, questionnaire data on childhood adversity and recent NLEs, and interview data on depression were used in the analyses. Daily life stress-sensitivity was modelled as the effect of ESM daily life stress appraisals on ESM NA.
All three developmental stress exposures were moderated by genetic vulnerability, modelled as dizygotic (DZ) or monozygotic (MZ) co-twin depression status, in their effect on daily life stress-sensitivity. Effects were much stronger in participants with MZ co-twin depression and a little stronger in participants with DZ co-twin depression status, compared to those without co-twin depression. NLE main effects and NLE genetic moderation were reducible to birthweight and childhood adversity.
The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that adult daily life stress-sensitivity is the result of sensitization processes initiated by developmental stress exposures. Genes associated with depression may act by accelerating the process of stress-induced sensitization.
In contrast to some extensively examined food mutagens, for example, aflatoxins, N-nitrosamines and heterocyclic amines, some other food contaminants, in particular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and other aromatic compounds, have received less attention. Therefore, exploring the relationships between dietary habits and the levels of biomarkers related to exposure to aromatic compounds is highly relevant. We have investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort the association between dietary items (food groups and nutrients) and aromatic DNA adducts and 4-aminobiphenyl-Hb adducts. Both types of adducts are biomarkers of carcinogen exposure and possibly of cancer risk, and were measured, respectively, in leucocytes and erythrocytes of 1086 (DNA adducts) and 190 (Hb adducts) non-smokers. An inverse, statistically significant, association has been found between DNA adduct levels and dietary fibre intake (P = 0·02), vitamin E (P = 0·04) and alcohol (P = 0·03) but not with other nutrients or food groups. Also, an inverse association between fibre and fruit intake, and BMI and 4-aminobiphenyl-Hb adducts (P = 0·03, 0·04, and 0·03 respectively) was observed. After multivariate regression analysis these inverse correlations remained statistically significant, except for the correlation adducts v. fruit intake. The present study suggests that fibre intake in the usual range can modify the level of DNA or Hb aromatic adducts, but such role seems to be quantitatively modest. Fibres could reduce the formation of DNA adducts in different manners, by diluting potential food mutagens and carcinogens in the gastrointestinal tract, by speeding their transit through the colon and by binding carcinogenic substances.
We review mid-infrared N-band spectra (8–13 μm) for a sample of 28 targets, obtained with the TIMMI2 camera at La Silla Observatory. The sample contains 5 FU Orionis stars, 6 Herbig Ae/Be objects, 7 T Tauri stars and 10 Vega-type main sequence objects. All targets show infrared excess, but for several the proof of circumstellar matter was lacking up to our observations. We model the N-band emission features with a mixture of silicates consisting of different grain sizes and composition, and determine the status of dust processing in these disks. While for some targets the emission spectrum resembles those of known pre-main sequence stars of evolved dust, other objects show strong isolated PAH bands but no silicate emission. For the first time we find evidence of PAH processing occurring in a T Tauri star. The Vega-type object HD 113766 exhibits highly-processed secondary generation dust, likely released by the collision of planetesimal-sized bodies. The findings of our dust analysis are set in context to previous dust studies of young stellar objects.
It is illustrated how computational modelling techniques are used at
Corus RD&T as a means to investigate and improve fume emission,
air quality and heat control throughout the steel processing route.
Some of the recent areas that have benefited from such models are:
the redesign of a coater line room, a storage and production facility
and fume capture during iron desulphurisation and casting. The
modelling techniques, the challenges of using such models and the
results are summarised.
Transport and accompanying mixing of pigs causes fights among pigs and stress resulting in decreased welfare and reduced meat quality. This study investigates the effect of toys available during transport and lairage on behaviour, stress responses, and meat quality of slaughter pigs. Cross-bred (Piétrain×Hypor) pigs (109·1±10·1 kg) were allocated to one of three treatments during transport and lairage: 1) no toys (control) 2) rubber toys and 3) balls. The rubber toy consisted of two fixed rubber sticks; the plastic ball was filled with pieces of maize, which became available for the pigs in small amounts by manipulating the ball. Per group of 11 pigs, two toys were provided. Totally, divided over 4 replicates, 144 pigs were involved, of which 72 were used for blood sampling and meat quality measurements. Five minutes scans during lairage revealed that treatment did not affect the percentage of pigs that lay (P=0·20), stood (P=0·83) or sat (P=0·12) and that in almost all scans at least one pigs was manipulating a ball, compared with half of the scans in which at least one animal was manipulating a rubber toy (P=0·02). However both toys resulted in a lower incidence of shoulder lesions compared with the control group (P=0·06; 31·1% and 28·9% of the pigs for the rubber toys and balls respectively, versus 51·1% for the control group). Blood sampling at sticking showed that pigs with the balls during transport and lairage tended to have lower cortisol concentrations (P=0·07) than pigs with the rubber toys. Also, a decrease in plasma lactate concentration was observed for these pigs in comparison with the control group (P=0·08), and a higher pH of the m. longissimus dorsi 45 min post mortem for the pigs with the balls was found than for the pigs with the rubber toys (P=0·01). These results indicate that enrichment of compartments during transport and lairage with balls reduced glycolysis in muscle resulting in a lower lactate production and a slower pH decline. The pH 45 min post mortem of the m. biceps femoris and the pH, electrical conductivity, colour, and water-holding capacity of the loin 48 h post mortem were not affected by treatment. In conclusion, environmental enrichment with toys during transport and lairage can decrease shoulder lesions and lower the pH decline 45 min post mortem, especially by provision of plastic balls filled with maize.
Clogging of Continuous Casting nozzle has a detrimental effect
on productivity and product quality; it also increases production
costs and goes against security. Many factors contribute to the
clogging phenomenon, including the detailed process parameters
of continuous casting and secondary metallurgy. Clogging can be effectively limited by Argon injection that is
usually performed through the stopper rod. The nature and
quality of the refractory equipment is another factor that must be
considered carefully. The clogging mechanism has been clearly
ascribed to the level and nature of non metallic inclusions, thus to
the secondary metallurgy process. Effective counter measures that have been successfully
implemented in Arcelor to achieve long sequence casting are