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Food insecurity is not randomly dispersed throughout the population; rather, there are a number of risk and protective factors shaping both the prevalence and severity of food insecurity across households and sociodemographic populations. The present study examines some of these factors and the role that race and ethnicity among adolescent individuals in north-west Arkansas might play, paying specific attention to a subgroup of Pacific Islanders: the Marshallese.
The study uses cross-sectional survey data collected from a self-administered questionnaire of 10th–12th grade students.
A city in north-west Arkansas, USA.
The number of enrolled students in the selected high school at the time of the survey was 2148. Ten classrooms (116 students) were unable to participate at the time of the survey, making 2032 students eligible to be surveyed. Approximately 22% refused to participate and 105 students were absent from school, yielding a response rate of approximately 78% (n 1493).
Marshallese students had a higher prevalence of food insecurity than all other racial and ethnic groups in the study. After controlling for other sociodemographic, risk and protective factors, their odds of food insecurity remained significantly higher than both non-Hispanic White and Hispanic or Latinx students.
Adolescent food insecurity among Marshallese students must be made sense of in relation to structural-level determinants that shape the distribution of vital resources such as food across racial, ethnic and foreign-born lines.
With the latest configuration, the Ti:Sa laser system ARCTURUS (Düsseldorf University, Germany) operates with a double-chirped pulse amplification (CPA) architecture delivering pulses with an energy of 7 J before compression in each of the two high-power beams. By the implementation of a plasma mirror system, the intrinsic laser contrast is enhanced up to
on a time scale of hundreds of picoseconds, before the main peak. The laser system has been used in various configurations for advanced experiments and different studies have been carried out employing the high-power laser beams as a single, high-intensity interaction beam (
), in dual- and multi-beam configurations or in a pump–probe arrangement.
Thin film samples represent ideal samples for analysis using X-ray fluorescence in that they tend to be flat, smooth and homogeneous. However, before a sample can be characterized using XRF, several questions must be answered.
The purpose of this work was to develop accurate calibration standards which were fully characterized in terms of uniformity and concentration using fundamental measuring methods. Three similar sets of vacuum deposits were commercially made, each set containing the single deposits CuS, KCl, CaF2, Cr, Fe, Cu, RbNO3, SrF2, MoO3 , BaF2, and Pb. Thickness variations in each deposit were measured with PIXEA (proton induced x-ray excitation analysis) measurements taken at 6 to 8 positions along the deposit diameters. Relative elemental concentrations on corresponding deposits from each set were measured using multiple XRF intercomparisons. One set of deposits was destructively analyzed at the National Bureau of Standards with isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (IDMS) in order to calibrate the remaining sets of vacuum deposits. The calibrated deposits were compared with standards from two commercial sources. For seven elements heavier than chlorine there was an average deviation of 13.5% between the calibrated deposits and the commercial standards. Disagreements as large as 15% were observed between standards from the two commercial suppliers.
The use of empirical analysis techniques for the simultaneous determination of the thickness and composition of thin film samples usually requires a suite of well characterized similar type standards. While this may be adequate for a quality control application, this requirement severely limits the utility of X-ray fluorescence in the analysis of thin films in a service lab or research environment.
The use of fundamental parameters in the analysis of thin films allows the simultaneous determination of the thickness and composition of single and multiple layer thin film unknown samples without the use of similar type standards.
Grommet insertion is a common surgical procedure in children. Long waiting times for grommet insertion are not unusual. This project aimed to streamline the process by introducing a pathway for audiologists to directly schedule children meeting National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Clinical Guideline 60 (‘CG60’) for grommet insertion.
Method and results
A period from June to November 2014 was retrospectively audited. Mean duration between the first audiology appointment and grommet insertion was 294.5 days (median = 310 days). Implementing the direct-listing pathway reduced the duration between first audiology appointment and grommet insertion (mean = 232 days; median = 231 days). There has been a reduction in the time between the first audiology appointment and surgery (mean difference of 62.5 days; p = 0.024), and a reduction in the time between second audiology appointment and surgery (28 days; p = 0.009).
Direct-listing pathways for grommet insertion can reduce waiting times and expedite surgery. Implementation involves a simple alteration of current practice, adhering to National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Clinical Guideline 60. The ultimate decision regarding surgery still rests with ENT specialists.
Polymer-containing solutions used across research and industry are commonly exposed to mechanically harsh fluid processes, for example shear and extensional forces during flow through porous media or rapid microdispensing of biopharmaceutical molecules. These forces are strong enough to break the covalent bonds in the polymer backbone. As this scission phenomenon can change the functional and fluid-flow properties as well as introduce reactive radicals into the solution, it must be understood and controlled. Experiments and models to date have only provided partial or qualitative insights into this behaviour. Here we build a link between the molecular-scale degradation models and the macroscale laminar flow of dilute solutions in any given geometry. A free-draining bead–rod model is used to investigate rupture events at the molecular scale. It is shown by uniaxial extension simulations of an ensemble of chains that scission can be conveniently described at the macroscopic scale as a first-order reaction whose rate is a function of the conformation tensor of the macromolecules and the velocity gradient of the flow. This approach is implemented in the finite volume code OpenFOAM by elaborating an appropriate constitutive equation for the conformation tensor. The macroscopic model is run and analysed for ultra-dilute solutions of poly(methyl methacrylate) in ethyl acetate and polyethylene oxide in water, using the geometry of an abrupt contraction flow and neglecting any viscoelastic effect. This multiscale approach bridges the gap between phenomenological observations of mechanically induced chemical degradation in large-scale applications and the rich field of molecular-scale models of macromolecules under flow.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: This study seeks to test the feasibility and effectiveness of a brief Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) treatment for patients with persistent pain in a patient-centered medical home. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Participants are recruited via secure messaging, clinic advertisements and clinician referral. Primary care patients age 18 and older with at least 1 pain condition for 12 weeks or more in duration are stratified based on pain severity ratings and randomized into (a) ACT intervention or (b) control group [Enhanced Treatment as Usual (E-TAU)]. Participants in the ACT arm attend 1 individual visit with an integrated behavioral health provider, followed by 3 weekly ACT classes and a booster class 2 months later. E-TAU participants will receive usual care plus patient education handouts informed by cognitive behavioral science. Currently, 17% of our overall goal of 60 patients have completed ACT or enhanced treatment as usual. Average participant age is 49 years old, 70% female, and 70% Hispanic/Latino. Most report multisite pain conditions (e.g., musculoskeletal, fibromyalgia) and 30% are taking opioid medications. Data analysis in this presentation will include early correlational findings from baseline assessments. Upon study completion, we will analyze data using a general linear mixed regression model with repeated measures. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The overall hypothesis is that brief ACT treatment reduces physical disability in patients with persistent pain when delivered by an integrated behavioral health provider in primary care. By examining a subset of patients on opioid medications, we also anticipate a reduction in opioid misuse behaviors. Additionally, it is anticipated that improvements in patient functioning will be mediated by patient change in pain acceptance and patient engagement in values-consistent behaviors. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This pilot study will establish preliminary data about the feasibility and effectiveness of addressing persistent pain in a generalizable, “real-world” integrated primary care setting. Data will help support a larger trial in the future. If effective, findings could improve treatment methods and quality of life for patients with persistent pain using a scalable approach.
Community engagement is deemed as critical to the success of the CTSA program. In 2009, to improve research engagement and build capacity for community-engaged research across the translational spectrum, the Center for Clinical and Translational Science at the University of Illinois at Chicago created a Community Engagement Advisory Board (CEAB). Here, we report results of our ongoing evaluation efforts.
CEAB activities are evaluated using mixed methods. Annual CEAB evaluation surveys were completed from 2010 to 2016 (n=106 respondents). In 2014, two 90-minute focus groups were conducted with a subset of recent CEAB members (n=19).
Survey data suggest respondents perceive their consultations to be helpful in improving the capacity of researchers (90%) and the quality of research projects (80%). Further, CEAB members perceive themselves to have personally benefitted from their involvement including obtaining new knowledge (84%), expansion of their networks (76%), and forming new community linkages (51%). Results of the qualitative data were consistent with survey data.
Our CEAB has improved research engagement and developed institutional capacity to conduct community-engaged research in several ways. Our findings can inform the establishment or enhancement of community engagement services for CTSA-affiliated researchers and community partners.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the formation, operation, and evaluation of a Community Engagement Advisory Board (CEAB) that serves as a resource of the University of Illinois at Chicago’s (UIC) Center for Clinical and Translational Sciences (CCTS).
Current CEAB roles and functions, operating procedures for research consultations and program evaluation strategies were described. Investigators receiving a consultation from 2009 to 2017 (n=91, response rate 78%) were surveyed via an online survey immediately after the consultation and at 12-month follow-up.
Overall, CEAB members were viewed as having sufficient information (92%) and expertise (79%) to provide consultation. Satisfaction levels with the specific consultation received and the overall consultation service were high. The majority of investigators indicated that they would come back to the CEAB for a future consultation, if needed, and would recommend a consultation to others (93% and 96%, respectively). At 12-months, 87% of respondents indicated they had implemented at least some of the recommendations received and 93% said that the consultation influenced their subsequent research.
Data from recent annual evaluations highlight the benefits of CEAB for consulting investigators. Our model can be used to inform the development of future CEAB boards.
Geoffrey of Vinsauf's Poetria nova must be studied as a poem in its own right as thoroughly as it has been studied as a technical rhetorical treatise; although many scholars have acknowledged the brilliance of his style, few analyses thereof exist. This imbalance in criticism limits our understanding of his ideas and the appeal they held for medieval poets. This study, therefore, focuses on two images in the section on ornatus graves, or weighty ornamentation, the category of figures defined by its reliance on transumptio. In describing its moving effects, Geoffrey uses the imagery of a pilgrimage (peregrinatio) and of a “clear cloud” (nubes serena). Both help him explain how transumptive language at first displaces or hides meaning beneath something that is deceptively ordinary. When that meaning becomes clear to the reader, however, the recognition can be delightful, intoxicating, or even wondrously transporting. The images are not original to Geoffrey, nor are they drawn from the discourse of formal rhetoric. Rather, peregrinatio and the nubes serena have a rich history in liturgical drama, biblical commentary, and iconography where they signify a kind of spiritual transport remarkably similar to Geoffrey's conception of transumptio in terms of process and quality. Thus, the Poetria nova leverages the spiritual significance of the images to make a decisively literary point about the wondrous power of subtle, transumptive language. Only by recognizing the resonance of these images can we fully appreciate just how highly Geoffrey values transumptio. Approaching the Poetria nova with a poet's eye expands the range and scope of likely influences on the treatise and, more importantly, deepens our appreciation for his remarkable commitment as a poet to the affective potential of transumptive language.
A study employing macro- and micro-sedimentological techniques was conducted at three sites with recently deglaciated sediments in the proglacial area of Brúarjökull, a surge-type outlet glacier of the Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland. Tills at these sites were likely deposited and deformed during the 1963/64 surge. At the height of the last surge, these sediments were beneath 90-120 m of ice, and associated basal shear stresses would have been 24-32 kPa. Tills associated with the surge at these sites formed by a combination of subglacial sediment deformation and lodgement and are thus regarded as ‘hybrid tills’. The tills show evidence of both ductile and brittle deformation. Discontinuous clay lenses within the tills, indicating local ice-bed decoupling and sliding, imply that subglacial water pressures were spatially and temporally variable during the surge. The thickness of the subglacial deforming-till layer was 50-90 cm.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: This study seeks to test the feasibility and effectiveness of a brief acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) treatment for chronic pain patients in a primary care clinic METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Primary care patients aged 18 years and older with at least 1 pain condition for 12 weeks or more in duration will be recruited. Patients will be randomized into (a) ACT intervention or (b) control group. Participants in the ACT arm will attend 1 individual visit with an integrated behavioral health provider, followed by 3 weekly ACT classes and a booster class 2 months later. Control group will receive enhanced primary care that includes patient education handouts informed by cognitive behavioral science. Data analysis will include 1-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), multiple regression with bootstrapping. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The overall hypothesis is that brief ACT treatment reduces physical disability, improves functioning, and reduces medication misuse in chronic pain patients when delivered by an integrated behavioral health provider in primary care. In addition, it is anticipated that improvements in patient functioning will be mediated by patient change in pain acceptance and patient engagement in value-consistent behaviors. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This pilot study will establish preliminary data about the effectiveness of addressing chronic pain in a generalizable integrated primary care setting. Data will help support a larger trial in the future. Findings have potential to transform the way chronic pain is currently managed in primary care settings, with results that could decrease disability and improve functioning among patients suffering from chronic pain.
We provide a high-resolution map of elevation change rates at the Juneau Icefield (JIF), southeastern Alaska, in order to quantify its contribution to sea-level rise between 2000 and 2009/2013. We also produce the first high-resolution map of ice speeds at the JIF, which we use to constrain flux and look for acceleration. We calculate using stacked digital elevation models (DEMs) from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), taking into account SRTM C-band penetration via comparison with SRTM X-band elevations. Overall, the JIF is losing mass less rapidly (0.13 ± 0.12 m w.e. a–1) than other Alaskan icefields (0.79 m w.e. a–1). We determine glacier speeds using pixel-tracking on optical image pairs acquired from 2001 to 2010 by ASTER, from radar image pairs acquired between 2007 and 2011 and from radar interferometry in 1995. We detect seasonal speed variations but no interannual acceleration, ruling out dynamics as the cause of the observed thinning. Thinning must therefore be due to the documented warming in the region. Flux measurements confirm this for Mendenhall Glacier, showing that calving constitutes only 2.5–5% of mass loss there.
The hedonic approach has been advanced recently as an important tool for assessing the value of non-market environmental attributes. In its most usual form, the method involves an attempt econometrically to capture differential prices for homes attributable to variations in the environmental characteristic. This technique has been applied with success for a variety of attributes – most notably the study of air pollution. However, the case studies reported here for water quality valuation were much less successful. We advance several reasons why the hedonic approach may be ill-suited to measuring the value of water quality.
Depression and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are frequently comorbid disorders that are independently associated with premature mortality. Conversely, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with reduced mortality risk. These factors may interact to impact mortality; however, their effects have not been assessed concurrently. This analysis assessed the mortality risk of comorbid depression/MetS and the effect of CRF on mortality in those with depression/MetS.
Prospective study of 47 702 adults in the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study. Mortality status was attained from the National Death Index. History of depression was determined by patient response (yes or no) to a standardized medical history questionnaire. MetS was categorized using the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria. CRF was estimated from the final speed/grade of a treadmill graded exercise test.
13.9% reported a history of depression, 21.4% met criteria for MetS, and 3.0% met criteria for both MetS and history of depression. History of depression (HR = 1.24, p = 0.003) and MetS (HR = 1.28, p < 0.001) were independently associated with an increased mortality risk, with the greatest mortality risk among individuals with both a history of depression and MetS (HR = 1.59, p < 0.001). Higher CRF was associated with a significantly lower risk of mortality (p < 0.001) in all individuals, including those with MetS and/or a history of depression.
Those with higher levels CRF had reduced mortality risk in the context of depression/MetS. Interventions that improve CRF could have substantial impact on the health of persons with depression/MetS.
This observational study aims to investigate the microbiological quality of commercially prepared lightly cooked foods with a major component of food of animal origin and collected as would be served to a consumer. A total of 356 samples were collected from catering (92%), retail (7%) or producers (1%) and all were independent of known incidents of foodborne illness. Using standard methods, all samples were tested for: the presence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. and enumerated for levels of, Bacillus spp. including B. cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Listeria spp. including L. monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriacea and aerobic colony count (ACC). Results were interpreted as unsatisfactory, borderline or satisfactory according to the Health Protection Agency guidelines for assessing the microbiological safety of ready-to-eat foods placed on the market. Amongst all samples, 70% were classified as satisfactory, 18% were borderline and 12% were of unsatisfactory microbiological quality. Amongst the unsatisfactory samples, six (2%) were potentially injurious to health due to the presence of: Salmonella spp. (one duck breast); Campylobacter spp. (two duck breast and one chicken liver pâté); L. monocytogenes at 4·3 × 103 cfu (colony-forming units)/g (one duck confit with foie gras ballotin) and C. perfringens at 2·5 × 105 cfu/g (one chicken liver pâté). The remaining unsatisfactory samples were due to high levels of indicator E. coli, Enterobacteriaceae or ACC.