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A novel high-power impulse plasma source (HiPIPS) technology that combines atmospheric pressure plasma jets with high-power pulsed direct current generators is described. Pulsed power is applied in microsecond pulses (20 µs) at low duty cycle (10%) and low frequency (0.5 kHz) leading to high peak power densities (10–75 kW) and high peak currents (100–250 A) while maintaining low average power (<40 W) and low processing temperatures (<50 °C). These conditions result in the generation of a highly dense plasma discharge (ne = 6.23 × 1016 cm−3) for surface modification and deposition of coatings. Using HiPIPS, Ar-initiated metallic Ti, CoCr, or Ti–6Al–4V plasma was generated, and the plasma properties were characterized by measuring current–voltage characteristics, electron densities (Langmuir probe), and optical emission spectra. HiPIPS CoCr and Ti–6Al–4V coatings were deposited for proof of concept of the technique. The resulting coatings were examined with scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and nanoindentation.
Orbital lymphaticovenous malformations (LVM) are congenital vascular lesions that are typically infiltrative in nature. There have been reports of orbital LVMs extending intracranially through orbital fissures, but there have been no reports of intradural extension that we are aware of. We present the case of an otherwise healthy 25-year-old female with an orbital LVM extending intradurally. Imaging revealed an intraorbital lesion extending through a bony defect in the medial orbital roof to the orbitofrontal cortex. A modified orbitozygomatic approach was used to obliterate this lesion. A durotomy was created to examine the intradural extension of the lesion, which appeared as a lobulated red vascular structure emanating from the dura along the roof of the orbit. This was gradually and comprehensively bipolar coagulated and subsequently obliterated. Neurosurgical and ophthalmological collaboration was used in the surgical management of this case. In summary, we report the first case of an orbital LVM extending intradurally, and provide pre and post-operative imaging as well as images captured through the intraoperative microscope. Through this case we highlight the importance of an interdisciplinary approach when managing orbital LVMs, as both ophthalmological and neurosurgical expertise were critical in the success of the surgery.
The Keck II Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph (DEIMOS) is a general purpose, faint object, multi-slit, double-beam spectrograph which offers wide spectral coverage, high spectral resolution, high throughput, and long slit length on the sky. This powerful instrument will be the principal optical spectrograph on the Keck II telescope. DEIMOS is optimized for faint-object spectroscopy of individual point sources, low-surface-brightness extended objects, or widely distributed samples of faint objects on the sky. To obtain high resolution (∼ 1 å) and wide spectral coverage (up to 5000 å) the spectrograph uses wide angle cameras and large CCD detectors with many pixels.
This paper describes some of the work being carried out to obtain the CCD detectors required for the DEIMOS spectrograph. In addition, results are presented on the fabrication and characterization of a 4k × 2k three-side buttable CCD produced by Orbit Semiconductor, a silicon foundry in San Jose, California. This CCD was fabricated to test the ability of Orbit to produce high quality scientific CCDs with the characteristics required for detectors to be used in DEIMOS and other optical instruments of the Keck Observatory.
Dietary intake of PUFA has been associated with colorectal neoplasm risk; however, results from observational studies have been inconsistent. Most prior studies have utilised self-reported dietary measures to assess fatty acid exposure which might be more susceptible to measurement error and biases compared with biomarkers. The purpose of this study was to determine whether erythrocyte phospholipid membrane PUFA percentages are associated with colorectal adenoma risk. We included data from 904 adenoma cases and 835 polyp-free controls who participated in the Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study, a large colonoscopy-based case–control study. Erythrocyte membrane PUFA percentages were measured using GC. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted OR for risk of colorectal adenomas with erythrocyte membrane PUFA. Higher erythrocyte membrane percentages of arachidonic acid was associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenomas (adjusted OR 1·66; 95 % CI 1·05, 2·62, Ptrend=0·02) comparing the highest tertile to the lowest tertile. The effect size for arachidonic acid was more pronounced when restricting the analysis to advanced adenomas only. Higher erythrocyte membrane EPA percentages were associated with a trend towards a reduced risk of advanced colorectal adenomas (Ptrend=0·05). Erythrocyte membrane arachidonic acid percentages are associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenomas.
Background: Fatigue was recently reported to be the largest contributor to poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in paediatric Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Additional studies are necessary to confirm the generalizability of this finding. Our objective was to explore the longitudinal relationship between fatigue and HRQOL in an additional cohort of DMD patients. Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of data from a clinical trial (NCT00592553), which enrolled patients with nonsense mutation DMD, aged 5–20 years, from 37 sites in 11 countries (N=174). Fatigue and HRQOL were assessed using the PedsQLTM Multidimensional Fatigue Scale and Generic Core Scales, respectively, by patient- and parent-report at baseline and over 48 weeks. Results: Patients reported greater fatigue than healthy controls from published data. There was no significant difference between patient- and parent-reported fatigue. Fatigue was significantly correlated with worse HRQOL at baseline, by patient-report (r=0.70, P<0.001) and parent-report (r=0.70, P<0.001); and at 48 weeks, by patient-report (r=0.79, P<0.001) and parent-report (r=0.74, P<0.001). Change in fatigue was significantly correlated with change in HRQOL over 48 weeks, by patient-report (r=0.64, P<0.001) and parent-report (r=0.67, P<0.001). Conclusions: Fatigue is a major contributor to HRQOL in DMD. The strong association between fatigue and HRQOL corroborates previous studies, and suggests that reducing fatigue may improve HRQOL.
The CMP challenges for advanced technology nodes are discussed. Global and local uniformity challenges and their cumulative effects are presented. Uniformity improvements for advanced node integration were achieved through slurry, pad and platen optimization, innovative integration schemes, the reduction of incoming variation and the reduction of cumulative effects. We discuss reduction of typical CMP defect types. Defects resulting from simple mechanisms (foreign material, polish residues) and those resulting from chemical and physical interactions (corrosion, chemical attack, scratches, physical migration) and strategies for control are studied. Defectivity reduction measures include new post-CMP clean chemicals, new slurries and pads and reduction of incoming defectivity. Finally we discuss an observed tradeoff between good defectivity and good uniformity.
Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes <0.05%) were observed between the extraversion polygenic score and wellbeing measures, and a negative association was observed between the polygenic neuroticism score and life satisfaction. Furthermore, using GWA data, genetic correlations of -0.49 and -0.55 were estimated between neuroticism with life satisfaction and positive affect, respectively. The moderate genetic correlation between neuroticism and wellbeing is in line with twin research showing that genetic influences on wellbeing are also shared with other independent personality domains.
The enhancement of photovoltaic efficiency by incorporation of down-shifting phosphor materials in optically active and inactive regions of solar modules is presented. Thin film photovoltaic modules suffer from various optical losses, including front glass reflectance, thermalization loss of absorbed high energy photons, window layer absorption, and the loss of photons to scribe regions. There have been various efforts to improve the performance of solar modules by application of down-shifting (DS), down-converting, and up-converting materials systems. Here we show results towards the development of a low-cost phosphor film system tuned to the solar spectrum and specifically designed for CdTe thin film modules.
Endeavours to control urogenital schistosomiasis on Unguja Island (Zanzibar) have focused on school-aged children. To assess the impact of an associated health education campaign, the supervised use of the comic-strip medical booklet Juma na Kichocho by Class V pupils attending eighteen primary schools was investigated. A validated knowledge and attitudes questionnaire was completed at baseline and repeated one year later following the regular use of the booklet during the calendar year. A scoring system (ranging from 0.0 to 5.0) measured children’s understandings of schistosomiasis and malaria, with the latter being a neutral comparator against specific changes for schistosomiasis. In 2006, the average score from 751 children (328 boys and 423 girls) was 2.39 for schistosomiasis and 3.03 for malaria. One year later, the score was 2.43 for schistosomiasis and 2.70 for malaria from 779 children (351 boys and 428 girls). As might be expected, knowledge and attitudes scores for schistosomiasis increased (+0.05), but not as much as originally hoped, while the score for malaria decreased (−0.33). According to a Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, neither change was statistically significant. Analysis also revealed that 75% of school children misunderstood the importance of reinfection after treatment with praziquantel. These results are disappointing. They demonstrate that it is mistaken to assume that knowledge conveyed in child-friendly booklets will necessarily be interpreted, and acted upon, in the way intended. If long-term sustained behavioural change is to be achieved, health education materials need to engage more closely with local understandings and responses to urogenital schistosomiasis. This, in turn, needs to be part of the development of a more holistic, biosocial approach to the control of schistosomiasis.
Heteroepitaxial growth of high-quality II-VI-alloy materials on Si substrates is a well-established commercial growth process for infrared (IR) detector devices. However, it has only recently been recognized that these same processes may have important applications for production of high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. This submission reviews the process developments that have enabled effective heteroepitaxy of II-VI alloy materials on lattice-mismatched Si for IR detectors as a foundation to describe recent efforts to apply these insights to the fabrication of multijunction Si/CdZnTe devices with ultimate conversion efficiencies >40%. Reviewed photovoltaic studies include multijunction Si/CdZnTe devices with conversion efficiency of ∼17%, analysis of structural and optoelectrical quality of undoped CdTe epilayer films on Si, and the effect that a Te-rich growth environment has on the structural and optoelectronic quality of both undoped and As-doped heteroepitaxial CdTe.
The EDTA-soluble fractions extracted from rostra of two late Cretaceous belemnites (Cephalopoda), Gonioteuthis and Belemnitella, were divided into an humic acid and a fulvic acid fraction (the latter was absent in Belemnitella). The extracts are compared with preparations from shells of two recent cephalopods, Nautilus pompilius and Sepia officinalis. Use was made of immunology, amino acid analysis, pyrolysis mass spectrometry and some other techniques.
The fulvic acid fraction of Gonioteuthis, a mixed peptide-like saccharide-like substance, produced confluent immunodiffusion patterns with an EDTA-soluble Nautilus extract against anti-Nautilus rabbit serum. The humic acid of Gonioteuthis did not contain D-alloisoleucine and its amino acid composition was very similar to that of the EDTA-insoluble fraction of Nautilus. This humic acid was enriched in polyphenol, which may be due to chemical reaction of peptides and carbohydrates during diagenesis. It is concluded that both fractions of Gonioteuthis are original belemnite materials that have undergone only minor alterations during diagenesis.
This is an exploratory study of biochemical compounds derived from fossils, with particular emphasis on immunological methods.
Among several potential animal models that can be used for adipogenic studies, Wagyu cattle is the one that presents unique molecular mechanisms underlying the deposit of substantial amounts of intramuscular fat. As such, this review is focused on current knowledge of such mechanisms related to adipose tissue deposition using Wagyu cattle as model. So abundant is the lipid accumulation in the skeletal muscles of these animals that in many cases, the muscle cross-sectional area appears more white (adipose tissue) than red (muscle fibers). This enhanced marbling accumulation is morphologically similar to that seen in numerous skeletal muscle dysfunctions, disease states and myopathies; this might indicate cross-similar mechanisms between such dysfunctions and fat deposition in Wagyu breed. Animal models can be used not only for a better understanding of fat deposition in livestock, but also as models to an increased comprehension on molecular mechanisms behind human conditions. This revision underlies some of the complex molecular processes of fat deposition in animals.
Dysregulation of the striatum and altered corticostriatal connectivity have been associated with psychotic disorders. Social anhedonia has been identified as a predictor for the development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine corticostriatal functional connectivity in individuals with high social anhedonia.
Twenty-one participants with high social anhedonia score and 30 with low social anhedonia score measured by the Chinese version of the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale were recruited from university undergraduates (age 17–21 years) to undergo resting-state functional MRI scans. Six subdivisions of the striatum in each hemisphere were defined as seeds. Voxel-wise functional connectivity analyses were conducted between each seed and the whole brain voxels, followed by repeated-measures ANOVA for the group effect.
Participants with high social anhedonia showed hyper-connectivity between the ventral striatum and the anterior cingulate cortex and the insula, and between the dorsal striatum and the motor cortex. Hypo-connectivity in participants with high social anhedonia was also observed between the ventral striatum and the posterior cingulate cortex. Partial correlation analyses further showed that the functional connectivity between the ventral striatum and the prefrontal cortex was associated with pleasure experience and emotional suppression.
Our findings suggest that altered corticostriatal connectivity can be found in participants with high levels of social anhedonia. Since social anhedonia has been considered a predictor for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, our results may provide novel evidence on the early changes in brain functional connectivity in at-risk individuals.
Photoelectric photometry in BVRI colors has been obtained at the Kitt Peak National Observatory of many stars in the regions of the Hyades, Praesepe and Coma star clusters which had no previous photometry. The stars were limited mostly to the lower main sequence. Their range is approximately 0.6 to 1.5 (and to 1.7 in the Hyades) in B-V and 0.25 to 0.85 (and to 1.3 in the Hyades) in R-I. Their ranges correspond from mid G through early M in spectral class. The purpose of this project is to detect and examine the main sequences of the nearest open clusters. It continues the results reported earlier in this program for the Hyades cluster [Upgren (1974), Upgren and Weis (1977)] and extends them to include Praesepe and Coma as well, by means of the new sensitive gallium-arsenide photocells which permit fainter stars to be observed with moderate sized telescopes, especially in the R and I bands.
Two-step growth method of low pressure chemical vapor deposition(LPCVD) process was employed to fabricate the ZnO:B-TCO film; For the first layer, the seed layer with a heavy doping concentration was deposited on the glass substrate, the film having higher deposition rate were then grown on the top of the first layer; It shows that the doping situations of the seed layer play an important role in electrical and optical performance of the whole ZnO:B-TCO layer, and the combination of this two properties is optimal when the doping ratio (B2H6/DEZ) was 0.4;
The unique properties of silicon oxide materials, no matter intrinsic or doped, utilized in thin film solar cells (TFSCs) in the area of photovoltaic (PV) are making TFSCs one of the most attractive photovoltaic technologies for the development of high-performing electricity production units to be integrated in everyday life. In comparison to other silicon materials, the particular diphasic structure of silicon oxide materials, in which hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) crystallites are surrounded by an oxygen-rich hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) phase, causes them present excellent photoelectrical material properties, such as a low-parasitic absorption in the broadband spectral range, independent controllability of longitudinal and lateral conductivity, refractive indices (3.5-2.0), band gap (2.0-2.6 eV) and conductivity tenability (with orders of 1-10-9 S/cm) with oxygen doping, and so on. Various types of silicon oxide materials, including intrinsic, p- or n- type, further applied in TFSCs have also played significant roles in improving the efficiency of various types of single-, dual-, and triple-junction thin-film solar cells from both the optical and electrical points of view. In this paper, we present our latest progress in studying the performance improvement role of intrinsic or doped silicon oxide materials in pin-type a-Si:H, a-SiGe:H, and μc-Si:H single-junction solar cells. By effectively tuning the band gap values of intrinsic a-SiOx:H materials with oxygen doping and adopting the layers with a suitable band gap (1.86 eV) as the P/I buffer layers of a-Si:H solar cells fabricated on metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) boron-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:B) substrates, a significant Voc increases up to 909 mV and an excellent external quantum efficiency (EQE) response of 75% at the 400 nm typical wavelength can be achieved by matching the band gap discontinuity between the p-type nc-SiOx:H window and a-Si:H intrinsic layers. The serious leakage current characteristics of pin-type narrow-gap (Eg<1.5 eV) a-SiGe:H single-junction solar cells can also be finely tuned by integrating an n-type μc-SiOx:H layer with a small oxygen content in addition to improving the long-wavelength response, an effective approach gives rise to the highest FF of 70.62% for pin-type a-SiGe:H single-junction solar cells with an average band gap of 1.48 eV. In addition, our studies proved that the application of p-type μc-SiOx:H window layers in μc-Si:H single-junction solar cells can effectively improve the short-wavelength light coupling by suppressing the parasitic absorption and promoting the anti-reflectivity with a graded refractive index profile. On the basis of the optimum single-junction solar cells with omnipotent silicon oxide materials, an initial efficiency of 16.07% has been achieved for pin-type a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H/μc-Si:H triple-junction solar cells with an active area of 0.25 cm2. The omnipotent properties of silicon oxide layers in TFSCs, including effective optical coupling and trapping, suitability in compensating for the band gap discontinuity, the shunt-quenching capacity, and so on, make them likely to be extended to other types of solar cells such as polycrystalline chalcopyrite Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and perovskite-sensitized solar cells, opening up new opportunities for acquiring solar cells with higher performance.