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This review examined the efficacy of intranasal corticosteroids for improving adenotonsillar hypertrophy.
The related literature was searched using PubMed and Proquest Central databases.
Adenotonsillar hypertrophy causes mouth breathing, nasal congestion, hyponasal speech, snoring, obstructive sleep apnoea, chronic sinusitis and recurrent otitis media. Adenoidal hypertrophy results in the obstruction of nasal passages and Eustachian tubes, and blocks the clearance of nasal mucus. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy and obstructive sleep apnoea are associated with increased expression of various mediators of inflammatory responses in the tonsils, and respond to anti-inflammatory agents such as corticosteroids. Topical nasal steroids most likely affect the anatomical component by decreasing inspiratory upper airway resistance at the nasal, adenoidal or tonsillar levels. Corticosteroids, by their lympholytic or anti-inflammatory effects, might reduce adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Intranasal corticosteroids reduce cellular proliferation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a tonsil and adenoid mixed-cell culture system.
Intranasal corticosteroids have been used in adenoidal hypertrophy and adenotonsillar hypertrophy patients, decreasing rates of surgery for adenotonsillar hypertrophy.
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