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The aim of this study was to examine whether melatonin is involved in the pathogenesis of nasal polyposis.
This study included 29 patients with nasal polyposis and undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery. As a control group, 26 patients who had been operated on for a deviated nasal septum and concha bullosa were enrolled. Samples were taken from the nasal polyp tissue and from the resected middle concha bullosa mucosa of the control group. Serum samples were taken from all patients.
It was found that the tissue and serum melatonin levels in the nasal polyp group were significantly lower compared with the tissue and serum melatonin levels in the control group.
In nasal polyposis, the melatonin level in the serum and tissue is lower than in individuals without polyposis. This deficiency may play a role in the pathogenesis of nasal polyposis.
This review examined the efficacy of intranasal corticosteroids for improving adenotonsillar hypertrophy.
The related literature was searched using PubMed and Proquest Central databases.
Adenotonsillar hypertrophy causes mouth breathing, nasal congestion, hyponasal speech, snoring, obstructive sleep apnoea, chronic sinusitis and recurrent otitis media. Adenoidal hypertrophy results in the obstruction of nasal passages and Eustachian tubes, and blocks the clearance of nasal mucus. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy and obstructive sleep apnoea are associated with increased expression of various mediators of inflammatory responses in the tonsils, and respond to anti-inflammatory agents such as corticosteroids. Topical nasal steroids most likely affect the anatomical component by decreasing inspiratory upper airway resistance at the nasal, adenoidal or tonsillar levels. Corticosteroids, by their lympholytic or anti-inflammatory effects, might reduce adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Intranasal corticosteroids reduce cellular proliferation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a tonsil and adenoid mixed-cell culture system.
Intranasal corticosteroids have been used in adenoidal hypertrophy and adenotonsillar hypertrophy patients, decreasing rates of surgery for adenotonsillar hypertrophy.
Azelastine nasal spray is a topical antihistaminic drug for the symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinitis. This study aimed to investigate the effects of azelastine on nasal and nasopharyngeal microflora.
Swab samples from 25 patients prescribed azelastine nasal spray monotherapy were collected just before treatment and after 1 month of treatment. After incubation of inoculates, the number of bacteria present in cultures was measured (in colony-forming units per millilitre).
Evaluation of the number of microflora revealed increased bacterial reproduction after treatment, but this difference was not statistically significant. The use of azelastine nasal spray decreased the reproduction of three potentially pathogenic bacteria; however, it did not affect the reproduction of other potentially pathogenic bacteria.
The use of azelastine nasal spray for one month did not have a statistically significant effect on the numbers of nasal and nasopharyngeal microflora; it is therefore safe from a microbiological viewpoint.
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