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A novel dual-polarization, single-layer reflectarray has been designed and manufactured to operate at receive (20 GHz) and transmit (30 GHz) frequencies for Ka-band terminal antennas. The reflectarray unit cell is composed of several types of resonant elements printed on the upper side of a conductor-backed substrate, which are designed to produce a collimated beam at 20 and 30 GHz in dual polarization. Cross-shaped loops are used to provide the required phases at 20 GHz, while crossed dipoles and modified truncated rings are used to control the phasing at 30 GHz. The resonant lengths of the proposed elements have been adjusted cell by cell by means of a two-dimensional interpolation method to achieve the required phase shift at each frequency. Two different feeds have been used to illuminate the reflectarray at 20 and 30 GHz. The measured gain is 28.02 dBi at 20 GHz and 32.14 dBi at 30 GHz. The measurement results show that the radiation patterns of the designed single-layer reflectarray antenna are in good agreement with those achieved from the simulations.
Practitioners have few personality inventory options when assessing Spanish-speakers, despite professional guidelines that encourage them to administer measures that are validated with their populations of interest. To build on research in this area, we examined the internal consistency and convergent validity of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) and the Personality Assessment Inventory European-Spanish (PAIE-S) version among bilingual Latin American Spanish-speakers (final n = 53). For the PAI, 72.72% of scales and 35.48% of subscales had alphas above .70. For the PAIE-S, 50.00% of scales and 25.81% of scales met this alpha. Participants tended to score lowest on the PAI Alcohol Problems scale (T = 47.19) and the PAIE-S Warmth scale (T = 45.49). On average, participants scored highest on the PAI’s Paranoia-Hypervigilance scale (T = 61.15) and the PAIE-S’s Paranoia scale (T = 57.64). We identified 10 scales and subscales on which participants were significantly more likely (p < .00094) to score higher on one measure than the other. Participants more often scored higher on the PAI than the PAIE-S. All parallel scales and subscales converged at p < .00094 with the exception of the Antisocial Features-Egocentricity scale. Taken together, findings suggest taking caution when administering these measures to Latin American bilingual Spanish-speakers.
Granulation tissue after transoral laser microsurgery can make it difficult to distinguish between normal healing and tumour recurrence.
Materials and methods:
We carried out a retrospective analysis of 316 consecutive glottic carcinomas (Tis–T3). Presence of granulation tissue at one and six months was correlated with demographic and clinical data, tumour and surgical characteristics, and tumour relapse.
Granulation tissue appeared in 53.8 per cent of patients at month 1, resolving spontaneously in 41.8 per cent. Revision surgery was performed in 60.1 per cent and was effective in 41.1 per cent. At month 6, 14.9 per cent of patients presented with granulation tissue. In 74.5 per cent the tissue was surgically removed and was positive for malignancy in 62.9 per cent. Tumour relapse presented in 29.4 per cent with granulation tissue at month 1 and in 61.7 per cent at month 6 (p = 0.000). Granulation tissue at month 1 correlated with thyroid cartilage exposure and continued smoking. At month 6, granulation tissue correlated with thyroid cartilage exposure, the affected surgical margins and diabetes.
Granulation tissue after transoral laser microsurgery is frequent. When it persists at six months, revision surgery is formally recommended.
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