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Background: Migraine is a prevalent and disabling condition with limited understanding in the developing brain. Adults with chronic migraine show structural alterations in pain and sensory processing regions. Similar data is lacking in children and required for early intervention. Methods: Case-control feasibility study assessing structural brain differences between adolescents with chronic migraine and healthy controls using 3T Siemens structural volumetric MRI analysis. Fifteen subjects with chronic migraine were compared to 25 age and sex matched healthy controls. Non-parametric statistics performed (Kruskal-Wallis). Results: Migraine subjects had reduced volumes in total brain (grey and white matter) (KW p <0.03), total thalamus (KW p <0.01) and hippocampal regions (KW p <0.03). Unilateral (right) cerebellar grey matter volumes were significantly reduced in migraine subjects versus controls (KW p<0.05). No significant differences were found in other regions, including basal ganglia, cortical grey matter and brainstem. Conclusions: Total brain, hippocampal and thalamic volumetric reductions are seen in adolescents with chronic migraine. The regions identified are involved in migraine pathogenesis. This volumetric imaging study should improve understanding of the causes and effects of pediatric migraine.
For the past 9 years we have been monitoring the radial velocities of 13 blue stragglers in the old open cluster M67. For the 9 blue stragglers with rotational velocities no larger than about 100 km s−1 we have used the CfA digital speedometers to measure more than 500 radial velocities. To get reliable velocity correlations we use synthetic rotating templates computed from a grid of Kurucz model atmospheres. Four of the blue stragglers rotate too rapidly to allow successful velocity correlations with the CfA instruments. For three of these we have used a CCD spectrograph at Kitt Peak and similar reduction procedures (Morse et al. 1991.
In 1971 Roger Griffin and Jim Gunn began monitoring the radial velocities of most of the members brighter than the main-sequence turnoff in the old open cluster M67, primarily using the 200-inch Hale Telescope. In 1982 the torch was passed to Dave Latham and Bob Mathieu, who began monitoring many of the same stars with the 1.5-meter Tillinghast Reflector and the Multiple-Mirror Telescope on Mt. Hopkins. We have successively combined these two sets of data, plus some additional CORAVEL velocities kindly provided by Michel Mayor, to obtain 20 years of time coverage (e.g. Mathieu et al. 1986). Among the stars brighter than magnitude V = 12.7 we have already published orbits for 22 spectroscopic binaries (Mathieu et al. 1990). At Mt. Hopkins an extension of this survey to many of the cluster members down to magnitude V = 15.5 has already yielded thirteen additional orbital solutions, with the promise of many more to come.
We present new observations of projected rotational velocities of main sequence B stars in the galactic clusters NGC 2439, NGC 3293, NGC 3766, NGC 4755, NGC 7160 and h & χ Persei. 257 stars have been observed with three instruments, 207 of which are presented here. Projected rotational velocities have been determined by least-squares fit to synthetic spectra. Our v sin i scale is compared with that of Slettebak et al. (1975).
Young children are slow to master conventional intonation patterns in their yes/no questions, which may stem from imperfect understanding of the links between terminal pitch contours and pragmatic intentions. In Experiment 1, five- to ten-year-old children and adults were required to judge utterances as questions or statements on the basis of intonation alone. Children eight years of age or younger performed above chance levels but less accurately than adult listeners. To ascertain whether the verbal content of utterances interfered with young children's attention to the relevant acoustic cues, low-pass filtered versions of the same utterances were presented to children and adults in Experiment 2. Low-pass filtering reduced performance comparably for all age groups, perhaps because such filtering reduced the salience of critical pitch cues. Young children's difficulty in differentiating declarative questions from statements is not attributable to basic perceptual difficulties but rather to absent or unstable intonation categories.
Understanding, predicting and eventually improving the resistance to fracture of silicate materials is of primary importance to design new glasses that would be tougher, while retaining their transparency. However, the atomic mechanism of the fracture in amorphous silicate materials is still a topic of debate. In particular, there is some controversy about the existence of ductility at the nano-scale during the crack propagation. Here, we present simulations of the fracture of three archetypical silicate glasses using molecular dynamics. We show that the methodology that is used provide realistic values of fracture energy and toughness. In addition, the simulations clearly suggest that silicate glasses can show different degrees of ductility, depending on their composition.
In 2008, Granett et al. claimed a direct detection of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (iSW) effect, through the stacking of CMB patches at the positions of identified superstructures. Additionally, the high amplitude of their measured signal was reported to be at odds with predictions from the standard model of cosmology. However, a closer inspection of these results prompts multiple questions, more specifically about the amplitude and significance of the expected signal. We propose here an original theoretical prediction of the iSW effect produced by such superstructures. We use simulations based on GR and the LTB metric to reproduce cosmic structures and predict their exact theoretical iSW effect on the CMB. The amplitudes predicted with this method are consistent with the signal measured when properly accounting the contribution of the non-negligible (and fortuitous) primordial CMB fluctuations to the total signal. It also highlights the tricky nature of stacking measurements and their interpretation.
In 2011 the IRSN conducted several assessments of atmospheric
radioactive releases due to the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident (March
11, 2011) and of their impact on Japan’s terrestrial environment.
They were based on the IRSN’s emergency management tools and on
the abundant information and technical data gradually published
in Japan. According to these assessments, the main release phase
lasted from March 12 to 25, 2011 and impacted Japanese land in two
events, the first on 15 and 16 March, in which the main radioactive
deposits were formed, and the second from March 20 to 23, which
was less significant. The highest amounts of radioactive deposits were
found in an area extending upwards of several tens of kilometers
northwest of the plant. Lower amounts were discontinuously scattered
in an area extending up to over 250 km away. Initially composed
mainly of short-lived radionuclides, the deposits’ activity sharply
decreased in the subsequent weeks. Since the summer of 2011, cesium-134
and cesium-137 have become the residual deposits’ main components.
According to IRSN estimates, in the absence of protection, the doses
due to exposure to the radioactive plume during the atmospheric
release phase may have been potentially higher for people who remained
in coastal areas up to several tens of kilometers north and south
of the damaged plant. Thereafter, people living up to 50 km northwest
of the plant, outside the 20-km emergency evacuation zone, were potentially
most vulnerable to residual radioactive deposits over time.
Chandra Multi-wavelength Plane Survey (ChaMPlane) surveys the X-ray point sources discovered by the Chandra X-ray Observatory in the galactic plane in order to constrain the populations of faint (Lx ≤ 1033erg/s) accretion-powered sources in the Galaxy. This multi-wavelength survey includes data from the Chandra archive, as well as optical and infrared images and spectra. This paper summarizes a few selected highlights.
The commentaries to our focal article were both interesting and stimulating. As we generally agreed with the major points raised in the commentaries, we use this response to frame an on-going tension point or challenge regarding team definitions, highlight a few unifying themes that weave through our initial article and the commentaries, and discuss the transition from research to informed practice. The past few decades have been exciting times for team researchers and practitioners, and the time is ripe for new energies and approaches.
In the past, there was a fairly strong alignment between what teams experienced, the topics that team researchers were studying, and the practices that organizations used to manage their teams. However, the nature of teams and the environment in which they operate has changed, and as a result, new needs have emerged. Although there have been some innovative advancements, research and practice have not always adjusted to remain aligned with emerging needs. We highlight 3 significant change themes that are affecting teams: (a) dynamic composition, (b) technology and distance, and (c) empowerment and delayering. For each theme, we share our observations, review the related science and identify future research needs, and specify challenges and recommendations for employing effective team-based practices in applied settings. We conclude with thoughts about the future and suggest that new theories, research methods, and analyses may be needed to study the new team dynamics.
Apexes of commercial pyramidal silicon scanning microscopy tips were magnetically functionalized by means of local focused electron beam induced deposition. High aspect ratio supertips and local tip coatings with varying apex diameters can be produced by varying exposure time, beam current, and scan mode. The carbonyl precursor Co2(CO)8 was used as source of magnetic metal. Tip performance was tested with magnetic force microscopy (tapping / lift-retrace mode) and magnetically actuated cantilever atomic force microscopy. The deposit contains 34±2 at.% Co, dispersed as 2-5 nm metal nanocrystals in a carbonaceous matrix. Specific surface reactions and Boudouard reactions are proposed to explain the resulting deposit composition measured by Auger spectroscopy. The electrical resistivity is 104 higher than bulk Co resistivity.
The structural and optical properties of InGaN quantum dots grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) have been characterised using atomic force microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Z-contrast scanning TEM, micro-photoluminescence (PL), temperature dependent PL and time-resolved PL. The uncapped InGaN nano-islands have densities of ∼1.5 × 1011 cm−2, heights of (1.7 ± 1.0) nm and diameters of (10 ± 4) nm. These parameters are not substantially changed during overgrowth of a GaN cap and the resulting quantum dots have a composition of In0.15Ga0.85N. The observation of narrow luminescence peaks in micro-PL measurements proves light emission from discrete energy states and the optical properties indicate strong confinement of carriers in the quantum dots and an unusually weak impact of piezoelectric field effects.
In this paper, fabrication of nanocomposite thin films with introduction of fullerene (C60) molecules in PolyMethyl MethAcrylate resist (PMMA) was investigated from a material and electrical point of view. The effective inclusion of C60 molecules in the samples was characterized by using UV-vis and Tof-SIMS instruments. The modified resist PMMA:C60 was also studied with Thermal analysis (TGA, DSC) where modification of physical properties is reported. Films were included in MIS and MIM devices and results on non volatile trapping of C60 doped PMMA are presented. Moreover, e-beam exposure tests showed that PMMA:C60 active layers for memory devices, were scalable in size.
Immunopathology of Chagas' disease in Balb/c mice infected with 2 Trypanosoma cruzi clones, belonging to the T. cruzi I lineage and presenting different in vitro virulence (P/209 cl1>SO34 cl4) was compared. In the acute phase, evading mechanisms such as parasite-induced lymphocyte polyclonal activation and T cell immunosuppression were higher in mice infected with the clone giving a higher parasitaemia (P/209 cl1). A similar increase of non-specific isotypes was observed in both infections with IgG2a prevalence. Interestingly, CD8+ cell hypercellularity and lymphocyte immunosuppression were observed during the chronic phase (245 days post-infection) in mice infected by the most virulent clone. In the same way, the parasite-specific antibody response was more intense in P/209 cl1-infected mice over the acute phase. During the chronic phase this response remarkably dropped down in SO34 cl4-infected mice exclusively. Finally, P/209 cl1-infected mice presented a more severe inflammation and tissue damage in heart and quadriceps than SO34 cl4-infected mice. This comparative study showed differences between the two clones: a higher virulence in vivo being clearly associated with a greater ability to induce evasion mechanisms and severe tissue damage.
Accurate weed population estimation and yield loss prediction are important components of integrated weed management. Field experiments using Italian ryegrass as a weed in broccoli were conducted from 1994 to 1997 to compare weed density to other methods of weed population estimation, to evaluate the performance of weed population estimates in yield description models, and to study the affect of environmental variability on the predictive ability of models. A strong linear relationship was obtained between Italian ryegrass density and direct leaf area (r2 = 0.60 to 0.99). For Italian ryegrass, density and estimates of canopy from the optical device (crosswire device) had a hyperbolic relationship with high coefficients of determination (r2 > 0.72). Both direct leaf area and canopy estimates described broccoli yield as well as or better than Italian ryegrass density. The Li-Cor LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer (PCA) provided poor estimates of Italian ryegrass population (r2 from 0.00 to 0.63) that failed to describe broccoli yield. No relationship was observed between estimates of light interception through the plant canopy obtained with the Li-Cor LI-191-S Line Quantum Sensor (LQS) and either Italian ryegrass density or broccoli yield. The low performance of the PCA and lack of performance of the LQS were likely due to the smaller size of the plants and larger gaps in the plant canopy caused by wide bed spacing. At similar densities, Italian ryegrass competition with broccoli was stable from year to year. Under high Italian ryegrass density, water supply affected competition. This may limit construction of robust yield prediction models, especially in areas where water is mainly from rainfall.