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Purpose: The novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)) first appeared in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and rapidly spread across the globe. Since most respiratory viruses are known to show a seasonal pattern of infection, it has been hypothesised that SARS-CoV-2 may be seasonally dependent as well. The present study looks at a possible effect of atmospheric temperature, which is one of the suspected factors influencing seasonality, on the evolution of the pandemic. Basic procedures: Since confirming a seasonal pattern would take several more months of observation, we conducted an innovative day-to-day micro-correlation analysis of nine outbreak locations, across four continents and both hemispheres, in order to examine a possible relationship between atmospheric temperature (used as a proxy for seasonality) and outbreak progression. Main findings: There was a negative correlation between atmospheric temperature variations and daily new cases growth rates, in all nine outbreaks, with a median lag of 10 days. Principal conclusions: The results presented here suggest that high temperatures might dampen SARS-CoV-2 propagation, while lower temperatures might increase its transmission. Our hypothesis is that this could support a potential effect of atmospheric temperature on coronavirus disease progression, and potentially a seasonal pattern for this virus, with a peak in the cold season and rarer occurrences in the summer. This could guide government policy in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres for the months to come.
Administration of antimicrobials to patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is a common error that can lead to worse outcomes. However, controlled analyses quantifying the commonality and impact of this practice are lacking. We analyzed the independent predictors for antimicrobials misuse in ASB and quantified the impact of this practice on clinical outcomes.
Retrospective case-control and cohort analyses for calendar year 2017.
Tertiary-care, university-affiliated medical center.
The study included adult (>18 years) patients with positive urine culture. Pregnant women, renal transplant recipients, and patients who underwent urologic procedures were excluded.
ASB was determined according to US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to analyze predictors and outcomes associated with antimicrobial use for patients with ASB.
The study included 1,530 patient-unique positive urine cultures. Among these patients, 610 patients (40%) were determined to have ASB. Of the 696 isolates, 219 (36%) were multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). Also, 178 (29%) patients received antimicrobials specifically due to the ASB. Independent predictors for improper administration of antimicrobials were dependent functional status (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4–3.6) and male sex (aOR, 2; 95% CI, 1.25–2.6). Use of antimicrobials was independently associated with re-hospitalizations (aOR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1–2.6) and later, acute Clostridioides difficile infections (CDI) in the following 90 days (aOR, 4.5; 95% CI, 2–10.6).
ASB is a common condition, frequently resulting from an MDRO. Male sex and poor functional status were independent predictors for mistreatment, and this practice was independently associated with rehospitalizations and CDI in the following 90 days.
Affect and emotion play a critical role in the lives of humans across many domains such as family, health, and work. In fact, Forgas (1994) proposes that “affect is a pervasive part of the way we see the world” (p. 40). Many scholars have proposed and developed theories and frameworks regarding affect that can be and have been applied to various work domains. Our focus in this chapter is on the role of affect in the performance management (PM) process. In particular, the work of Forgas and colleagues on the affect infusion model (AIM: Forgas & George, 2001; Forgas & Williams, 2016) and of Weiss and Cropanzano on affective events theory (AET: Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996) are helpful in explaining how affect fits into this critical work-related process.
Archaeologists have a responsibility to use their research to engage people and provide opportunities for the public to interact with cultural heritage and interpret it on their own terms. This can be done through hypermedia and deep mapping as approaches to public archaeology. In twenty-first-century archaeology, scholars can rely on vastly improved technologies to aid them in these efforts toward public engagement, including digital photography, geographic information systems, and three-dimensional models. These technologies, even when collected for analysis or documentation, can be valuable tools for educating and involving the public with archaeological methods and how these methods help archaeologists learn about the past. Ultimately, academic storytelling can benefit from making archaeological results and methods accessible and engaging for stakeholders and the general public. ArcGIS StoryMaps is an effective tool for integrating digital datasets into an accessible framework that is suitable for interactive public engagement. This article describes the benefits of using ArcGIS StoryMaps for hypermedia and deep mapping–based public engagement using the story of copper production in Iron Age Faynan, Jordan, as a case study.
La problématique du suicide est une question complexe aux Antilles car les derniers chiffres de prévalence de la mortalité par suicide indiquent une sous suicidalité dans cette région du monde. Il n’existe actuellement aucun chiffre sur la prévalence des tentatives de suicide (TS) et peu d’étude descriptive de cette population.
L’étude POSTA vise à établir un état des lieux de la population des sujets pris en charge au CHU de Martinique pour TS ou pour idéations suicidaires avec antécédent de TS.
Soixante-six patients ont été inclus en septembre/octobre 2013 (80 % pour TS et 20 % pour idéations suicidaires). On observe : 68,1 % de femmes, la population suicidante est plutôt jeune, avec une surreprésentation des personnes célibataires et divorcées, inactifs ou au chômage et plutôt avec un bon niveau scolaire comparativement à la population martiniquaise. La majorité n’est pas en contact avec le système de soin primaire de façon régulière. Trente-huit pour cent rapporte une addiction aux substances dont un quart sont pris en charge (37,7 % déclarent avoir consommé une substance au moment de l’acte). Deux tiers ont déjà été en contact avec le système de santé mentale. Deux tiers rapporte des évènements de vie à potentiel traumatique (30 % rapportent une agression sexuelle). La moitié a déjà réalisé une TS par le passé et 85 % des passages à l’acte sont réalisés de manière impulsive. Les premiers résultats montrent que les sujets consultants pour idéations suicidaires avec antécédents de TS sont majoritairement des hommes avec un score élevé à l’Hospital Anxiete Depression Scale (HADS), ce résultat est intéressant car cette population est à haut risque de suicide réussi.
Cette étude permettra de faire un état des lieux descriptifs de cette population avant la mise en place d’une étude modifiant la prise en charge de ces patients.
L’utilisation prolongée et les associations de benzodiazépines (BZD) anxiolytiques et hypnotiques exposent à des risques à court et long terme (dépendance, démence, troubles psychomoteurs…). Selon la Haute Autorité de santé (HAS), il n’y a pas lieu d’associer une BZD et un apparenté (zopiclone ou zolpidem) le soir.
– Évaluer les habitudes de prescription des BZD et de leurs apparentés hypnotiques dans une population de patients suivis en psychiatrie hospitalière.
– Suivre sur 6 années l’évolution de ces pratiques de prescription et l’émergence d’alternatives thérapeutiques aux BZD.
– Établir un parallèle avec les recommandations et les actualités de la littérature au sujet de ces risques pendant cette même période.
L’étude rétrospective a été réalisée au centre hospitalier Henri-Laborit (Poitiers) en sélectionnant les ordonnances informatisées comportant des BZD et/ou apparentés sur une période allant du 1er janvier 2008 au 31 décembre 2013, par tranche d’une année. Les associations de ces molécules et leurs posologies ont été répertoriées.
L’analyse de 6511 ordonnances a notamment mis en évidence que la prescription de zolpidem ou zopiclone seuls, sans association à une benzodiazépine, est majoritaire (77,5 % des ordonnances en moyenne) jusqu’en 2010. Puis elle diminue fortement (plus que 38 % en 2013) et elle est inférieure à celle de benzodiazépine seule pendant les 3 années suivantes. Parallèlement, le nombre total d’ordonnances dans cet hôpital est en constante augmentation. L’association de benzodiazépine et d’apparentés sur une même ordonnance reste peu courante, dans 2 % des prescriptions en moyenne, mais la prise des deux se situe le soir dans 91 % des cas (69–100 %).
L’étude montre une diminution de prescription d’hypnotiques apparentés aux BZD, allant de pair avec les mises en garde sur leurs effets indésirables et aux actions de l’HAS. Leur association en soirée à des BZD reste présente et une étude prospective auprès des prescripteurs pour connaître leur choix d’alternative thérapeutique est nécessaire.
Preliminary data suggest that patients who suffer from both bipolar disorder (BD) and alcohol dependence (AD) may be more vulnerable to cognitive dysfunction than patients with a single diagnosis, especially during periods that are clinically unstable.
The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive recovery of dually-diagnosed patients during remission from an acute mood disturbance.
The study aimed to replicate our previous comparison of cognitive functioning between BD patients with and without AD, while on the inpatient unit, and to extend this investigation in a longitudinal design post-discharge.
Fifty-five adult inpatients with bipolar I disorder completed a neuropsychological battery, mood measures and substance abuse measures upon discharge from the hospital and at a 3 month follow up. Analyses provided group comparisons on these measures between patients who presented with co-occurrence of AD (n = 21) in the year prior to hospital admission and patients without a Substance Use Disorder (SUD; n = 34).
Compared to patients without SUD, dually-diagnosed patients scored significantly more poorly on measures of visual memory, verbal memory and executive functioning both at hospital discharge and follow-up. They also exhibited more limited recovery of these functions over the course of this period. Mood symptoms decreased in both groups from discharge to follow up.
Patients with co-occurring BD and AD may suffer from more severe cognitive dysfunction and less favorable recovery of cognitive deficits than BD patients without SUD over the course of remission from a mood episode.
Few data exist to estimate the burden of manic episodes on healthcare systems or the therapeutic strategies used. This study was undertaken to identify treatment strategies chosen, and to assess the “real-world” direct medical cost of treating manic episodes necessitating hospitalisation.
Case record data were reviewed during the three months following hospitalisation for a manic episode in France. Healthcare resource utilisation was assessed, direct costs calculated, and treatment strategies analysed. A total of 137 patients files (51.8% female; mean age: 35 years) were reviewed and data on 185 hospitalisations collected.
The mean duration of hospitalisation was 47 days over the study period. The most common treatment strategy during hospitalisation was the combination of a mood stabiliser with a neuroleptic drug (64% of patients at day 30). Anticonvulsants including valproate (39%) and carbamazepine (20%) were more common than lithium (42%). Treatment received during hospitalisation was generally continued after discharge, with a trend away from neuroleptics and towards mood stabilisers. The mean direct costs incurred over the three-month study period was Euro 22 297, with 98.6% of those costs due to hospitalisation.
These results confirm that the costs of treating a manic episode are high, and overwhelmingly due to the cost of hospitalisation.
We investigated which factors could influence insight in psychosis.
117 in-out patients recruited in the Psychiatric Service of Santa Maria Hospital, Lisbon (Portugal) diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective and schizophreniform disease, psychosis also drug induced, were evaluated with SAI to asses insight, MARS for medication compliance, WHOQOOL-BREF for Quality of Life, BPRS and PANSS for psychopathological symptoms, I.A test (Reduced Raven's Matrix) for Intellectual Ability. Bivariate correlations were operated using Spearman correlation coefficient (p<0,01). Regression analyses with stepwise ascending regression were computed to assess predictors for insight.
We found significant negative correlations between SAI total score and Delusions, Conceptual Disorganization, Hallucinatory Behavior, Suspiciousness, Poor Rapport, Stereotyped Thinking, Somatic Concerns, Unusual Thought Content, Lack of Judgment of Insight of PANSS, Self Neglect of BPRS and Professional State. Positive significant correlation was between SAI and MARS total score. The regression analysis showed negative relations between PANSS Poor Rapport, Suspiciousness, Guilt Feelings, Active Social Avoidance and Insight; positive relation between Depression (PANSS) and Insight.
Poor Insight was determined by Poor Rapport and Social Avoidance maybe because patients are less predisposed to compare their situations with the surroundings, showing defensive denial and less criticism towards symptoms. Suspiciousness contributes to poor insight due to distrustful attitude that makes difficult to accept the diagnosis and the idea of being seek. Guilt feelings determine poor insight as they are prodromes of delusions. Depression increases insight as a consequence of the painful feelings that make patients think about their situations.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by a reduced expression of FKBP5, a key modulator of the glucocorticoid receptor. Smaller hippocampal volume has also been documented in PTSD. In this study we explored FKBP5 gene expression, brain structure and cognitive flexibility in patients with PTSD before and after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
We measured peripheral FKBP5 RNA, volumes of the hippocampus, amygdala, and medial orbitofrontal cortex and cognitive flexibility in 39 patients with PTSD before and after CBT. The control subjects were 31 trauma-exposed individuals without PTSD who were also assessed twice.
At baseline, patients with PTSD showed lower FKBP5 gene expression and smaller hippocampal and medial orbitofrontal cortex, but not amygdala, volumes relative to control subjects. At follow-up, we found significantly increased FKBP5 expression and increased hippocampal volume in patients with PTSD. At follow-up, patients did not differ from control subjects in hippocampal volume. Improvement in PTSD symptoms was predicted by increased FKBP5 expression and increased hippocampal volume, but the primary predictor was FKBP5 expression. There was a positive correlation between the performance on a partial reversal task which tests cognitive flexibility and treatment responsiveness.
Clinical improvement in individuals with PTSD was associated with increased expression of FKBP5, increased hippocampal volume and better cognitive flexibility. The three variables were positively correlated.
Depression is one of the main causes of disability in the Western countries. This evidence presents new challenges for somatic medicine, such as surgery.
To determine the influence of patients’ depression on (i) length of hospital stay (LOS, which is a proxy of recovery) after major surgery, and (ii) LOS anticipated by surgeon preoperatively.
To explore the influence of depression on recovery after major surgery, and whether and how surgeons take into account patients’ emotional and psychological status in the care of their patients.
Prospective multicentre observational study. Depression was assessed with HADS (HADS > 8 showing the presence of significant depression). Two cox PH models were fitted to evaluate the influence of depression on patients’ LOS (first model) and anticipated LOS (second model). Adjustment variables were (i) preoperative (age, sex, anxiety, diagnosis, BMI, biology), (ii) intraoperative (blood transfusion, length of intervention), (iii) postoperative (morbidity).
Of 372 recruited patients (which had undergone major liver surgery), 69 (18,5%) had HADS>8. After adjustment, depression was a risk factor for a prolonged LOS (HR 1.96, 95%CI 1.44–2.63). However, depression was unrelated to the anticipated LOS (HR 1.26, 95%CI 0.90–1.66).
1 in 5 patients presented a significant level of depression. Depression was independently associated to longer LOS (ie. longer recovery time after surgery). However this data was not taken into account by surgeons, which failed to integrate that in their previsions. A psychiatric culture and education need to be developed in surgery, as well as more collaboration.
Parents of children with disabilities are at increased risk of experiencing psychological stress compared to other parents. Children's high levels of internalizing and externalizing problems have been found to contribute to this elevated level of stress. Childhood disability often imposes a social and emotional burden for children and their families.
With this study we evaluated several parents’ psychological aspects and the emotional behavioral functioning of their children with disability.
To investigate the possible correlation between parenting stress, level of depression in parents and behavior problems in their children, taking in to account the differences between mothers and fathers.
standardized forms (CBCL, PSI, BDI) were completed from 57 (28 mothers) parents of children aged from 6 to18 years, focusing on psychological well-being includes depression, parenting stress, family resilience and family adjustment.
The mean age of our sample was 41.55 ± 5.4. The level of depression and stress index were higher in mothers than in fathers. Parenting stress was significantly associated with children internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in children.
The results of this investigation indicate the importance of examining relations between parenting stress and behavior problems in children with disabilities. Objective of ensuring the rehabilitation process aimed at the welfare of the family. These patterns have implications for both developmental theory and for service provision for individuals with disability and their families.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by bone loss and bone microarchitectural deterioration. The combination of smart materials and stem cells represents a new therapeutic approach. In the present study, highly porous scaffolds are prepared by combining the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS with collagen type I, the most abundant protein in bone. The inclusion of collagen proves to be an effective way to modulate their mechanical properties and it induces an increase in scaffolds’ electrochemical impedance. The biomimetic scaffolds support neural crest-derived stem cell osteogenic differentiation, with no need for scaffold pre-conditioning contrarily to other reports.
Research in developmental psychology suggests that children are poor tool innovators. However, such research often overlooks the ways in which children's social and physical environments may lead to cross-cultural variation in their opportunities and proclivity to innovate. In this paper, we examine contemporary hunter–gatherer child and adolescent contributions to tool innovation. We posit that the cultural and subsistence context of many hunter–gatherer societies fosters behavioural flexibility, including innovative capabilities. Using the ethnographic and developmental literature, we suggest that socialisation practices emphasised in hunter–gatherer societies, including learning through autonomous exploration, adult and peer teaching, play and innovation seeking may bolster children's ability to innovate. We also discuss whether similar socialisation practices can be interpreted from the archaeological record. We end by pointing to areas of future study for understanding the role of children and adolescents in the development of tool innovations across cultures in the past and present.
Efforts to reduce Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) have targeted transmission from patients with symptomatic C. difficile. However, many patients with the C. difficile organism are carriers without symptoms who may serve as reservoirs for spread of infection and may be at risk for progression to symptomatic C. difficile. To estimate the prevalence of C. difficile carriage and determine the risk and speed of progression to symptomatic C. difficile among carriers, we established a pilot screening program in a large urban hospital.
Prospective cohort study.
An 800-bed, tertiary-care, academic medical center in the Bronx, New York.
A sample of admitted adults without diarrhea, with oversampling of nursing facility patients.
Perirectal swabs were tested by polymerase chain reaction for C. difficile within 24 hours of admission, and patients were followed for progression to symptomatic C. difficile. Development of symptomatic C. difficile was compared among C. difficile carriers and noncarriers using a Cox proportional hazards model.
Of the 220 subjects, 21 (9.6%) were C. difficile carriers, including 10.2% of the nursing facility residents and 7.7% of the community residents (P = .60). Among the 21 C. difficile carriers, 8 (38.1%) progressed to symptomatic C. difficile, but only 4 (2.0%) of the 199 noncarriers progressed to symptomatic C. difficile (hazard ratio, 23.9; 95% CI, 7.2–79.6; P < .0001).
Asymptomatic carriage of C. difficile is prevalent among admitted patients and confers a significant risk of progression to symptomatic CDI. Screening for asymptomatic carriers may represent an opportunity to reduce CDI.