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We present a mechanism for generating cosmological magnetic fields during the Epoch of Reionization, based on the photoionization of intergalactic hydrogen. A general formula is presented, together with an example numerical application which yields magnetic field strengths between 10−23 to 10−19 G on intersource scales. This mechanism, which operates all along Reionization around any ionizing source, participates to the premagnetization of the whole intergalactic medium. Also, the spatial configuration of these fields may help discriminate them from those produced by other mechanisms in future observations.
In 2008, Granett et al. claimed a direct detection of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (iSW) effect, through the stacking of CMB patches at the positions of identified superstructures. Additionally, the high amplitude of their measured signal was reported to be at odds with predictions from the standard model of cosmology. However, a closer inspection of these results prompts multiple questions, more specifically about the amplitude and significance of the expected signal. We propose here an original theoretical prediction of the iSW effect produced by such superstructures. We use simulations based on GR and the LTB metric to reproduce cosmic structures and predict their exact theoretical iSW effect on the CMB. The amplitudes predicted with this method are consistent with the signal measured when properly accounting the contribution of the non-negligible (and fortuitous) primordial CMB fluctuations to the total signal. It also highlights the tricky nature of stacking measurements and their interpretation.
Rotation is a key parameter in the evolution of massive stars, affecting their evolution, chemical yields, ionizing photon budget, and final fate. We determined the projected rotational velocity, υe sin i, of ~330 O-type objects, i.e. ~210 spectroscopic single stars and ~110 primaries in binary systems, in the Tarantula nebula or 30 Doradus (30 Dor) region. The observations were taken using VLT/FLAMES and constitute the largest homogeneous dataset of multi-epoch spectroscopy of O-type stars currently available. The most distinctive feature of the υe sin i distributions of the presumed-single stars and primaries in 30 Dor is a low-velocity peak at around 100 km s−1. Stellar winds are not expected to have spun-down the bulk of the stars significantly since their arrival on the main sequence and therefore the peak in the single star sample is likely to represent the outcome of the formation process. Whereas the spin distribution of presumed-single stars shows a well developed tail of stars rotating more rapidly than 300 km s−1, the sample of primaries does not feature such a high-velocity tail. The tail of the presumed-single star distribution is attributed for the most part – and could potentially be completely due – to spun-up binary products that appear as single stars or that have merged. This would be consistent with the lack of such post-interaction products in the binary sample, that is expected to be dominated by pre-interaction systems. The peak in this distribution is broader and is shifted toward somewhat higher spin rates compared to the distribution of presumed-single stars. Systems displaying large radial velocity variations, typical for short period systems, appear mostly responsible for these differences.
We assess the runoff and surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Nuuk region (southwest) using output of two regional climate models (RCMs) evaluated by observations. The region encompasses six glaciers that drain into Godthåbsfjord. RCM data (1960–2012) are resampled to a high spatial resolution to include the narrow (relative to the native grid spacing) glacier trunks in the ice mask. Comparing RCM gridded results with automatic weather station (AWS) point measurements reveals that locally models can underestimate ablation and overestimate accumulation by up to tens of per cent. However, comparison with lake discharge indicates that modelled regional runoff totals are more accurate. Model results show that melt and runoff in the Nuuk region have doubled over the past two decades. Regional SMB attained negative values in recent high-melt years. Taking into account frontal ablation of the marine-terminating glaciers, the region lost 10–20 km3 w.e. a–1 in 2010–12. If 2010 melting prevails during the remainder of this century, a low-end estimate of sea-level rise of 5 mm is expected by 2100 from this relatively small section (2.6%) of the ice sheet alone.
The Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) is carrying out a survey as part of an international collaboration to image the northe, at a common resolution, in emission from all major constituents of the interstellar medium; the neutral atomic gas, the molecular gas, the ionised gas, dust and relativistic plasma. For many of these constituents the angular resolution of the images (1 arcmin) will be more than a factor of 10 better than any previous studies. The aim is to produce a publicly-available database of high resolution, high-dynamic range images of the Galaxy for multi-phase studies of the physical states and processes in the interstellar medium. We will sketch the main scientific motivations as well as describe some preliminary results from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey/Releve Canadien du Plan Galactique (CGPS/RCPG).
Rapidly rotating stars are readily produced in binary systems. An accreting star in a binary system can be spun up by mass accretion and quickly approach the break-up limit. Mergers between two stars in a binary are expected to result in massive, fast rotating stars. These rapid rotators may appear as Be or Oe stars or at low metallicity they may be progenitors of long gamma-ray bursts.
Given the high frequency of massive stars in close binaries it seems likely that a large fraction of rapidly rotating stars result from binary interaction. It is not straightforward to distinguish a a fast rotator that was born as a rapidly rotating single star from a fast rotator that resulted from some kind of binary interaction. Rapidly rotating stars resulting from binary interaction will often appear to be single because the companion tends to be a low mass, low luminosity star in a wide orbit. Alternatively, they became single stars after a merger or disruption of the binary system during the supernova explosion of the primary.
The absence of evidence for a companion does not guarantee that the system did not experience binary interaction in the past. If binary interaction is one of the main causes of high stellar rotation rates, the binary fraction is expected to be smaller among fast rotators. How this prediction depend on uncertainties in the physics of the binary interactions requires further investigation.
The Tarantula Survey is an ESO Large Programme which has obtained multi-epoch spectroscopy of over 1,000 massive stars in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The assembled consortium will exploit these data to address a range of fundamental questions in both stellar and cluster evolution.
We highlight the role of the light elements (Li, Be, B) in the evolution of massive single and binary stars, which is largely restricted to a diagnostic value, and foremost so for the element boron. However, we show that the boron surface abundance in massive early type stars contains key information about their foregoing evolution which is not obtainable otherwise. In particular, it allows to constrain internal mixing processes and potential previous mass transfer event for binary stars (even if the companion has disappeared). It may also help solving the mystery of the slowly rotating nitrogen-rich massive main sequence stars.
Abundance anomalies observed in globular cluster stars indicate pollution with material processed by hydrogen burning. Two main sources have been suggested: asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and massive stars rotating near the break-up limit (spin stars). We discuss the idea that massive binaries may provide an interesting alternative source of processed material. We discuss observational evidence for mass shedding from interacting binaries. In contrast to the fast, radiatively driven winds of massive stars, this material is typically ejected with low velocity. We expect that it remains inside the potential well of a globular cluster and becomes available for the formation or pollution of a second generation of stars. We estimate that the amount of processed low-velocity material that can be ejected by massive binaries is larger than the contribution of the two previously suggested sources combined.
The Tarantula Survey is an ambitious ESO Large Programme that has obtained multi-epoch spectroscopy of over 1000 massive stars in the 30 Doradus region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Here, we introduce the scientific motivations of the survey and give an overview of the observational sample. Ultimately, quantitative analysis of every star, paying particular attention to the effects of rotational mixing and binarity, will be used to address fundamental questions in both stellar and cluster evolution.
Rotational mixing a very important but uncertain process in the evolution of massive stars. We propose to use close binaries to test its efficiency. Based on rotating single stellar models we predict nitrogen surface enhancements for tidally locked binaries. Furthermore we demonstrate the possibility of a new evolutionary scenario for very massive (M > 40M⊙) close (P < 3 days) binaries: Case M, in which mixing is so efficient that the stars evolve quasi-chemically homogeneously, stay compact and avoid any Roche-lobe overflow, leading to very close (double) WR binaries.
We discuss how rotation and binary interactions may be related to the diversity of type Ibc supernovae and long gamma-ray bursts. After presenting recent evolutionary models of massive single and binary stars including rotation, the Tayler-Spruit dynamo and binary interactions, we argue that the nature of SNe Ibc progenitors from binary systems may not significantly differ from that of single star progenitors in terms of rotation, and that most long GRB progenitors may be produced via the quasi-chemically homogeneous evolution at sub-solar metallicity. We also briefly discuss the possible role of magnetic fields generated in the convective core of a massive star for the transport of angular momentum, which is potentially important for future stellar evolution models of supernova and GRB progenitors.
Magnetic responsive particles were designed for use in oral delivery of insulin. Magnetite nanoparticles (12 nm average size) were synthesized and co-encapsulated with insulin into poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles (4.6 ± 2.2 μm average particle size) through the double-emulsion method. The spherical structures of resulting microparticles were well maintained at magnetite content 5 wt % or less. Mice were gavaged with 125I-insulin-magnetitePLGA microparticles and a circumferential trans-abdominal magnetic field was applied forty minutes after administration to retard the transit of the microparticles in the intestinal tract. As control, mice were similarly dosed without the subsequent trans-abdominal magnetic field. Mice were sacrificed, and the intestinal radioactivity was 101% and 145% higher in treated mice versus the control at 6 h and 12 h, respectively. A single administration of 50 unit/kg Humulin Rmagnetite-PLGA microparticles to the fasted mice resulted in 66% reduction of blood glucose level in the presence of external magnetic field at 12 h, compared to 27% reduction in the absence of magnetic field.
This work describes the integration of novel microfabrication techniques for vascular tissue engineering applications in the context of a novel biodegradable elastomer. The field of tissue engineering and organ regeneration has been borne out of the high demand for organ transplants. However, one of the critical limitations in regeneration of vital organs is the lack of an intrinsic blood supply. This work expands on the development of scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering applications by employing microfabrication techniques. Unlike previous efforts, this work focuses on fabricating single layer and three-dimensional scaffolds from poly(glycerol-sebacate) (PGS), a novel biodegradable elastomer with superior mechanical properties. The transport properties of oxygen and carbon dioxide in PGS were measured through a series of time-lag diffusion experiments. The results of these measurements were used to calculate a characteristic length scale for oxygen diffusion limits in solid PGS scaffolds. Single layer and three-dimensional microfluidic scaffolds were then produced using fabrication techniques specific for PGS. This work has resulted in the fabrication of solid PGS-based scaffolds with biomimetic fluid flow and capillary channels on the order of 10 microns in width. Fabrication of complex, three-dimensional microfluidic PGS scaffolds was also demonstrated by stacking and bonding multiple microfluidic layers.
Rotation in massive stars has been studied on the main sequence and during helium burning for decades, but only recently have realistic numerical simulations followed the transport of angular momentum that occurs during more advanced stages of evolution. The results affect such interesting issues as whether rotation is important to the explosion mechanism, whether supernovae are strong sources of gravitational radiation, the star's nucleosynthesis, and the initial rotation rate of neutron stars and black holes. We find that when only hydrodynamic instabilities (shear, Eddington-Sweet, etc.) are included in the calculation, one obtains neutron stars spinning at close to critical rotation at their surface – or even formally in excess of critical. When recent estimates of magnetic torques (Spruit 2002) are added, however, the evolved cores spin about an order of magnitude slower. This is still more angular momentum than observed in young pulsars, but too slow for the collapsar model for gamma-ray bursts.