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The past few decades have seen the burgeoning of wide-field, high-cadence surveys, the most formidable of which will be the Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST) to be conducted by the Vera C. Rubin Observatory. So new is the field of systematic time-domain survey astronomy; however, that major scientific insights will continue to be obtained using smaller, more flexible systems than the LSST. One such example is the Gravitational-wave Optical Transient Observer (GOTO) whose primary science objective is the optical follow-up of gravitational wave events. The amount and rate of data production by GOTO and other wide-area, high-cadence surveys presents a significant challenge to data processing pipelines which need to operate in near-real time to fully exploit the time domain. In this study, we adapt the Rubin Observatory LSST Science Pipelines to process GOTO data, thereby exploring the feasibility of using this ‘off-the-shelf’ pipeline to process data from other wide-area, high-cadence surveys. In this paper, we describe how we use the LSST Science Pipelines to process raw GOTO frames to ultimately produce calibrated coadded images and photometric source catalogues. After comparing the measured astrometry and photometry to those of matched sources from PanSTARRS DR1, we find that measured source positions are typically accurate to subpixel levels, and that measured L-band photometries are accurate to $\sim50$ mmag at $m_L\sim16$ and $\sim200$ mmag at $m_L\sim18$. These values compare favourably to those obtained using GOTO’s primary, in-house pipeline, gotophoto, in spite of both pipelines having undergone further development and improvement beyond the implementations used in this study. Finally, we release a generic ‘obs package’ that others can build upon, should they wish to use the LSST Science Pipelines to process data from other facilities.
To determine risk factors for carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs) and to determine the prognostic impact of CPOs.
A retrospective matched case–control study.
Inpatients across Scotland in 2010–2016 were included. Patients with a CPO were matched with 2 control groups by hospital, admission date, specimen type, and bacteria. One group comprised patients either infected or colonized with a non-CPO and the other group were general inpatients.
Conditional logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for CPO infection and colonization, respectively. Mortality rates and length of postisolation hospitalization were compared between CPO and non-CPO patients.
In total, 70 CPO infection cases (with 210 general inpatient controls and 121 non-CPO controls) and 34 CPO colonization cases (with 102 general inpatient controls and 60 non-CPO controls) were identified. Risk factors for CPO infection versus general inpatients were prior hospital stay (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52–10.78; P = .005), longer hospitalization (aOR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04–1.10; P < .001), longer intensive care unit (ICU) stay (aOR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.01–1.98; P = .045), and immunodeficiency (aOR, 3.68; 95% CI, 1.16–11.66; P = .027). Risk factors for CPO colonization were prior high-dependency unit (HDU) stay (aOR, 11.46; 95% CI, 1.27–103.09; P = .030) and endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic (ENM) diseases (aOR, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.02–11.33; P = .046). Risk factors for CPO infection versus non-CPO infection were prolonged hospitalization (aOR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00–1.03; P = .038) and HDU stay (aOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.02–1.26; P = .024). No differences in mortality rates were detected between CPO and non-CPO patients. CPO infection was associated with longer hospital stay than non-CPO infection (P = .041).
A history of (prolonged) hospitalization, prolonged ICU or HDU stay; ENM diseases; and being immunocompromised increased risk for CPO. CPO infection was not associated with increased mortality but was associated with prolonged hospital stay.
We describe here efforts to create and study magnetized electron–positron pair plasmas, the existence of which in astrophysical environments is well-established. Laboratory incarnations of such systems are becoming ever more possible due to novel approaches and techniques in plasma, beam and laser physics. Traditional magnetized plasmas studied to date, both in nature and in the laboratory, exhibit a host of different wave types, many of which are generically unstable and evolve into turbulence or violent instabilities. This complexity and the instability of these waves stem to a large degree from the difference in mass between the positively and the negatively charged species: the ions and the electrons. The mass symmetry of pair plasmas, on the other hand, results in unique behaviour, a topic that has been intensively studied theoretically and numerically for decades, but experimental studies are still in the early stages of development. A levitated dipole device is now under construction to study magnetized low-energy, short-Debye-length electron–positron plasmas; this experiment, as well as a stellarator device that is in the planning stage, will be fuelled by a reactor-based positron source and make use of state-of-the-art positron cooling and storage techniques. Relativistic pair plasmas with very different parameters will be created using pair production resulting from intense laser–matter interactions and will be confined in a high-field mirror configuration. We highlight the differences between and similarities among these approaches, and discuss the unique physics insights that can be gained by these studies.
A 57-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and no prior psychiatric history presented repeatedly over 6 months with mental and behavioural changes. Laboratory tests, chest X-ray and sleep study diagnosed an infective exacerbation of COPD, type II respiratory failure and OSA. Differential diagnoses included delirium, primary mania in bipolar affective disorder or organic pathology causing secondary mania. Oxygen, steroids, bronchodilators, antibiotics and non-invasive ventilation were administered to treat his infection and respiratory failure. However, blood gas analysis showed persistent hypoxia and hypercarbia, aggravating his ongoing mental state disturbance that required security supervision and sedation with antipsychotics and benzodiazepines. Sudden onset of classic manic symptoms and multiple presentations suggested secondary mania, driven by chronic hypoxia in end-stage COPD and OSA. The challenge was establishing a balance between mental state control and treatment of physical illness.
A cross-sectional survey study of inpatient prescribers in a university health system was performed to assess the importance they place on different clinical risk factors when making empiric antibiotic decisions. Our findings show that these clinical risk factors were weighted differently based on the clinical scenario and the type of prescriber.
Welfare and management of calves is of increasing interest and also influences performance of these animals in later life. The aim of this study was to assess management and environmental conditions under which pre-weaned dairy calves are reared on commercial Irish dairy farms. We included 47 spring-calving, pasture-based herds in this study. Herd and animal-specific data, such as mortality rate, age and breed, were gathered from all participants via the HerdPlus® database. Information pertaining to management practices was collected by conducting an interview with the principal calf rearer, while an assessment of calf housing facilities was conducted to identify conditions calves were reared in. The environmental assessment included measurements of space allowance per calf, as well as feeding equipment hygiene. To assess calf behaviour video observations were used, while accounting for the number of calves present in a group and the space available per calf. Faecal samples were also collected to determine the presence of enteric pathogens among calves. To compare calf space allowance, group size and presence of enteric pathogens early and late in the calving season each farm was visited twice. Calf mortality was not associated with either herd size, space allowance per calf or post-colostrum feeding practices. Higher calf mortality was identified among herds which reported experiencing an on-set of calf pneumonia during weeks 8 to 10 of the calving season. This study demonstrates that factors associated with calf welfare on commercial Irish dairy farms (e.g. space allowance, mortality rate) are independent of herd size. Some management practices however, such as methods used for treating health issues can affect rates of calf mortality experienced. Calf mortality, for example, was lower in herds which treated diarrhoea cases by administering electrolytes, while continuing to offer milk. Behavioural observations indicate that smaller group sizes could promote expression of positive behaviours, potentially resulting from an overall improvement in welfare. Space allowance per calf was not associated with observed behaviour frequencies. We also identified that similar rates of calf mortality are experienced across herds of different sizes.
Breeding values for feed intake and feed efficiency in beef cattle are generally derived indoors on high-concentrate (HC) diets. Within temperate regions of north-western Europe, however, the majority of a growing beef animal’s lifetime dietary intake comes from grazed grass and grass silage. Using 97 growing beef cattle, the objective of the current study was to assess the repeatability of both feed intake and feed efficiency across 3 successive dietary test periods comprising grass silage plus concentrates (S+C), grazed grass (GRZ) and a HC diet. Individual DM intake (DMI), DMI/kg BW and feed efficiency-related parameters, residual feed intake (RFI) and gain to feed ratio (G : F) were assessed. There was a significant correlation for DMI between the S+C and GRZ periods (r = 0.32; P < 0.01) as well as between the S+C and HC periods (r = 0.41; P < 0.001), whereas there was no association for DMI between the GRZ and HC periods. There was a significant correlation for DMI/kg BW between the S+C and GRZ periods (r = 0.33; P < 0.01) and between the S+C and HC periods (r = 0.40; P < 0.001), but there was no association for the trait between the GRZ and HC periods. There was a significant correlation for RFI between the S+C and GRZ periods (r = 0.25; P < 0.05) as well as between S+C and HC periods (r = 0.25; P < 0.05), whereas there was no association for RFI between the GRZ and HC periods. Gain to feed ratio was not correlated between any of the test periods. A secondary aspect of the study demonstrated that traits recorded in the GRZ period relating to grazing bite rate, the number of daily grazing bouts and ruminating bouts were associated with DMI (r = 0.28 to 0.42; P < 0.05 - 0.001), DMI/kg BW (r = 0.36 to 0.45; P < 0.01 - 0.001) and RFI (r = 0.31 to 0.42; P < 0.05 - 0.001). Additionally, the number of ruminating boli produced per day and per ruminating bout were associated with G : F (r = 0.28 and 0.26, respectively; P < 0.05). Results from this study demonstrate that evaluating animals for both feed intake and feed efficiency indoors on HC diets may not reflect their phenotypic performance when consuming conserved forage-based diets indoors or when grazing pasture.
Childhood-onset schizophrenia is onset prior to the age of 13 years. Although rare, people who suffer from schizophrenia at an early age appear to have a severe form of the illness with poor long-term prognosis. Antipsychotic medication is one way of managing this serious mental illness.
To examine the effects of antipsychotics for childhood-onset schizophrenia.
We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register, inspected references and contacted pharmaceutical companies and authors of trials. We included all randomised clinical trials.
From a total of 2062 citations, we identified six relevant trials. Three comparisons: atypical versus typical, atypical versus atypical and typical versus typical antipsychotic drugs. The only comparison to find any differences was atypical versus typical antipsychotic drugs. A few results from one study favoured the atypical antipsychotic clozapine over haloperidol in treating treatment resistant childhood-onset schizophrenia (n = 21, WMD CGAS 17.00 CI 7.74 to 26.26). Participants on clozapine, however, were three times more likely to have drowsiness (1 RCT, n = 21, RR 3.30 CI 1.23 to 8.85, NNH 2 CI 2 to 17) and half of the children receiving clozapine had neutropenia (1 RCT, n = 21, RR 12, CI 0.75 to192.86).
There are few relevant trials and, presently, there is little conclusive evidence regarding the effects of antipsychotic medication for those with early onset schizophrenia. Some benefits were identified in using the atypical antipsychotic clozapine compared with haloperidol but the benefits were offset by an increased risk of serious adverse effects. Larger, more robust, trials are required.
Serotonin receptors blockade is the major basis for the action of atypical antipsychotic drugs. Genetic factors affecting the density and/or function of serotonergic receptors, transporters and enzymes may therefore affect antipsychotic response. This exploratory study investigates the effect of ten polymorphisms from HTR1A, HTR1D, HTR2A, HTR3A, HTR3B, HTR4, HTR6, SLC6A4, TPH1, TPH2 genes on antipsychotic response in a sample of 289 patients with DSM-diagnosis of schizophrenia. Clinical Response was assessed using Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Response was determined as 20% reduction improvement of BPRS compared to baseline. Selection of the biological relevant interactions, regardless the phenotype was performed using different statistics strategies regardless the phenotype to investigate epistasis within the serotonin system. the test for relevant interaction selection showed that 5HT4 and 5HT6 can be in epistatic relationship. the single locus analysis of these two receptor polymorphisms showed no significant results and the logistic regression model incorporating both genes, the clinical and demographic variables was not significant. Even this result is not significant, this strategy aimed to investigate the epistatic effect among genes could be useful for finding relevant biological interaction among genetic variants. Furthermore we are currently analyzing the methylation level of HTR2A in responders and non-responders, this epigenetic analysis will be very valuable in adding more information to the classic pharmacogenetic studies.
Persistent impairment in cognitive function has been described in euthymic individuals with bipolar disorder. Collective work indicates that obesity is associated with reduced cognitive function in otherwise healthy individuals. This sub-group post-hoc analysis preliminarily explores and examines the association between overweight/obesity and cognitive function in euthymic individuals with bipolar disorder.
Euthymic adults with DSM-IV-TR-defined bipolar I or II disorder were enrolled. Subjects included in this post-hoc analysis (n = 67) were divided into two groups (normal weight, body mass index [BMI] of 18.5–24.9kg/m2; overweight/obese, BMI≥25.0kg/m2). Demographic and clinical information were obtained at screening. At baseline, study participants completed a comprehensive cognitive battery to assess premorbid IQ, verbal learning and memory, attention and psychomotor processing speed, executive function, general intellectual abilities, recollection and habit memory, as well as self-perceptions of cognitive failures.
BMI was negatively correlated with attention and psychomotor processing speed as measured by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (P<0.01). Overweight and obese bipolar individuals had a significantly lower score on the Verbal Fluency Test when compared to normal weight subjects (P<0.05). For all other measures of cognitive function, non-significant trends suggesting a negative association with BMI were observed, with the exception of measures of executive function (i.e. Trail Making Test B) and recollection memory (i.e. process-dissociation task).
Notwithstanding the post-hoc methodology and relatively small sample size, the results of this study suggest a possible negative effect of overweight/obesity on cognitive function in euthymic individuals with bipolar disorder. Taken together, these data provide the impetus for more rigorous evaluation of the mediational role of overweight/obesity (and other medical co-morbidity) on cognitive function in psychiatric populations.
Childhood-onset schizophrenia, although rare, is schizophrenia with onset prior to the age of 13 years, appear to have a poor long term prognosis. Antipsychotic medication is one way of managing this rare but serious mental illness.
To examine the effects of antipsychotic medication for childhood-onset schizophrenia.
We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register and inspected references of all identified studies for further trials. We included all RCTs involving children and young people with a diagnosis of childhood onset schizophrenia comparing any antipsychotic drug with another antipsychotic or placebo. We reliably selected, quality assessed and extracted data from trials.
From a total of 2062 citations, we identified six relevant trials. A few results from one study favoured the atypical antipsychotic clozapine over haloperidol in treating treatment resistant childhood-onset schizophrenia (n = 21, WMD CGAS 17.00 CI 7.74 to 26.26; n = 21, WMD Bunney-Hamburg Psychosis Rating Scale −3.60 CI −6.64 to −0.56).
Participants on clozapine, however, were three times more likely to have drowsiness (1 RCT, n = 21, RR 3.30 CI 1.23 to 8.85, NNH 2 CI 2 to 17) and half of the children receiving clozapine had neutropenia (1 RCT, n = 21, RR 12, CI 0.75 to 192.86).
There is little conclusive evidence regarding the effects of antipsychotic medication for those with early onset schizophrenia. Some benefits were identified in using the atypical antipsychotic clozapine but the benefits were offset by an increased risk of serious adverse effects. Larger, more robust, trials are required.
Stop the Bleed (STB) is a national initiative that provides lifesaving hemorrhagic control education. In 2019, pharmacists were added as health-care personnel eligible to become STB instructors. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of pharmacist-led STB trainings for school employees in South Texas.
Pharmacist-led STB trainings were provided to teachers and staff in Laredo, Texas. The 60-min trainings included a presentation followed by hands-on practice of tourniquet application, wound-packing, and direct pressure application. Training efficacy was assessed through anonymous pre- and postevent surveys, which evaluated changes in knowledge, comfort level, and willingness to assist in hemorrhage control interventions. Student volunteers (predominantly pharmacy and medical students) assisted in leading the hands-on portion, providing a unique interprofessional learning opportunity.
Participants with previous training (N = 98) were excluded, resulting in a final cohort of 437 (response rate 87.4%). Compared with baseline, comfort level using tourniquets (mean, 3.17/5 vs 4.20/5; P < 0.0001), opinion regarding tourniquet safety (2.59/3 vs 2.94/3; P < 0.0001), and knowledge regarding tourniquets (70.86/100 vs 75.84/100; P < 0.0001) and proper tourniquet placement (2.40/4 vs 3.15/4; P < 0.0001) significantly improved.
Pharmacist-led STB trainings are efficacious in increasing school worker knowledge and willingness to respond in an emergency hemorrhagic situation.
Inadequate protein quality may be a risk factor for poor growth. To examine the effect of a macronutrient–micronutrient supplement KOKO Plus (KP), provided to infants from 6 to 18 months of age, on linear growth, a single-blind cluster-randomised study was implemented in Ghana. A total of thirty-eight communities were randomly allocated to receive KP (fourteen communities, n 322), a micronutrient powder (MN, thirteen communities, n 329) and nutrition education (NE, eleven communities, n 319). A comparison group was followed cross-sectionally (n 303). Supplement delivery and morbidity were measured weekly and anthropometry monthly. NE education was provided monthly. Baseline, midline and endline measurements at 6, 12 and 18 months included venous blood draws, diet, anthropometry, morbidity, food security and socio-economics. Length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) was the primary outcome. Analyses were intent-to-treat using mixed-effects regressions adjusted for clustering, sex, age and baseline. No differences existed in mean LAZ scores at endline (−1·219 (sd 0·06) KP, −1·211 (sd 0·03) MN, −1·266 (sd 0·03) NE). Acute infection prevalence was lower in the KP than NE group (P = 0·043). Mean serum Hb was higher in KP infants free from acute infection (114·02 (sd 1·87) g/l) than MN (107·8 (sd 2·5) g/l; P = 0·047) and NE (108·8 (sd 0·99) g/l; P = 0·051). Compliance was 84·9 % (KP) and 87·2 % (MN) but delivery 60 %. Adjusting for delivery and compliance, LAZ score at endline was significantly higher in the KP v. MN group (+0·2 LAZ; P = 0·026). A macro- and micronutrient-fortified supplement KP reduced acute infection, improved Hb and demonstrated a dose–response effect on LAZ adjusting consumption for delivery.
Current techniques for measuring the dry matter intake (DMI) of grazing lactating beef cows are invasive, time consuming and expensive making them impractical for use on commercial farms. This study was undertaken to explore the potential to develop and validate a model to predict DMI of grazing lactating beef cows, which could be applied in a commercial farm setting, using non-invasive animal measurements. The calibration dataset used to develop the model was comprised of 94 measurements recorded on 106 beef or beef–dairy crossbred cows (maternal origin). The potential of body measurements, linear type scoring, grazing behaviour and thermal imaging to predict DMI in combination with known biologically plausible adjustment variables and energy sinks was investigated. Multivariable regression models were constructed for each independent variable using SAS PROC REG and contained milk yield, BW, parity, calving day and maternal origin (dairy or beef). Of the 94 variables tested, 32 showed an association with DMI (P < 0.25) upon multivariable analysis. These variables were incorporated into a backwards linear regression model using SAS PROC REG. Variables were retained in this model if P < 0.05. Five variables; width at pins, full body depth, ruminating mastications, central ligament and rump width score, were retained in the model in addition to milk yield, BW, parity, calving day and maternal origin. The inclusion of these variables in the model increased the predictability of DMI by 0.23 (R2 = 0.68) when compared to a model containing milk yield, BW, parity, calving day and maternal origin only. This model was applied to data recorded on an independent dataset; a herd of 60 lactating beef cows two years after the calibration study. The R2 for the validation was 0.59. Estimates of DMI are required for measuring feed efficiency. While acknowledging challenges in applicability, the findings suggest a model such as that developed in this study may be used as a tool to more easily and less invasively estimate DMI on large populations of commercial beef cows, and therefore measure feed efficiency.
Introduction: Adolescents who present to emergency departments (ED) following intentional injuries present a challenge in terms of ascertaining their intent and risk for future self-injurious or suicidal behaviour. Our ED has seen an 80% increase in visits for mental health issues over the past ten years. As usage of our Emergency Mental Health and Addictions Services (EMHAS) team continues to rise, it is increasingly important to understand the incidence of NSSI among our youth, explore if NSSI is reported at triage and identify characteristics that may distinguish these adolescents from others presenting for mental health assessment. Methods: This is an exploratory research study using retrospective data. Patients who had an Emergency Mental Health Triage (EMHT) form on their health record from an ED visit between June 1, 2017 and May 31, 2018 were eligible. Trained research assistants, using a structured data collection form in REDCap. abstracted data from the EMHT form, the EMHAS Assessment form, the Assessment of Suicide Risk Inventory and our CHIRPP (Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program) database. We calculated kappa values and 95% confidence intervals to describe the extent to which the forms agree with respect to identifying NSSI. We will compare the cohort who reports NSSI with the cohort who does not report NSSI using chi-square statistics depending. We will use descriptive statistics to characterize the NSSI patients. Results: During the one-year study period 955 patients had an EMHT form completed. In preliminary analysis 558 (58.4%) reported a history of NSSI. Patients reported NSSI on both the EMHT form and the EMHAS assessment form 64.7% of the time (kappa 0.56) indicating moderate agreement. In patients with NSSI, 9.5% of patients reported it only at triage and 25.8% of patients reported it only during their EMHAS assessment. Between group comparisons and descriptive analysis is underway. Conclusion: More than half of youth triaged with an emergency mental health complaint in our ED reported a history of NSSI. Screening at triage was moderately effective in identifying adolescents with NSSI compared to an in-depth assessment by the mental health team. Further research is needed to clarify how NSSI relates to risk for suicide.
The commercially available collar device MooMonitor+ was evaluated with regards to accuracy and application potential for measuring grazing behavior. These automated measurements are crucial as cows feed intake behavior at pasture is an important parameter of animal performance, health and welfare as well as being an indicator of feed availability. Compared to laborious and time-consuming visual observation, the continuous and automated measurement of grazing behavior may support and improve the grazing management of dairy cows on pasture. Therefore, there were two experiments as well as a literature analysis conducted to evaluate the MooMonitor+ under grazing conditions. The first experiment compared the automated measurement of the sensor against visual observation. In a second experiment, the MooMonitor+ was compared to a noseband sensor (RumiWatch), which also allows continuous measurement of grazing behavior. The first experiment on n = 12 cows revealed that the automated sensor MooMonitor+ and visual observation were highly correlated as indicated by the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (rs) = 0.94 and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) = 0.97 for grazing time. An rs-value of 0.97 and CCC = 0.98 was observed for rumination time. In a second experiment with n = 12 cows over 24-h periods, a high correlation between the MooMonitor+ and the RumiWatch was observed for grazing time as indicated by an rs-value of 0.91 and a CCC-value of 0.97. Similarly, a high correlation was observed for rumination time with an rs-value of 0.96 and a CCC-value of 0.99. While a higher level of agreement between the MooMonitor+ and both visual observation and RumiWatch was observed for rumination time compared to grazing time, the overall results showed a high level of accuracy of the collar device in measuring grazing and rumination times. Therefore, the collar device can be applied to monitor cow behavior at pasture on farms. With regards to the application potential of the collar device, it may not only be used on commercial farms but can also be applied to research questions when a data resolution of 15 min is sufficient. Thus, at farm level, the farmer can get an accurate and continuous measurement of grazing behavior of each individual cow and may then use those data for decision-making to optimize the animal management.
Global inequity in access to and availability of essential mental health services is well recognized. The mental health treatment gap is approximately 50% in all countries, with up to 90% of people in the lowest-income countries lacking access to required mental health services. Increased investment in global mental health (GMH) has increased innovation in mental health service delivery in LMICs. Situational analyses in areas where mental health services and systems are poorly developed and resourced are essential when planning for research and implementation, however, little guidance is available to inform methodological approaches to conducting these types of studies. This scoping review provides an analysis of methodological approaches to situational analysis in GMH, including an assessment of the extent to which situational analyses include equity in study designs. It is intended as a resource that identifies current gaps and areas for future development in GMH. Formative research, including situational analysis, is an essential first step in conducting robust implementation research, an essential area of study in GMH that will help to promote improved availability of, access to and reach of mental health services for people living with mental illness in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). While strong leadership in this field exists, there remain significant opportunities for enhanced research representing different LMICs and regions.
We report a rapid combustion synthesis method for producing band gap tunable gallium zinc oxynitrides, a material of interest for water splitting applications. By varying the ratio of zinc and gallium, we can tune the band gap from 2.22 to 2.8 eV. Furthermore, nitrogen can be incorporated up to nearly 50% via replacement of oxygen without the need for high temperatures or an additional ammonolysis step. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and EDX analysis suggests a preferential segregation of Zn to the surface of the as-synthesized particles, though the surface Ga/Zn molar ratio in the as-synthesized particles is correlated with the Ga/Zn molar ratio of the precursor materials. Photoelectrochemical measurements show that the oxynitride powders are photoactive under both AM1.5 and visible-only (λ > 435 nm) irradiation. Hydrogen and oxygen were both evolved in half-reaction experiments under simulated AM1.5 irradiation without externally applied bias, although addition of an OER catalyst did not enhance the rate of oxygen formation, suggesting that intra- and interparticle recombination are significant.
An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of offering beef cattle five silage diets. These were perennial ryegrass silage (PRGS) as the sole forage, tall fescue/perennial ryegrass silage (FGS) as the sole forage, PRGS in a 50:50 ratio on a dry matter (DM) basis with lupin/triticale silage (LTS), lupin/wheat silage (LWS) and pea/oat silage (POS). Each of the five silage diets was supplemented with 4 and 7 kg of concentrates/head/day in a five silages × two concentrate intakes factorial design. A total of 90 cattle were used in the 121-day experiment. The grass silages were of medium digestibility and were well preserved. The legume/cereal silages had high ammonia N, high acetic acid, low lactic acid, low butyric acid and low digestible organic matter concentrations (542, 562 and 502 g/kg DM for LTS, LWS and POS, respectively). Silage treatment did not significantly affect liveweight gain, carcass gain, carcass characteristics, the instrumental assessment of meat quality or fatty acid composition of the M. longissimus dorsi muscle. In view of the low yields of the legume/cereal crops, it is concluded that the inclusion of spring-sown legume/cereal silages in the diets of beef cattle is unlikely to be advantageous.