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To describe the use of balloon dilation with non-invasive ventilation in the treatment of pregnant patients with idiopathic subglottic stenosis.
The medical charts of four consecutive patients who underwent jet ventilation or high-flow nasal cannula oxygenation with balloon dilation for the treatment of idiopathic subglottic stenosis during pregnancy were reviewed.
Objective improvement of subglottic stenosis was seen in all four cases, with end-result Myer–Cotton grade 1 lesions down from pre-procedure grade 3 lesions. Patients also reported subjective improvements in symptomatology, with no further airway issues. All patients delivered normally, at term.
Laryngeal dilation with continuous radial expansion pulmonary balloons using non-invasive ventilation for the treatment of idiopathic subglottic stenosis in pregnant patients is safe and efficacious, and should be the first line treatment option for this patient population. The improvement in symptoms, and lack of labour and pregnancy complications, distinguish this method of treatment from others reported in the literature.
To evaluate the utility of the hybrid tracheoesophageal puncture procedure in stapler-assisted laryngectomy.
Patients who underwent total laryngectomy at a single institution from 2009 to 2015 were reviewed. The interventions assessed were surgical creation of a tracheoesophageal puncture and placement of a voice prosthesis. The outcomes measured included voicing ability and valve failure.
Thirty-nine patients underwent total laryngectomy or pharyngolaryngectomy. Of these, nine underwent stapler-assisted laryngectomy; seven of the nine patients underwent concurrent stapler-assisted laryngectomy, cricopharyngeal myotomy and a hybrid tracheoesophageal puncture procedure. These seven patients were the focus of this review. Successful voicing and oral alimentation was achieved in all patients. Mean time to phonation was 30 days (range, 7–77 days) and mean time to first valve change was 90 days (range, 35–117 days).
Primary tracheoesophageal puncture with concurrent voice prosthesis placement and cricopharyngeal myotomy is easily performed with stapler-assisted laryngectomy. The hybrid tracheoesophageal puncture procedure is a simple method that enables a single operator to achieve primary tracheoesophageal puncture and valve placement; in addition, it facilitates concurrent cricopharyngeal myotomy.
To determine the utility of bronchoscopy to identify synchronous primaries in head and neck cancer patients.
Case series with chart review.
The charts of all patients undergoing bronchoscopy between January 2008 and December 2013 were reviewed. Only those undergoing bronchoscopy as part of panendoscopy for head and neck cancer were included. Operative reports, pathology reports and discharge summaries were reviewed for operative findings, complications and length of hospital stay.
A total of 404 charts were reviewed and 168 were included in the study. No synchronous primaries were identified. Bronchoscopy changed clinical management in one patient. There were no complications from bronchoscopy.
Bronchoscopy is a safe and well-tolerated procedure commonly performed in the investigation of head and neck cancer patients, but it adds little additional useful clinical information. Routine performance of bronchoscopy in this setting should be weighed against its added costs, and tailored to the individual patient.
Botulinum toxin injection under electromyographic guidance is the ‘gold standard’ for adductor spasmodic dysphonia treatment. The point-touch technique, an alternative injection method which relies on anatomical landmarks, is cheaper, quicker and more accessible, but has not yet gained widespread acceptance due to concerns about patient satisfaction.
To assess swallowing and voice-related quality of life following point-touch botulinum toxin injection in adductor spasmodic dysphonia patients.
Stanford University Voice and Swallowing Center.
Prospective case series (evidence level four).
Consecutive adductor spasmodic dysphonia patients with a stable botulinum toxin dose–response relationship were recruited prospectively. The Eating Assessment Tool and Voice-Related Quality of Life questionnaires were completed pre-treatment and at 10 and 30 per cent completion of the injection cycle, respectively.
Thirty-seven patients completed follow up. The mean total botulinum toxin dose was 0.88 units. Pre-treatment Voice-Related Quality of Life questionnaire results reflected the burden of disease. Post-treatment Eating Assessment Tool and Voice-Related Quality of Life questionnaire results were collected at 2.53 and 7.84 weeks, respectively; the former showed an increase in dysphagia, albeit statistically insignificant, while the latter showed significantly improved scores (both domain and total).
The point-touch technique is a viable alternative for botulinum toxin injection in the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia.
This paper evaluates the feasibility of transoral, endoscopic resection of macroscopically localised, low grade, subglottic chondrosarcoma.
Retrospective case study including patients diagnosed with low grade, subglottic laryngeal chondrosarcoma. Tumours were resected endoscopically via direct laryngoscopy with microlaryngeal technique, under jet ventilation. The post-operative course, vocal fold function, airway patency and oncological results were evaluated.
Two male patients aged 49 and 60 years underwent endoscopic, translaryngeal, en bloc resection of low grade chondrosarcoma of the cricoid cartilage. Extubation was performed immediately after surgery. Neither patient required tracheostomy or developed subglottic stenosis. No tumour recurrence was noted after an average follow up of 10.5 months. Voice quality was stable and dyspnoea improved.
Transoral, endoscopic resection of low grade, subglottic chondrosarcoma is a viable technique with good functional outcomes. Extensive resection of subglottic disease is possible, which may afford patients an alternative to total laryngectomy.
To describe the positron emission tomography and computed tomography features of injected calcium hydroxylapatite, and to discuss how these may be mistaken for malignancy.
Positron emission tomography is now readily employed in the staging and monitoring of patients with head and neck carcinoma. Concomitant with the growing use of this modality has been the increasing popularity of injected calcium hydroxylapatite to treat glottic incompetence secondary to vocal fold paralysis or following partial laryngectomy. A patient developed aspiration following near-total laryngectomy and subsequently underwent injection of calcium hydroxylapatite, with effective resolution of the aspiration. The patient underwent positron emission tomography scanning as part of routine tumour surveillance; this showed intense tracer uptake at the site of injection, and this pattern persisted for one year following injection.
As injectable calcium hydroxylapatite becomes more widely used, especially in the treatment of patients with a history of head and neck cancer, physicians should be aware it may cause a potentially misleading, false positive positron emission tomography finding.
This study evaluated the role of botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of refractory laryngeal granulomas.
Study design and setting:
Retrospective clinical review at a tertiary care hospital. Seven patients with vocal process granulomas underwent percutaneous injection of botulinum toxin into both vocal folds, performed in an office setting. Total doses ranged from 10 to 25 U, divided between both vocal folds.
All patients experienced resolution of their granulomas over two to seven weeks. No patient developed aspiration pneumonia. All patients experienced hoarseness secondary to the injections, but voice quality returned to baseline in all patients as the toxin was degraded.
Botulinum toxin is safe and effective therapy in resolving vocal process granulomas in patients refractory to traditional therapy. The optimal treatment dose remains to be determined.
Percutaneous botulinum toxin injection is helpful in resolving laryngeal granulomas.
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