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The Dark Energy Survey is undertaking an observational programme imaging 1/4 of the southern hemisphere sky with unprecedented photometric accuracy. In the process of observing millions of faint stars and galaxies to constrain the parameters of the dark energy equation of state, the Dark Energy Survey will obtain pre-discovery images of the regions surrounding an estimated 100 gamma-ray bursts over 5 yr. Once gamma-ray bursts are detected by, e.g., the Swift satellite, the DES data will be extremely useful for follow-up observations by the transient astronomy community. We describe a recently-commissioned suite of software that listens continuously for automated notices of gamma-ray burst activity, collates information from archival DES data, and disseminates relevant data products back to the community in near-real-time. Of particular importance are the opportunities that non-public DES data provide for relative photometry of the optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts, as well as for identifying key characteristics (e.g., photometric redshifts) of potential gamma-ray burst host galaxies. We provide the functional details of the DESAlert software, and its data products, and we show sample results from the application of DESAlert to numerous previously detected gamma-ray bursts, including the possible identification of several heretofore unknown gamma-ray burst hosts.
Partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mt COI) sequences were generated from: Toxoplasma gondii (strains CTG, GTI, MAS, ME49, PTG, TgCatBr5, TgCat, Br64, TgCgCal, TgToucan); Neospora caninum (Strain NC1); Hammondia hammondi (Strain H.H–20); H. heydorni; H. cf. triffittae; Cystoisospora felis; C. suis; C. canis; C. rivolta; C. cf. ohioensis; Caryospora bigenetica; Sarcocystis rileyi; and S. neurona. Nuclear 18S rDNA sequences were generated for H. heydorni, H. hammondi, C. suis, C. canis, C. felis, C. rivolta, C. cf. ohioensis, S. neurona, and S. rileyi. Aligned, concatenated 18S rDNA and COI sequences were Bayesian analysed using partitioned nucleotide substitution models [HKY + I + G for 18S; GTR + I + G codon (code = metmt) for COI]. Phylogenetic hypotheses supported a monophyletic Sarcocystidae and its subfamilie with two major clades within the Toxoplasmatinae: (1) a monophyletic clade of Cystoisospora spp. with Nephroisospora eptesici; and (2) a clade of Toxoplasma, Neospora and Hammondia. Within the latter, Hammondia was shown to be paraphyletic; H. heydorni and H. triffittae were monophyletic with N. caninum [canine definitive hosts (DHs)], whereas H. hammondi was monophyletic with T. gondii (feline DHs). A new genus is erected to resolve the paraphyly of the genus Hammondia confirmed using mt COI and combined 18S/COI sequence datasets.
To identify factors associated with the presence and severity of food insecurity among a sample of Honduran caregivers of young children.
Cross-sectional study in which the dependent variable, household food insecurity, was measured using a fourteen-item questionnaire developed and validated in a population of similar cultural context. A predictive modelling strategy used backwards elimination in logistic regression and multinomial logit regression models to compute odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals for food insecurity.
Rural Honduras in the department of Intibucá, between March and April 2009.
Two-hundred and ninety-eight Honduran caregivers of children aged 6–18 months.
Ninety-three per cent of households were classified as having some degree of food insecurity (mild, moderate or severe). After controlling for caregiver age and marital status, compared with caregivers with more than primary-school education, those with less than primary-school education had 3·47 (95 % CI 1·34, 8·99) times the odds of severe food insecurity and 2·29 (95 % CI 1·00, 5·25) times the odds of moderate food insecurity. Our results also found that child anthropometric status was not associated with the presence or severity of food insecurity.
These results show that among the sociodemographic factors assessed, food insecurity in rural Honduras is associated with maternal education. Understanding key factors associated with food insecurity that are unique to Honduras can inform the design of interventions to effectively mitigate the negative impact of food insecurity on children.
Understanding the response of biodiversity to land-use changes is an important challenge for ecologists. We assessed the effects of five landscape metrics (forest cover, number of patches, edge density, mean inter-patch isolation distance and matrix quality) and three patch metrics (patch size, shape and isolation) on the number of species and patch occupancy of medium- and large-sized terrestrial mammals in the fragmented Lacandona rain forest, Mexico. We sampled mammal assemblages in 24 forest patches and four control areas within a continuous forest. The landscape metrics were measured within a 100-ha buffer, and within a 500-ha buffer from the centre of each sampling site. A total of 21 species from 13 families was recorded. The number of species increased with shape complexity and patch size at the patch scale, and with matrix quality within 100-ha landscapes. When considering 500-ha landscapes, only the number of patches (i.e. forest fragmentation level) tended to have a negative influence at the community level. Different landscape and patch metrics predicted the occurrence of each species within the sites. Our results indicate that there is a gradient of tolerance to forest cover change, from highly sensitive species to those tolerant of, or even benefited by, forest-cover change.