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Previous research indicates a high prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among refugees. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for PTSD for victims of natural disasters, car accidents or other traumatic events. The current study examined the effect of EMDR on symptoms of PTSD and depression by comparing the treatment with a wait-list control condition in Syrian refugees.
Adult refugees located in Kilis Refugee Camp at the Turkish–Syrian border with a PTSD diagnosis were randomly allocated to either EMDR (n = 37) or wait-list control (n = 33) conditions. All participants were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus at pre-intervention, at 1 week after finishing the intervention and at 5 weeks after finishing the intervention. The main outcome measures were the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. The Beck Depression Inventory and the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25 were included as secondary outcome measures. The Trial Registration no. is NCT01847742.
Mixed-model analyses adjusted for the baseline scores indicated a significant effect of group at post-treatment indicating that the EMDR therapy group showed a significantly larger reduction of PTSD symptoms as assessed with the HTQ. Similar findings were found on the other outcome measures. There was no effect of time or group × time interaction on any measure, showing that the difference between the groups at the post-treatment was maintained to the 5-week follow-up.
EMDR may be effective in reducing PTSD and depression symptoms among Syrian refugees with PTSD located in a refugee camp.
To investigate the long-term clinical results of radiofrequency tissue volume reduction for symptomatic inferior turbinate hypertrophy.
Patients who were unresponsive to medical treatment (n = 197) received turbinate reduction using radiofrequency energy. Subjective symptoms were assessed using a 10 cm visual analogue scale, and all patients underwent acoustic rhinometry before the procedure and six, 24, 48 and 60 months afterwards.
Of the 197 treated patients, 148 completed the protocol. No significant peri-operative complications were observed. Thirty-two patients required follow-up treatment. Significant improvements were seen in nasal obstruction and discharge scores and in acoustic rhinometry values, at six, 24, 48 and 60 months post-operatively, compared with pre-operative values (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively).
Radiofrequency tissue volume reduction is an effective procedure for inferior turbinate hypertrophy. The clinical benefit of this procedure persisted 60 months after the procedure.
Patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck constitute a high risk group for synchronous and metachronous tumours.
This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of white light and autofluorescence bronchoscopy in the evaluation of pre-malignant and early neoplastic lesions in patients with laryngeal cancer, who are at high risk of concomitant lung cancer.
This prospective, cross-sectional study included 30 patients who had undergone total laryngectomy for squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx. The tracheobronchial system was investigated for the presence of pre-malignant and malignant lesions, using a combination of white light and autofluorescence bronchoscopy. Biopsies were obtained from areas with a pathological appearance, and histopathological studies were performed.
All patients had a permanent tracheostomy. Light and autofluorescence bronchoscopy indicated that the tracheobronchial system was normal in 11 patients. A total of 27 biopsies was taken from the remaining 19 patients, and revealed invasive squamous cell carcinoma in one patient and pre-malignant changes in six.
Bronchoscopy is a valuable and practical tool for screening patients at high risk of lung cancer, and requires minimal intervention especially in patients with a permanent tracheostomy. Of the various bronchoscopic techniques becoming available, autofluorescence bronchoscopy shows promise for the detection of pre-invasive malignant changes of the tracheobronchial system in patients previously operated upon for laryngeal cancer.
To examine the histological effects of radiofrequency thermal ablation on the inferior concha epithelium and subepithelium, over five years post-treatment.
Inferior nasal concha epithelial biopsy specimens were examined histologically before and four, 30, 48 and 60 months after radiofrequency treatment, in six patients with inferior nasal concha hypertrophy.
At four months post-treatment, there was proliferation of blood vessels, increased inflammatory cells and a slightly decreased number of glands. At 30 months post-treatment, the number of inflammatory cells and glands had decreased, but signs of increased vascular proliferation, fibrosis and granulation were seen. At 48 and 60 months post-treatment, the number of inflammatory cells and blood vessels had decreased significantly, the number of glands had increased, and lobulation was observed.
Radiofrequency thermal ablation does not cause carbonisation or osteitis in the inferior concha. The resultant fibrosis causes contraction of the concha and only minor tissue destruction (as shown by the persistence of submucosal glands).
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