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Guidelines recommend empowering patients and families to remind healthcare workers (HCWs) to perform hand hygiene (HH). The effectiveness of empowerment tools for patients and their families in Southeast Asia is unknown.
We performed a prospective study in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a Vietnamese pediatric referral hospital. With family and HCW input, we developed a visual tool for families to prompt HCW HH. We used direct observation to collect baseline HH data. We then enrolled families to receive the visual tool and education on its use while continuing prospective collection of HH data. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of HH in baseline and implementation periods.
In total, 2,014 baseline and 2,498 implementation-period HH opportunities were observed. During the implementation period, 73 families were enrolled. Overall, HCW HH was 46% preimplementation, which increased to 73% in the implementation period (P < .001). The lowest HH adherence in both periods occurred after HCW contact with patient surroundings: 16% at baseline increased to 24% after implementation. In multivariable analyses, the odds of HCW HH during the implementation period were significantly higher than baseline (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.54–3.41; P < .001) after adjusting for observation room, HCW type, time of observation (weekday business hours vs evening or weekend), and HH moment.
The introduction of a visual empowerment tool was associated with significant improvement in HH adherence among HCWs in a Vietnamese PICU. Future research should explore acceptability and barriers to use of similar tools in low- and middle-income settings.
Very Brief Advice (VBA) on smoking is an evidence-based intervention and a recommended clinical practice for all healthcare professionals in the UK.
We report on experience from the FRESH AIR project in adapting the VBA model and training in three low-resource settings: Greece, Vietnam and Kyrgyzstan.
Using a participatory research process, UK experts and local stakeholders conducted an environmental scan and needs assessment to examine the VBA intervention model, training materials and recommend adaptations to the local context. Two VBA training sessions were piloted in each country to inform adaptation. A final training tool kit was developed in the local language.
In each country, the VBA on smoking intervention model remained primarily intact. The lack of a formal smoking cessation system to refer motivated clients in two countries required adaptation of the ACT component of the model. A range of local adaptations to the training resources were made in all three countries to ensure cultural appropriateness as well as enhance key messages including expanding training on nicotine addiction, second-hand smoke and pharmacotherapy.
Implementation of VBA requires sensitive, collaborative, local and cultural adaptation if it is to be achieved successfully.
Depression is common among older populations with cataract. However, the impact of cataract surgery on depression in both developed and developing countries remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of cataract surgery on depressive symptoms and to examine the association between objective visual measures and change in depressive symptoms after surgery among a Vietnamese population in Ho Chi Minh City.
A cohort of older patients with bilateral cataract were assessed the week before and one to three months after first eye surgery only or first- and second-eye cataract surgeries. Visual measures including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and stereopsis were obtained. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 20-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Descriptive analyses and a generalized estimating equations (GEE) analysis were undertaken to determine the impact of cataract surgery on depressive symptoms.
Four hundred and thirteen participants were recruited into the study before cataract surgery. Two hundred and forty-seven completed the follow-up assessment after surgery. There was a significant decrease (improvement) of one point in the depressive symptoms score (p = 0.04) after cataract surgery, after accounting for potential confounding factors. In addition, females reported a significantly greater decrease (improvement) of two points in depressive symptom scores (p = 0.01), compared to males. However, contrast sensitivity, visual acuity, and stereopsis were not significantly associated with change in depressive symptoms scores. First-eye cataract surgery or both-eye cataract surgery did not modify the change in depressive symptoms score.
There was a small but significant improvement in depressive symptoms score after cataract surgery for an older population in Vietnam.
We investigate the Sandpile Model and Chip Firing Game and an extension of these models
on cycle graphs. The extended model consists of allowing a negative number of chips at
each vertex. We give the characterization of reachable configurations and of fixed points
of each model. At the end, we give explicit formula for the number of their fixed
This study aimed to investigate health-related quality of life of palliative care (PC) clients and their caregivers, at baseline and follow-up, following a referral to a community PC service.
Quality of life of clients and their caregivers was respectively measured using the McGill Quality of Life instrument (MQoL) and the Caregiver Quality of Life Cancer Index (CQoLC) instruments. Participants were recruited from June 8 to October 27, 2006. This study was undertaken in one zone of an Area Health Service in New South Wales, which has a diverse socioeconomic population. The zone covers an area of 6237 km2 and is divided into five sectors, each with a PC service, all of which participated in this study.
Data were obtained from 49 clients and 43 caregivers at baseline, and 22 clients and 12 caregivers at 8 week follow-up. Twenty-one participants died and six moved out of the area during the study. At baseline, clients reported a low mean score for physical symptoms (3.3 ± 1.9) and a high score for support (8.7 ± 1.0). Caregivers scored a total CQoLC of 63.9 ± 21.4 and clients had a total QOL of 6.1 ± 1.3. At follow up, matched data for 22 clients and 13 caregivers demonstrated no statistical differences in quality of life.
Significance of results:
This study has provided evidence that health-related quality of life questionnaires show lower scores for physical health and higher scores for support, which can directly inform specific interventions targeted at the physical and support domains.
Comparisons were made between two groups of anorectic patients, ‘non-white’ and ‘white‘, on a variety of clinical and social characteristics.
The study is based on a 34-year long database (1960–93) associated with a national tertiary referral centre. Thirty-six non-white patients meeting DSM–III–R criteria for anorexia nervosa (AN) and five with ‘partial syndrome’ are compared with a white group comprising 944 patients with full syndrome.
The main finding is clinical similarity between the two groups, extending to social class and pathological patterns of family relationship. The non-whites are shorter in stature (P = 0.004) and report earlier menarche (P = 0.004); they are younger at presentation (P < 0.001), somewhat less emaciated, and practice veganism slightly more commonly; they less often acknowledge sensitivity to ‘fatness’ (P < 0.003). This sensitivity was exposed later whenever treatment involved substantial weight gain. The proportion of non-white cases accepted for assessment has not changed in respect of year of onset (around 6%) for the last 20 years, or year of presentation (around 6–7%) over the last 15 years. There was a tendency for non-white patients to be referred earlier in their illness.
The clinical and background profiles of non-white and white anorectics are generally similar. The numbers arising and presenting have not changed recently. Non-white patients apparently have as ready access as white patients to assessment and treatment by us.
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