A set of 146 representative adzuki (Vigna angularis var. angularis and var. nipponensis) germplasm from six Asian countries with a tradition of adzuki bean production, together with an outgroup standard rice bean (Vigna umbellata), were analysed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) methodology using 12 informative primer pairs. A total of 313 unambiguous polymorphic bands were created. According to the dendrogram, using cluster analysis based on AFLP banding, 143 of the accessions were distinct and revealed enough genetic diversity for identification and classification of accessions within Vigna angularis. A neighbour-joining tree was generated using the newly developed Innan's nucleotide diversity estimate from the AFLP data. From analysis, seven distinct evolutionary groups, named ‘Chinese cultivated’, ‘Japanese cultivated’, ‘Japanese complex-Korean cultivated’, ‘Chinese wild’, ‘China Taiwan wild’, ‘Nepal- Bhutan cultivated’ and ‘Himalayan wild’, were detected. Nucleotide diversity with geographical distribution of each group is discussed, regarding the evolutionary relationships between wild and cultivated adzuki beans. The preliminary results indicated that cultivated adzuki beans have been domesticated from at least four progenitors with at least three geographical origins.