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The aim of the current study was to evaluate energy intake misreporting prevalence, its associated factors and its effects on nutrient intake, in the Portuguese population aged from 18 to 84 years.
Adults participants from the National Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, IAN-AF, 2015–2016, who provided two complete 24 h dietary recall and complete covariate information.
Under, plausible and over-reporters were identified according to the Goldberg method. Total misreporting prevalence was 29·9 %, being 28·5 % of under-reporting and 1·4 % of over-reporting. The current study found higher odds of being classified as an under-reporter especially in participants with higher BMI and in those who self-reported health perception status as non-favourable. Energy intake estimation increases by 853.5 kJ/d (204 kcal/d) when misreporters are excluded, and the same tendency is observed for macro and micronutrients. It is worth mentioning that the prevalence of inadequacy for protein intake decreases by about 5 % when considering plausible reporters.
The exclusion of misreporters has a small impact on the crude energy and nutrient estimates as well as on assessing the contribution of nutrients to total energy intake. However, a moderate impact was observed in the estimation of nutrient inadequacy prevalence.
To assess total sugar (TS), added sugar (AS) and free sugar (FS) intakes, dietary sources, adherence to recommendations and determinants of consumption, in a Portuguese national sample.
Cross-sectional study. Dietary assessment was obtained by two food diaries in children aged <10 years and two non-consecutive 24 h recalls for other age groups. TS, AS and FS intakes were estimated by using SPADE software. TS content in food was estimated at the ingredient level. AS content in food was assessed through a systematic methodology and FS was based on the WHO definition.
National Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (IAN-AF 2015–2016), Portugal.
Representative sample from the Portuguese population, aged from 3 months to 84 years (n 5811).
Mean daily intake and contribution to total energy intake (E%) were 84·3 g/d (18·5 E%) for TS, 32·1 g/d (6·8 E%) for AS and 35·3 g/d (7·5 E%) for FS. Of the population, 76 % adhered to the FS recommendation (FS < 10 E%). The lowest adherence was in children (51·6 %) and adolescents (51·3 %). The main dietary source of TS was fruit across all ages, except in adolescents which was soft drinks. In children, the main dietary sources of FS were yoghurts and sweets, soft drinks in adolescents and table sugar in adults/elderly. FS intake was lower in children with more educated parents and in adults who practised physical activity regularly, and higher among smokers.
Interventions ought to be planned towards decreasing intakes of added and free sugars considering population-specific characteristics.
To evaluate daily eating frequency (main meals and snacks) in relation to weight status in children aged 3–9 years, representative of the Portuguese population.
Cross-sectional study. Dietary intake was estimated as the mean of two non-consecutive days of food diaries, followed by face-to-face interviews. Weight and height were measured by trained observers. Eating occasions (EO) were defined by the children’s caregiver; an EO was considered separate if the time of consumption was different from other EO and it provided at least 209 kJ (50 kcal). Main meals defined as ‘breakfast’, ‘lunch’ and ‘dinner’ could be selected only once per day. The remaining EO were considered snacks. The association between eating frequency and overweight/obesity was evaluated through logistic regressions weighted for the population distribution.
National Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey of the Portuguese population, 2015–2016.
Portuguese children aged 3–9 years with complete dietary data and anthropometric measurements (n 517).
Overall, the number of daily EO ranged from 3·5 to 11, and on average children had 5·7 daily EO. After adjustment for child’s sex, age and total energy intake, and considering only plausible energy intake reporters, having < 3 snacks/d was positively associated with being overweight/obese (OR = 1·98; 95 % CI 1·00, 3·90), compared with having ≥ 3 snacks/d.
Lower daily frequency of EO was associated with increased odds of being overweight or obese in children. A higher eating frequency, maintaining the same energy intake, seems to contribute to a healthy body weight in children.
To validate a picture book for estimation of food portion sizes using two approaches: (i) ‘perception’ of food portions by comparison with a series of food photos; and (ii) ‘conceptualization and memory’, using the same photos to estimate the amount of served food one hour after self-served food portions.
Each partner developed a country-specific picture book based on the so-called EPIC-Soft picture book. Representative and common photo series were chosen achieving approximately 25 % of the original picture book (n 23). Three portions from each photo series were randomly selected.
The study was performed within the Pilot study in the view of a Pan-European dietary survey – Adolescents, adults and elderly (PILOT-PANEU) project.
A sample of adolescents and adults was recruited in five countries: Bulgaria (n 103), Finland (n 34), Germany (n 69), Hungary (n 62) and Portugal (n 77).
Among the portions of the corresponding photo series and depending on the type of food, from 18 % (cheese) to 96 % (ratatouille) of participants chose the correct portions. In the perception study, agreement between the portions shown and reported was substantial (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)=0·805) and the mean difference was very low. In the memory study, agreement between the served and reported portions was lower than in the perception study (ICC=0·536). Agreement also seemed to decrease as the appearance of food on the plate differed from food in the picture.
Overall, the picture series selected can be applied in future intake surveys to quantify foods similar to those depicted in the pictures.
We introduce and study, from a combinatorial-topological viewpoint, some semigroups of continuous non-deterministic dynamical systems. Combinatorial stability, i.e. the persistence of the combinatorics of the attractors, is characterized and its genericity established. Some implications on topological (deterministic) dynamics are drawn.
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