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A 2-year fertilization experiment was conducted to study the effect of different ratios of organic (pig) manure on wheat yield and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). The four treatments were no nitrogen (N) (CK); 100% chemical fertilizer N (urea; T1); 70% chemical fertilizer N + 30% organic manure N (T2) and 50% chemical fertilizer N + 50% organic manure N (T3), with the same amount of applied nitrogen (120 kg/ha). The results showed the maximum grain yield (3049 kg/ha), crop nitrogen uptake (216 kg/ha), NUE (65.4%) and accumulated nitrate nitrogen (NO3−-N in 0–200 cm, 142 kg/ha) were observed in the T1 among all treatments in the first year. However, the largest grain yield (5074 kg/ha), crop nitrogen uptake (244 kg/ha) and NUE (82.5%) were under T2 treatment in the second year. Furthermore, T2 had the maximum NO3−-N content in 0–100 cm layer (116 kg/ha), especially 0–40 cm layer, and the lowest NO3−-N content in 100–200 cm (58.8 kg/ha). However, 50% organic manure N in T3 increased apparent nitrogen loss by 39.0% compared to that in T2. Therefore, 30% organic manure N application was more conducive for enhancing wheat yield and NUE and promoting environmental safety after 1-year fertilization time.
Previous studies using resting-state functional neuroimaging have revealed alterations in whole-brain images, connectome-wide functional connectivity and graph-based metrics in groups of patients with schizophrenia relative to groups of healthy controls. However, it is unclear which of these measures best captures the neural correlates of this disorder at the level of the individual patient.
Here we investigated the relative diagnostic value of these measures. A total of 295 patients with schizophrenia and 452 healthy controls were investigated using resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging at five research centres. Connectome-wide functional networks were constructed by thresholding correlation matrices of 90 brain regions, and their topological properties were analyzed using graph theory-based methods. Single-subject classification was performed using three machine learning (ML) approaches associated with varying degrees of complexity and abstraction, namely logistic regression, support vector machine and deep learning technology.
Connectome-wide functional connectivity allowed single-subject classification of patients and controls with higher accuracy (average: 81%) than both whole-brain images (average: 53%) and graph-based metrics (average: 69%). Classification based on connectome-wide functional connectivity was driven by a distributed bilateral network including the thalamus and temporal regions.
These results were replicated across the three employed ML approaches. Connectome-wide functional connectivity permits differentiation of patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls at single-subject level with greater accuracy; this pattern of results is consistent with the ‘dysconnectivity hypothesis’ of schizophrenia, which states that the neural basis of the disorder is best understood in terms of system-level functional connectivity alterations.
Optical isolators, devices that only allow unidirectional light propagation, constitute an essential building block for photonic integrated circuits. For near-infrared communications wavelengths, most current isolator designs rely on the incorporation of magneto-optical (MO) materials to break time-reversal symmetry, such as iron garnets or magnetically substituted semiconductors. MO garnets form the backbone of traditional bulk isolators, but suffer from large lattice and thermal mismatch with common semiconductor substrates, which has significantly impeded their integration into on-chip optical isolators. Materials innovations over the past few years have overcome these barriers and enabled monolithic deposition of MO oxide thin films on silicon using techniques such as pulsed laser deposition and magnetron sputtering. On-chip optical isolator devices with polarization diversity in the telecommunication band have been demonstrated based on these materials. This article reviews the latest technological breakthroughs in MO oxide material growth as well as device design and integration strategies toward practical implementation of on-chip optical isolation.
Health system reform is considered a tough issue worldwide. Great efforts have been made toward health system building and strengthening. However, it is still unclear which health system is appropriate for different countries. This study aimed to systematically compare the characteristics of the establishment periods between eighty-eight counties of National Health Service (NHS) and Social Health Insurance (SHI).
Forty-eight NHS countries and forty SHI countries with data availability were selected. The establishment years of current health systems and other eighteen indicators in economics, society, population and health during establishment periods were collected. Comparison between NHS and SHI was conducted by descriptive analysis of every indicator.
Most NHS countries were established during the cold war, while SHI had been set up since the cold war ended. The median of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, urbanization rate and aging rate of SHI were USD 1535 in current dollars, 58.2 percent and 9.8 percent, respectively; compared with USD 1387, 41.2 percent and 4.7 percent, respectively of NHS. NHS countries had a smaller total population, lower mortality rate and elderly dependency ratio, while the birth rate and children's dependency ratio were higher. SHI countries showed a higher life expectancy and lower mortality rate in infants and children. NHS countries spent less in total health expenditure and a lower proportion of GDP. The median health expenditure per capita of SHI and NHS were USD 188 and USD 131 in current dollars, respectively. There was little difference among maternal mortality rates, and public and private health expenditure proportions.
NHS and SHI countries had different characteristics during the health system establishment periods. NHS was established earlier than SHI overall, so that SHI revealed higher levels in economic and social development. Health outcomes of NHS countries were slightly lower than SHI ones, while health expenditure was more in SHI countries. Specific social, economic, demographic and health conditions should be considered when countries are building their own health systems.
We examined the in vitro developmental competence of parthenogenetic activation (PA) oocytes activated by an electric pulse (EP) and treated with various concentrations of AZD5438 for 4 h. Treatment with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h significantly improved the blastocyst formation rate of PA oocytes in comparison with 0, 20, or 50 µM AZD5438 treatment (46.4% vs. 34.5%, 32.3%, and 24.0%, respectively; P < 0.05). The blastocyst formation rate was higher in the group treated with AZD5438 for 4 h than in the groups treated with AZD5438 for 2 or 6 h (42.8% vs. 38.6% and 37.2%, respectively; P > 0.05). Furthermore, 66.67% of blastocysts derived from these AZD5438-treated PA oocytes had a diploid karyotype. The blastocyst formation rate of PA and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos was similar between oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine for 4 h and those activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h (11.11% vs. 13.40%, P > 0.05). In addition, the level of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) was significantly decreased in oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h. Finally, the mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (Bax and Bcl-2) and pluripotency-related genes (Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2) were checked by RT-PCR; however, there were no differences between the AZD5438-treated and non-treated control groups. Our results demonstrate that porcine oocyte activation via an EP in combination with AZD5438 treatment can lead to a high blastocyst formation rate in PA and SCNT experiments.
An engineering service project can be highly interactive, collaborative, and distributed. The implementation of such projects needs to generate, utilize, and share large amounts of data and heterogeneous digital objects. The information overload prevents the effective reuse of project data and knowledge, and makes the understanding of project characteristics difficult. Toward solving these issues, this paper emphasized the using of data mining and machine learning techniques to improve the project characteristic understanding process. The work presented in this paper proposed an automatic model and some analytical approaches for learning and predicting the characteristics of engineering service projects. To evaluate the model and demonstrate its functionalities, an industrial data set from the aerospace sector is considered as a the case study. This work shows that the proposed model could enable the project members to gain comprehensive understanding of project characteristics from a multidimensional perspective, and it has the potential to support them in implementing evidence-based design and decision making.
A 100-J-level Nd:glass laser system in nanosecond-scale pulse width has been constructed to perform as a standard source of high-fluence-laser science experiments. The laser system, operating with typical pulse durations of 3–5 ns and beam diameter 60 mm, employs a sequence of successive rod amplifiers to achieve 100-J-level energy at 1053 nm at 3 ns. The frequency conversion can provide energy of 50-J level at 351 nm. In addition to the high stability of the energy output, the most valuable of the laser system is the high spatiotemporal beam quality of the output, which contains the uniform square pulse waveform, the uniform flat-top spatial fluence distribution and the uniform flat-top wavefront.
In this work, we developed a convenient way to immobilize silver nanoparticles on the aminated polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous mats by combing the electrospinning technology from complex-containing polymer solution, amination of PAN nanofibrous and electroless plating technique. The resultant composite nanaofibrous mats had been characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometer, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectra analysis. The catalytic activity and stability of these resultant composite nanofibrous mats for the catalytic reactions, including reduction of 4-nitrophenol to form 4-aminophenol, and selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol, were investigated. The resultant nanofibrous mats exhibited high-efficiency, convenient separation, recovery, and cyclic utilization properties.
We investigate the critical nuclei morphology in phase transformation by combining two effective ingredients, with the first being the phase field modeling of the relevant energetics which has been a popular approach for phase transitions and the second being shrinking dimer dynamics and its variants for computing saddle points and transition states. In particular, the newly formulated generalized shrinking dimer dynamics is proposed by adopting the Cahn-Hilliard dynamics for the generalized gradient system. As illustrations, a couple of typical cases are considered, including a generic system modeling heterogeneous nucleation and a specific material system modeling the precipitate nucleation in FeCr alloys. While the standard shrinking dimer dynamics can be applied to study the non-conserved case of generic heterogeneous nucleation directly, the generalized shrinking dimer dynamics is efficient to compute precipitate nucleation in FeCr alloys due to the conservation of concentration. Numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate both the complex morphology associated with nucleation events and the effectiveness of generalized shrinking dimer dynamics based on phase field models.
In this study, the AC magnetic permeability of polycrystalline Fe81Ga19 alloy (Galfenol), without crystal orientation under both the bias applied fields and frequencies, was investigated by the method of measuring inductance of ring specimens. The results showed that the AC permeability of the alloy can reach more than 160 Gs/Oe under the conditions of low frequencies or quasi-static state. The permeability decreased with the increase of frequency. When the frequency was higher than 6 kHz, the permeability decreased slowly, and gradually stabilized with the increase of frequency. When applying a little of parallel bias magnetic field, the permeability decreases obviously with the increase of frequency. But applying a perpendicular bias magnetic fields, the permeability of the only initial point of the measuring frequency decreases a little compared to the permeability without bias field.
CuFe-Hydrotalcite-Like Compounds (CuFe-HTLcs) were synthesized by coprecipitation with Cu(NO3)2·6H2O, Fe(NO3)3·9H2O, NaOH and Na2CO3 solution. The sample with Cu2+ / Fe3+ = 2 was of the highest crystalline characterized by XRD and particle size distribution. The synthesis of propylene carbonate from 1,2-propanediol (PG) and urea was performed to evaluate the catalytic activities of the CuFe-HTLcs. The effects of reaction time, temperature, dosage of catalyst on the synthesis of propylene carbonate were fully discussed. The optimal reaction conditions were determined by using orthogonal test design: reaction temperature 170 °C, dosage of catalyst 0.2 g, and molar ratio of PG to urea 2:1, reaction time 3 h. Under the optimal conditions, the conversion of urea nearly reached 100 %, and the selectivity of propylene carbonate was up to 90.4%.
An experimental study on the angular distribution and conversion of multi-keV X-ray sources produced from 2 ns-duration 527nm laser irradiated thick-foil targets on Shenguang II laser facility (SG-II) is reported. The angular distributions measured in front of the targets can be fitted with the function of f(θ) = α+ (1−α)cosβθ (θ is the viewing angle relative to the target normal), where α = 0.41 ± 0.014, β = 0.77 ± 0.04 for Ti K-shell X-ray sources (~4.75 keV for Ti K-shell), and α = 0.085 ± 0.06, β = 0.59 ± 0.07 for Ag/Pd/Mo L-shell X-ray sources (2–2.8 keV for Mo L-shell, 2.8–3.5 keV for Pd L-shell, and 3–3.8 keV for Ag L-shell). The isotropy of the angular distribution of L-shell emission is worse than that of the K-shell emission at larger viewing angle (>70°), due to its larger optical depth (stronger self-absorption) in the cold plasma side lobe surrounding the central emission region, and in the central hot plasma region (emission region). There is no observable difference in the angular distributions of the L-shell X-ray emission among Ag, Pd, and Mo. The conversion efficiency of Ag/Pd/Mo L-shell X-ray sources is higher than that of the Ti K-shell X-ray sources, but the gain relative to the K-shell emission is not as high as that by using short pulse lasers. The conversion efficiency of the L-shell X-ray sources decreases with increasing atomic numbers (or X-ray photon energy), similar to the behavior of the K-shell X-ray source.
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