To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A robust biomedical informatics infrastructure is essential for academic health centers engaged in translational research. There are no templates for what such an infrastructure encompasses or how it is funded. An informatics workgroup within the Clinical and Translational Science Awards network conducted an analysis to identify the scope, governance, and funding of this infrastructure. After we identified the essential components of an informatics infrastructure, we surveyed informatics leaders at network institutions about the governance and sustainability of the different components. Results from 42 survey respondents showed significant variations in governance and sustainability; however, some trends also emerged. Core informatics components such as electronic data capture systems, electronic health records data repositories, and related tools had mixed models of funding including, fee-for-service, extramural grants, and institutional support. Several key components such as regulatory systems (e.g., electronic Institutional Review Board [IRB] systems, grants, and contracts), security systems, data warehouses, and clinical trials management systems were overwhelmingly supported as institutional infrastructure. The findings highlighted in this report are worth noting for academic health centers and funding agencies involved in planning current and future informatics infrastructure, which provides the foundation for a robust, data-driven clinical and translational research program.
Isotopic investigations of human burials from excavations of the Autonomous University of Campeche (CIHS) at the prehispanic Maya capital of Calakmul in southeastern Mexico, near the border with Guatemala, include determination of radiocarbon dates; carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in collagen; and strontium, carbon, and oxygen isotope ratios in tooth enamel. A total of 22 human and 5 faunal samples analyzed for strontium isotopes reveal a narrow range of variation in values, pointing to the likely local origin of over two-thirds of the central population of Calakmul, including two of its rulers. Carbon and nitrogen data confirm a typical Classic Maya diet at the site and identify a diet high in meat consumption for one dynastic individual. Interpreted jointly, the isotopic information offers new perspectives on the provenience and lifestyles of the residents of Calakmul, including a potential place of origin for the royal occupant of chamber tomb Burial VII-1.
Knowledge of the effects of burial depth and burial duration on seed viability and, consequently, seedbank persistence of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) and waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) J. D. Sauer] ecotypes can be used for the development of efficient weed management programs. This is of particular interest, given the great fecundity of both species and, consequently, their high seedbank replenishment potential. Seeds of both species collected from five different locations across the United States were investigated in seven states (sites) with different soil and climatic conditions. Seeds were placed at two depths (0 and 15 cm) for 3 yr. Each year, seeds were retrieved, and seed damage (shrunken, malformed, or broken) plus losses (deteriorated and futile germination) and viability were evaluated. Greater seed damage plus loss averaged across seed origin, burial depth, and year was recorded for lots tested at Illinois (51.3% and 51.8%) followed by Tennessee (40.5% and 45.1%) and Missouri (39.2% and 42%) for A. palmeri and A. tuberculatus, respectively. The site differences for seed persistence were probably due to higher volumetric water content at these sites. Rates of seed demise were directly proportional to burial depth (α=0.001), whereas the percentage of viable seeds recovered after 36 mo on the soil surface ranged from 4.1% to 4.3% compared with 5% to 5.3% at the 15-cm depth for A. palmeri and A. tuberculatus, respectively. Seed viability loss was greater in the seeds placed on the soil surface compared with the buried seeds. The greatest influences on seed viability were burial conditions and time and site-specific soil conditions, more so than geographical location. Thus, management of these weed species should focus on reducing seed shattering, enhancing seed removal from the soil surface, or adjusting tillage systems.
Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) is a problematic weed encountered in U.S. cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production, with infestations spreading northward. This research investigated the influence of planting date (early, mid-, and late season) and population (AR, IN, MO, MS, NE, and TN) on A. palmeri growth and reproduction at two locations. All populations planted early or midseason at Throckmorton Purdue Agricultural Center (TPAC) and Arkansas Agriculture Research and Extension Center (AAREC) measured 196 and 141 cm or more, respectively. Amaranthus palmeri height did not exceed 168 and 134 cm when planted late season at TPAC and AAREC, respectively. Early season planted A. palmeri from NE grew to 50% of maximum height 8 to 13 d earlier than all other populations under TPAC conditions. In addition, the NE population planted early, mid-, and late season achieved 50% inflorescence emergence 5, 4, and 6 d earlier than all other populations, respectively. All populations established at TPAC produced fewer than 100,000 seeds plant−1. No population planted at TPAC and AAREC produced more than 740 and 1,520 g plant−1 of biomass at 17 and 19 wk after planting, respectively. Planting date influenced the distribution of male and female plants at TPAC, but not at AAREC. Amaranthus palmeri from IN and MS planted late season had male-to-female plant ratios of 1.3:1 and 1.7:1, respectively. Amaranthus palmeri introduced to TPAC from NE can produce up to 7,500 seeds plant−1 if emergence occurs in mid-July. An NE A. palmeri population exhibited biological characteristics allowing it to be highly competitive if introduced to TPAC due to a similar latitudinal range, but was least competitive when introduced to AAREC. Although A. palmeri originating from different locations can vary biologically, plants exhibited environmental plasticity and could complete their life cycle and contribute to spreading populations.
We have developed and tested a wide-field photometer to detect extrasolar planet transits from the South Pole. The discovery of transiting planets for which masses can be measured by radial velocity is vital to constrain the models of planet formation and evolution. Short of going to space, the South Pole is the best site from which to carry out a such a survey. Based on results from the Doppler velocity surveys and the Vulcan transit search, we expect to detect 10 to 15 transiting planets in two years of operation at the South Pole.
We deposited TaWSi amorphous metal thin films to determine how composition affects film crystallization and oxidation at high temperatures. Films were deposited by magnetron sputtering from targets of nominal compositions Ta : W : Si = 40 : 40 : 20, 30 : 50 : 20, and 30 : 30 : 40, and studied by electron probe microanalysis, electron microscopy, electrical methods, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic-force microscopy. All films remained amorphous to 800 °C or higher temperatures. Films prepared from the target composition 30 : 30 : 40 yielded the film composition Ta41.7W38.4Si19.9, which retained its film integrity and amorphous structure to 1100 °C, even after annealing in air.
Adoption of soybean that is resistant to 2,4-D will result in more use of glyphosate plus 2,4-D premixes and tank mixtures. Preliminary whole-plant greenhouse assays confirm most Palmer amaranth populations found in Indiana are glyphosate-resistant (GR), and some biotypes exhibit tolerance to 2,4-D amine. Dose–response experiments were conducted to determine the level of glyphosate resistance and 2,4-D amine tolerance in four Palmer amaranth biotypes. A premix formulation of glyphosate plus 2,4-D choline was also evaluated. The R1, R2, and R3 biotypes were 31- to 66-fold more resistant to glyphosate (R:S ratio) than the S1 biotype based on the herbicide dose to cause 90% mortality (LD90). The maximum POST rate of the premix formulation of Enlist Duo® labeled in ‘Enlist®’ soybean is 2,195 g ae ha−1. When separated by active ingredient, the maximum POST rate of Enlist Duo® is equivalent to 1,141 and 1,054 g ae ha−1 of glyphosate and 2,4-D choline, respectively. In the absence of glyphosate, the maximum rate of 2,4-D (1,054 g ae ha−1) in the premix formulation of Enlist Duo® controlled S1, R2, and R3 biotypes, but failed to control all plants from the R1 biotype. Estimates for LD90 showed the R1 biotype was 3-fold more tolerant than the S1 biotype to 2,4-D amine. However, no plants survived the 1,155 g ae ha−1 (600 g ae ha−1 of glyphosate plus 555 g ae ha−1 2,4-D) treatment with the premix formulation of glyphosate plus 2,4-D choline. Overall, results from this experiment suggest GR Palmer amaranth that also exhibits increased tolerance to 2,4-D amine will be difficult to control with glyphosate or 2,4-D alone, but can be controlled POST with Enlist Duo® at lower than labeled field rates (1,618 to 2,195 g ae ha−1).
Gas phase models of ion molecule chemistry have been rather successful in matching the observed abundances of small interstellar molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. However, the situation is somewhat less clear for nitrogen-containing species, partly because the important initiating reaction N+ + H2 is slightly endothermic; and for sulfur-containing molecules, where it remains uncertain whether it is necessary to invoke surface reactions on grains to match the observed abundances. As a relatively simple species, the abundance of nitrogen sulfide should provide a good test of the models of the coupled chemistry of nitrogen and sulfur. Until very recently only two molecules containing both these elements were known in the interstellar medium, NS and HNCS, and both have been observed only in Sgr B2. We have therefore undertaken a survey for interstellar NS in Galactic molecular clouds using the FCRAO 14-meter telescope. The 2Π1/2, J = 5/2 → 3/2, transition has in fact been detected in many regions of massive star formation (see table).
A field study was conducted for the 2014 and 2015 growing season in Arkansas, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Ohio, and Tennessee to determine the effect of cereal rye and either oats, radish, or annual ryegrass on the control of Amaranthus spp. when integrated with comprehensive herbicide programs in glyphosate-resistant and glufosinate-resistant soybean. Amaranthus species included redroot pigweed, waterhemp, and Palmer amaranth. The two herbicide programs included were: a PRE residual herbicide followed by POST application of foliar and residual herbicide (PRE/POST); or PRE residual herbicide followed by POST application of foliar and residual herbicide, followed by another POST application of residual herbicide (PRE/POST/POST). Control was not affected by type of soybean resistance trait. At the end of the season, herbicides controlled 100 and 96% of the redroot pigweed and Palmer amaranth, respectively, versus 49 and 29% in the absence of herbicides, averaged over sites and other factors. The PRE/POST and PRE/POST/POST herbicide treatments controlled 83 and 90% of waterhemp at the end of the season, respectively, versus 14% without herbicide. Cover crop treatments affected control of waterhemp and Palmer amaranth and soybean yield, only in the absence of herbicides. The rye cover crop consistently reduced Amaranthus spp. density in the absence of herbicides compared to no cover treatment.
Background: Rumination predicts depression in adults and adolescents. The development of rumination has been linked to parenting practices, but only limited research has investigated this and research has tended to rely on self-report parenting measures. Aims: To investigate the relationship between female adolescent rumination and maternal modelling, criticism and positivity using an observational measure of parental behaviour. Method: A cross-sectional design was used. Daughters aged 16–18 years and their mothers (n = 154 dyads) completed questionnaire measures of rumination and affect. Mothers of girls with rumination scores in the upper and lower quartile (both n = 26) also completed the Five Minute Speech Sample, which was used to measure maternal criticism and positivity. Results: Mothers of low rumination girls made significantly more positive comments about their daughters than the mothers of high ruminators. Mothers made very few critical comments. Self-reported rumination was not correlated in mothers and daughters, suggesting a lack of support for the potential role of modelling. Conclusion: Overall, low maternal positivity was associated with rumination in female adolescents. There was no evidence that maternal rumination or criticism were associated with adolescent rumination. The results suggest a number of implications for future research, including the need for prospective longitudinal studies using observational parenting measures.
Because individuals develop dementia as a manifestation of neurodegenerative or neurovascular disorder, there is a need to develop reliable approaches to their identification. We are undertaking an observational study (Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative [ONDRI]) that includes genomics, neuroimaging, and assessments of cognition as well as language, speech, gait, retinal imaging, and eye tracking. Disorders studied include Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson’s disease, and vascular cognitive impairment. Data from ONDRI will be collected into the Brain-CODE database to facilitate correlative analysis. ONDRI will provide a repertoire of endophenotyped individuals that will be a unique, publicly available resource.
Because polarization encodes geometrical information about unresolved scattering regions, it provides a unique tool for analyzing the 3-D structures of supernovae (SNe) and their surroundings. SNe of all types exhibit time-dependent spectropolarimetric signatures produced primarily by electron scattering. These signatures reveal physical phenomena such as complex velocity structures, changing illumination patterns, and asymmetric morphologies within the ejecta and surrounding material. Interpreting changes in polarization over time yields unprecedentedly detailed information about supernovae, their progenitors, and their evolution.
Begun in 2012, the SNSPOL Project continues to amass the largest database of time-dependent spectropolarimetric data on SNe. I present an overview of the project and its recent results. In the future, combining such data with interpretive radiative transfer models will further constrain explosion mechanisms and processes that shape SN ejecta, uncover new relationships among SN types, and probe the properties of progenitor winds and circumstellar material.
Skeletal remains from a burial in New South Wales exhibit evidence of fatal
trauma, of a kind normally indicative of sharp metal weapons, yet the burial
dates to the mid thirteenth century—600 years before European settlers
reached the area. Could sharp-edged wooden weapons from traditional
Aboriginal culture inflict injuries similar to those resulting from later,
metal blades? Analysis indicates that the wooden weapons known as
‘Lil-lils’ and the fighting boomerangs
(‘Wonna’) both have blades that could fit within the
dimensions of the major trauma and are capable of having caused the fatal
Carrier water pH, hardness, coapplied foliar fertilizer, water conditioning agents, and plant height are critical considerations for optimum herbicide performance. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of carrier water pH (4, 6.5, and 9) and zinc (Zn) or manganese (Mn) foliar fertilizer on mesotrione for horseweed and Palmer amaranth control. Additionally, effect of carrier water pH and foliar fertilizer was evaluated on 7.5-, 12.5-, and 17.5-cm tall horseweed. Greenhouse treatments consisted of carrier water pH and foliar fertilizer (Zn, Mn, or without fertilizer); or water hardness (0 to 1,000 mg L−1) in the presence or absence of ammonium sulfate (AMS) for mesotrione control of giant ragweed, horseweed, and Palmer amaranth. Mesotrione activity was greater on horseweed with carrier water pH 6.5 compared to pH 4 or 9. Coapplied Zn fertilizer reduced mesotrione activity on Palmer amaranth in the field study in 2014 and horseweed in the greenhouse study. Mesotrione efficacy was greatly influenced by horseweed height. Percent control ranged from 96 to 99%, 75 to 89%, or 61 to 64% with mesotrione applied on 7.5-, 12.5-, or 17.5-cm tall horseweed, respectively, and results were similar for plant height and dry weight reduction. Increasing carrier water hardness from 0 to 1,000 mg L−1 reduced mesotrione efficacy 28, 18, and 18% (or greater) on giant ragweed, horseweed, and Palmer amaranth, respectively. The addition of AMS enhanced mesotrione efficacy 9, 6, or 9% (or greater) for giant ragweed, horseweed, and Palmer amaranth control, respectively. Mesotrione should be applied at near neutral carrier water pH, hardness < 200 mg L−1, and with AMS for achieving optimum weed control.
Radiocarbon measurements are reported for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic carbon (DIC) from seawater samples collected from the Alcyone-5 cruise in the central North Pacific Ocean in 1985. Differences between the UV-radiation techniques used here and those reported by Williams, Oeschger and Kinney (1969) to oxidize and recover the DOC from sea water are presented. UV unoxidizable DOC in these samples is discussed in a separate publication (Druffel, Williams & Suzuki, 1989). We briefly discuss the penetration of the bomb 14C signal into the DOC and DIC pools. The temporal variability of Δ 14C in DIC in surface samples taken every 2–3 days is presented. Concentrations of total dissolved free (FAA) plus combined (hydrolyzable) amino acids (THAA) and total dissolved carbohydrates (TCHO) measured in the same water samples are also reported. Our main aim is to present the chemical and isotopic data from samples collected during the Alcyone-5 cruise. Detailed interpretation is published elsewhere.
The relative role of the stellar radiation field, the stellar outflows and the interstellar radiation field (ISRF) in transforming the molecular ejecta into atomic gas was the subject of our ISO LWS and SWS spectroscopy study of 24 evolved stars which span the range from AGB stars to proto-planetary nebulae (PPNs) and PNs. The far-infrared (FIR) atomic fine-structure lines are powerful probes of the warm atomic gas in photodissociation regions (PDRs) and shocks. This paper summarizes and compares the ISO spectroscopy studies of carbon-rich (C-rich) and oxygen-rich (O-rich) evolved stars, published by Fong et al. (2001) and Castro-Carrizo et al. (2001), respectively. We find that photodissociation, not shocks, is responsible for the chemical change from molecular to atomic gas.
We have embarked on a program to directly compare spectroscopic and evolutionary masses with those obtained from a combination of spectroscopic and photometric orbital solutions for O-type binary systems. The ability to directly determine the spectroscopic masses of the individual components of O-type binary systems has been difficult, because of the severe line blending that is present in these systems. Doppler tomography is an iterative scheme, that uses an ensemble of spectra to reconstruct the individual component spectra. These individual spectra can then be analyzed.
The evolution of planetary nebulae is controlled largely by hardening of the radiation field from the central star and by hydrodynamic interactions between the “fast wind” and the slower red giant wind. These processes also result in the heating and dissociation of H2 and in the production of H2 vibration–rotation lines in the near-infrared. Both mechanisms tend to produce high gas temperatures and, at high densities, a thermal population of states. Kinematic studies provide vital information on the geometry and expansion of the nebulae and offer a discriminant between shocked and photodissociated regions.